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• - - » • 




This, the first edition of Fronto in English, has 
been a work of more than ordinary difficulty. Before 
a satisfactory translation could be attempted a new 
text had to be formed based on the labours of 
Studemund, Brakman, and Hauler. The single MS., 
which alone is available, is part of a palimpsest in two 
volumes made up of leaves from various old MSS., the 
Fronto leaves being arranged anyhow, besides being 
incomplete, full of lacunae and erasures, and gener- 
ally difficult, sometimes impossible, to decipher. A 
first-hand acquaintance with the original, which is 
partly at Milan and partly at Rome, has been im- 
possible, and the facsimile of the Vatican portion will 
be seen, by anyone who inspects it, to be of small 
use to an editor. 

Little could have been done for a fundamental 
improvement of Naber*s standard text without 
Dr. Hauler's numerous contributions to its recension, 
based upon his laborious examination of the Codex, 



and I cannot but acknowledge my very great debt 
to him in that regard. Much help has also been 
given me by J. W. E. Pearce, M.A. Oxon., and 
Miss M. D. Brock, Litt.D. Dublin. 



Febrxuiry, 1919. 













Time has not dealt kindly with Fronto. For more 
than a millennium and a half his name stood high in 
the lists of fame. On the strength of ancient testi- 
mony he was looked upon as the Cicero of his age ; 
if not indeed his equal, yet as an Isocrates to a 
Demosthenes. Eumenius,^ writing late in the third 
century, described him as '^not the second but the 
alternative glory of Roman eloquence." A century or 
more later he is singled out by Macrobius ^ as the 
representative of the plain, precise, matter-of-fact 
style, contrasted with the copious, in which Cicero is 
supreme, the laconic, which is the province of Sallust, 
and the rich and florid, in which Pliny the Younger 
and Symmachus luxuriate. 

Jerome ^ about the same time, speaks of the 
subtleties of Quintilian, the fluency of Cicero, the 
serious dignity of Fronto, and the smooth periods of 
Pliny. A little later Claudius Mamertus * recom- 
mends Plautus for elegance, Cato for gravitas, Gracchus 

^ Faneg. Const. 14 : Jioinanae eloquetdias non secundum sed 
altervm deciles, 

^ Satumaliat v. 1 . He says tenuis quidam et siccus et sobrius 
amat quandam dicendi frugalitatem, and he ascribes the siccum 
genus to Fronto, as an orator, no doubt. This was the style 
of Lysias. 

' £piHt. 12 : grairitatem Frontonis, * Ep. ad Sepandum. 



for pungency, Chrysippus for dialectical skill, Cicero 
for eloquence, and Fronto for splendour (pompd). 
Sidonius ApoUinaris^ attributes gravitas to Fronto 
and pondus to Apuleius. 

Though Frontons reputation stood so high for 300 
years after his death, scarcely a line of his works 
had survived, as it seemed, to modern times, until in 
1815 Cardinal Mai discovered in the Imperial Library 
at Milan a palimpsest MS. containing many of his 
letters, the existence of which in classical times had 
indeed been occasionally intimated, though little was 
known of their contents. 

When deciphered the work proved to consist mostly 
of his educational correspondence with his royal 
pupils, afterwards the joint Emperors Marcus Anton- 
inus and Lucius Verus. There were included, 
however, one or two letters between Fronto and* 
their adoptive father, the Emperor Pius, and some, 
chiefly commendatory, letters to the orator's friends, 
of whom the only one whose answer is preserved 
was the historian Appian. Some of the letters 
are in Greek. In judging this correspondence it 
should not be forgotten that Fronto disclaims the 
habit of letter-writing, and declares that no one 
could be a worse correspondent than himself.^ 

It would, therefore, not be. fair to estimate 
Fronto' s eminence as an orator from these letters 
alone, though, of course, they throw light on his 

* Episi, iv. 3. * Ad AmicoSf i. 18, 


mind and powers in general^ and his theory of 
rhetorical art in particular. They labour under the 
limitation of having been mostly written to pupils^ 
and chiefly in connexion with their studies. They 
are of a private, domestic, and professional nature, 
and coloured by the relationship between a courtly 
master and his royal scholars. 

The early editors of the book, who were dis- 
appointed with the nature and contents of the work, 
had no good word to say for it or its author, but 
their indignation and contempt were certainly not 
justified.^ The volume was well worth recovering, 
and is here presented to the English reader for the 
first time. 

On discovering the MS. in 1815, Mai, the librarian 
of the Ambrosian Library at Milan, lost no time in 
producing his first edition of it. But the work 
was done too hastily and carelessly. He also seems to 
have injured the MS. by a too free use of reagents to 
bring out the faded characters.^ 

Becoming librarian of the Vatican library a few 
years later, Mai found a second volume containing 
more leaves of the original Fronto Codex. These he 
published with the previous portion in 1823. The 
Vatican leaves being in better condition than the 

1 See Hauler, JVien. Stud. (1912), 24. p. 259 ; Frohner, Phil 
V. 1889 ; and Brock, Studies in Fronto, p. 5, for a much more 
favourable view. 

2 Hauler, Wien. Stud. 12 and 31 (p. 267), and Naber, 
Froleg. viii., xiv. But Stud. Fpist. ad Kluasm. p. 6, seems 
to differ on this point. 



Ambrosian ones^ and the editor besides being now 
more skilful in deciphering the palimpsest^ and having 
taken more pains with his work^ the result was more 
satisfactory. Moreover^ the older portion was some- 
what improved through a fresh inspection of the MS. 
by Peter Mazuchelli at Milan^ and also because Mai 
availed himself freely of the critical labours of 
Niebuhr^ Heindorf, and Buttmann on the moiety 
already published. In their edition of 1816 they 
had sometimes divined^ without seeing the MS.^ 
the correct reading, which Mai had missed with it 
under his eyes. 

The old Codex of Fronto must have been dismem- 
bered and its leaves mixed with others of the same 
kind before being used for a second writing upon 
them. For the two volumes of the Acta ConciUi of 
the first Council of Chalcedon, in 451 a.d., in which 
the Fronto fragments are found, contain besides the 
Fronto leaves, which are the most numerous, parts of 
seven speeches of Symmachus, a portion of Pliny's 
Panegyric, some scholia on Cicero, Moeso- Gothic notes 
on St. John's Gospel, fragments of a tract on the 
Arian Controversy, and a single page apiece of Juvenal 
and Persius. The monks in using the leaves for a 
second script have generally turned them upside 
down. When this is not the case, the writing is 
more difficult to read. 

On the first page of both volumes is found the in- 
scription, Liber S. Columbani e Bohio. Bobbio lies in 

• • 



a secluded valley of the Pennine Alps, near the 
scene of the battle of the Trebia, where Saint 
Columban founded a monastery at the beginning of 
the seventh century, and formed a good library con- 
taining not only Latin works in Saxon characters but 
many classical authors in their own script, such as 
Cicero, Juvenal, Persius, and Fronto. The Pronto 
Codex was, we may suppose, purchased by Columban 
in Italy. In the same library there was another book 
of Fronto's, entitled ComeUi Frontonis Elegantiae 
Latinae, which was extant as late as 1494.^ It was 
lexicographically arranged. Possibly it was one of 
the works of Fronto mentioned below. 

The Vatican volume (No. 5750), contains a Latin 
version of the Acta of the Council of Chalcedon to 
nearly the end of the first session, written about the 
tenth century. The volume contained 292 leaves of 
which two are missing at the beginning and four at 
the end. 

The Ambrosian volume (E. 147) is larger and had 
480 pages of which are now wanting twelve at the 
opening and sixteen at the close. There must have 
been a third volume of the Acta, somewhat smaller 
than the others, possibly of about 230 pages, the 
whole work thus comprising with the other two 
volumes about 1000 leaves. 

The Fronto part of the Vatican volume, as we have 
it, is 106 leaves, of the Ambrosian, 282. The thirty- 

^ See Raphael MaflFaeus Volaterranus, Qcogr, iv. adfinem. 

• • • 



four pages missing from these two volumes would 
probably have contained about twenty Fronto leaves. 
As the Fronto leaves are more numerous in the 
Ambrosian volume than in the Vatican according to 
the proportion ^§^| : f f |, it is likely that in the third 
volume there would have been a corresponding in- 
crease of them. The whole might therefore have 
cqntained about 580 Fronto leaves. But the quater- 
nion marks, still visible in the margin of the MS., 
show that there were at least 42 1 quaternions or 
680 pages, in the original Fronto Codex. ^ Even if 
the third volume were forthcoming, we should still be 
about one-seventh part short of the Fronto Codex. 
What we have contains something like four-sevenths 
of the whole work, but some part of this has not been 
deciphered, and not a little is obliterated for ever. 

Dr. Hauler, of Vienna, has been engaged upon the 
study of the MS. for more than twenty years, and we 
must wait for the final word on our author until his 
edition is published. It will certainly revolutionize 
the text. He has been given unusual facilities by 
the Italian authorities in his work, and the leaves of 
the Vatican MS. have been especially washed, cleaned 
and pressed for the purpose of photographing it in 

As far as possible the new readings which 

Dr. Hauler has made public in various periodicals 

have been incorporated in this work, together with 

^ The speeches of Fronto must have been in a separate 
Codex, if in the Bobbio library at all. 



the important^ if rather hastily compiled^ notes of a 
fresh collation of the MS. by the Dutch scholar^ 
Professor Brakman. In spite of Dr. Hauler's keen 
eyesight and prodigious industry, certain of his 
restorations do not command complete confidence, 
especially in cases where we find the other inspectors 
of the Codex, Mai, du Rieu, and Brakman support- 
ing an entirely different reading. 

The original Fronto Codex has two columns of 
writing to each page, each column containing twenty- 
four lines of fifteen to twenty-one letters each.^ 

As the Greek in the Codex is written without 
accents, the MS. must have been produced before 
the seventh century, and probably in the sixth. The 
alterations made by the reviser of the copy show that 
the copyist was a careless one ; nor did the corrector 
notice all the errors. Some letters are given twice 
over,2 as if a second exemplar had been used. 

A few of the Fronto leaves seem themselves to 
have had a previous writing on them,^ and these 
must themselves have been palimpsests before being 

* The Fronto leaves in the Vat. volume are numbered 1-4, 
ia-16. 29, 30, 79-128, 131, 132, 137, 138, 141-160, 165, 168, 
173, 180, 185-190, 227, 228, 241, 242 ; in the Ambrosian, 
65-76, 81-110, 133-138, 143-152, 156-158, 161-163, 179, 182, 
195-198, 213-262, 287-308, 311-314, 319-356, 373-408, 411- 
414, 417-436, 443-446. 

• e.g. Epist. Oraec. 1 is found in Ambr. 56, Vat. 166, 165, 
and Ambr. 157, 158, 163, 164. 

» See Hauler, Vers. d. deut. Phil. 41, 1895; p. 85. He 
thinks a speech of Hadrian's underlay a page of the Principia 
Historiae in the Fronto Codex. 



used for the Acta Concilii. Moreover, our Codex 
of Fronto was revised and annotated by a certain 
Caecilius. Besides correcting mistakes^ and adding 
various readings from at least two other exem- 
plars,^ he gives explanatory glosses and occasionally 
suggests emendations.* Further, to our manifest 
advantage^ he used the margins, which are free from 
the second writing, for setting down numerous words 
or passages, that struck him, sometimes verbatim, 
sometimes in an abbreviated or paraphrased form. 
The writing of the text and the corrections are in 
uncial letters^ the marginal additions in sloping 
cursive. Caecilius endorsed each separate section 
of the work except the Epistulae Graecae and 
(apparently by inadvertence) Ad Verum Imp, i. 

Indices were probably prefixed to all the separate 
books of letters, of which are extant only those to 
Ad M, Caes. iv., v; Ad Anton. Imp, i.; Ad Piu7n; 
Ad Amicos i., ii. They are valuable as supplying 
the opening words of letters that are lost, but they 
do not in all cases seem to correspond with the 
succeeding letters. 

From Fronto to Marcus as Caesar there are fifty- 
six letters or parts of letters, and nine to him as 
Emperor, besides the four De Eloquentia, From 
Marcus seventy-one and seven respectively. To Verus 
as Emperor eight, and six from him, and six to Pius 

^ There are over forty of these variae lectiones, 
* The corrector did not revise the Greek letters, but there 
is a remarkable gloss at the beginning of Ep. Graec, 1. 



with two answers. There are forty letters to friends, 
two being in Greek, and one answer (from Appian) ; 
two in Greek to the mother of Marcus ; the set 
piece on Arion ; the two specimens of nugalia, the 
De Bello Partkico, the Principia Histonaey and the 
Greek Xoyos iptoTiKo^, 

There are few traces of Fronto's letters in such 
subsequent writers as have descended to us. It is 
certain that Minucius Felix, who was probably a 
fellow-countryman of Fronto's, knew something of 
him, for in his Octavius he quotes his declamation 
against the Christians, and calls him Cirtensis nosier} 
Capitolinus,*^ or his authority Marius Maximus, pro- 
bably had an eye on what Fronto says, when he 
mentions the habit that Marcus had of reading in 
the theatre, and where he calls him durus. How- 
ever that may be, it can hardly be doubted that 
Nazarius ^ in his Panegyric on Constantine recalls, 
though in a confused way, what Fronto says about 
the Parthian king and Verus in his Principia 
Historiae. Symmachus too, another orator of the 
same century, shews some signs of being acquainted 
with Fronto. Augustine, himself an African, is sup- 
posed in a letter to the Cirtenses to refer to the 
mention of Polemo by Fronto.^ 

^ Mai, Pref. to ed. 1823, p. xxxiii., and Schanz, lihein. 
Mils. 1895, p. 133, adduce certain supposed parallelisms. If 
there is anything in them, the Octavius could not have been 
written before 166 at least. 

2 Vit. Mar. xv. and xxii. 5 ; see below, p. 206. 

' He speaks of Antonimbs, but he means Lucius Verus. 

• Epiat. 144 : et no8 ex illis litter is recordamur. 



Servius, the fifth-century commentator on Vergil^ 
quotes Fronto for one or two usages^ but his quo- 
tations cannot be identified with any passages in 
our extant letters. A contemporary grammar- 
ian, Charisius,^ however, undoubtedly quotes from 
Fronto's letters as we have them. P. Consentius, 
another grammarian of the same period,* quotes a 
sentence referring to Rheims, which may very 
possibly come from a lost letter to Victorinus. 
Niebuhr thought that Sidonius Apollinaris, a learned 
and eloquent bishop of the fifth century, imitated 
Fronto here and there. 

The last author to refer to Fronto was John of 
Salisbury in the twelfth century. He quotes an 
obscure remark of his concerning Seneca, that " he 
was so successful in abolishing error that he seemed 
almost to create again an age of gold and call down 
the Gods from heaven to live among men." But 
Fronto, as we know him, has no word of praise for 

We cannot tell who made and published this 
collection of letters, but it is impossible to subscribe 
to the view of Mommsen that it was Fronto him- 
self.2 Several letters are misplaced : one that was 
certainly to the Emperor with his answer appears 
under the heading Ad M. Caesarem ; and some that 
are related to one another are widely separated. 

^ See Index. He also quotes from Fronto's speech, Pro 
* Hermes, viii. p. 201. 



Mommsen considered that the letters were in the 
main arranged chronologically, but this can only be 
allowed with large deductions. For instance, some 
of the earliest letters come quite at the end of the 
book. The correspondence with Pius is put after 
that with his successors. But there is obviously 
some attempt at systematic arrangement. The 
letteirs that belong to the year of Fronto's consulship 
are grouped together and placed first. In more 
than one case several letters bearing on a single 
subject are found placed in juxtaposition in their 
proper order, as with the letters relating to H erodes.^ 
In the separate books the letters are arranged, with 
obvious exceptions however, in some chronological 
order ; but the letters of a second book, for instance, 
do not follow those of the first, but begin a new 
series. The various ailments, also, of Marcus and 
Fronto are a guide in some cases. Some letters can 
be dated by means of the speeches of Marcus alluded 
to in them. As for instance the mention of his 
Caesar speech by Marcus in Ep, Graec. 6 (p. 18) 
dates this letter as written in 139-140. The speech 
referred to in Ad M. Caes. iii. 7 (p. 34) is probably a 
speech of thanks for his first consulship in 140, and 
the one in v. 1, 2, that for his second consulship in 
145 or for the Tnb, Potestas in 147.^ 

^ See pp. 58 f. 

2 For further discuflsion of this subject, see article by 
C. R. Haines, ** On the Chronology of the Fronto Correspond- 
ence," in the Classical Quarterly for April, 1914, vol. viii., 

pp. 113 flf. 


h 2 


The only letters which can be dated to a precise 
year, except those which mention Fronto's consulship, 
are Ad M. Caes, i. 8, written when Marcus was twenty- 
two, and Ad M. Caes, iv. 13,^ written when he was 
twenty-four. The latter forms a sort of turning 
point, not only in the correspondence but also in 
the life of Marcus. To Fronto's infinite chagrin he 
broke with rhetoric and betook himself wholly to 
philosophy, at about the time (147 a.d.) when he 
became in reality, though not in name, co-emperor. 
At all events, whether from a slight coolness in 
their relations or owing to increasing ill-health on 
the part of Fronto and increasing duties on that of 
Marcus, the character of the correspondence changes 
with Book V. Most of the letters are short, some 
being mere messages, and many of a quite trivial 
character. The illnesses and ailments of master and 
pupil figure largely in them. Fronto's rheumatism, 
for it was this and not gout, had become chronic by 
that time. 

On the accession of Marcus and Lucius the 
correspondence resumes some of its former character. 
There are no letters to Lucius earlier than 161, 
when he became Emperor, but Fronto must have 
written to him often enough before. But only the 
later ones were preserved, as the main object of the 
publication seems to have been to shew Fronto's 
intimate relations with the Court. We could wish 

1 See pp. 37, 217. 



for more correspondence with Pius, but two of 
Fronto's letters to him are among the best of the series. 

Fronto became tutor to Marcus after his adoption 
by Hadrian in 138. None of the letters we have can 
be dated before 139, when Marcus became Caesar. 
The marriage of Marcus, which took place most 
probably in 145, and the various births of his children 
enable us to give approximate dates to many of the 
letters in Book V. The letters Ad Amicos can only 
be dated with reference to the proconsulships or 
other governorships of the recipients, many of them 
being letters commendatory, recommending friends 
to the notice of the governor of a province. 

The more important oratorical and historical pieces, 
with the letters on the Alsian holiday and the death 
of Fronto's grandson, a characteristic and interesting 
piece, fall between 161 and 166, in which year or 
the next Fronto probably died. 

Excluding Fronto himself, who could have collected 
and published the correspondence ? The only person 
in a position to do this seems to be Aufidius Victorinus, 
the life-long friend of Marcus and Fronto's son-in- 
law. We have evidence that Fronto kept copies of 
some of his letters, and Victorinus, as Frontons heir 
and one of the leading men in the reign of Commodus, 
was in a specially favourable position for acting as 
his father-in-law's literary executor. 

The object of the compilation was not only to 
bring into prominence the position of Fronto as 



Magister and Amicus to the Imperial Brothers^ but 
also to put on record his views on oratorical and 
literary style, in fact his whole theory of rhetoric, 
which there is no reason to think he ever formulated 
in any special treatise. 

The letters are valuable not only for what they 
tell us of Fronto and the light they shed on the 
literary tendencies of the age, but also for their 
picture of the young Marcus, whose character and 
rule will always have an interest for mankind. As 
Pater has said, these letters recall for us "the long 
buried fragrance of a famous friendship of the 
ancient world." We find here a young man and an 
older one, with a genuine affection for one another, 
exchanging kindly thoughts on their children, their 
health, the art of rhetoric, and the ancient writers 
of their country, while here and there we get a 
glimpse into the penetralia of the imperial court, or 
read a page from country life at Lorium or a visit 
to the seaside.^ 

A hundred years ago Mai^ expressed a confident 
expectation that one day the letters would be 
arranged in their approximate chronological order. 
A first attempt lias here been made to do this.^ 

' For some interesting and attractive items, see pp. 58-66, 
150, 174-184, the De Fcr. Als., the Ve Nepote Amisso. etc. 

« Pref. to ed. of 1823, p. xviii. 

• For various views on the chronology, see Mommsen in 
Fenn. viii. pp. 198 ff. ; Brakman in Frontoniana, ii. pp. 24-42 ; 
Pauly-Wissowa under ** Fronto" ; Naber, Proleg. xx.-xxxi. 




Almost all that we know of Fronto is drawn 
from the book before us. The probable date of his 
birth is 100 a.d., and in any case before 113 a.d. 
He was bom at Cirta, now Constantine, in Numidia. 
This was a Roman colony^ and his name being 
Cornelius, he was doubtless of Roman descent, 
though he jestingly calls himself '^ a Libyan of the 
nomad Libyans." His brother, who is mentioned 
several times in the Letters, was named Quadratus.* 
Of his youth we are told nothing, but he no doubt 
studied at Alexandria, for at a later time he had 
numerous friends there. He mentions as his parens 
and magister the philosopher Athenodotus, but it 
was not philosophy, which he disliked, that he 
learnt from him, but an inordinate fondness for 
similes, or as he calls them, cikovcs.^ Another master 
named by him is Dionysius the rhetor, whose fable 
on The Fine and the Holm-Oak he quotes. He tells 
us that he took late to the study of Latin literature, 
in which he afterwards came to be such an adept. 

1 See inscription {C.I.L. xv. 7438) on conduit pipes from 
the Esquiline hill, where his Horti Afaecenatiani (see Index) 
were situated. '-^ See Index and pp. 131 ff. 



An inscription found at Calamae (Guelma) in 
Numidia,^ of which city, as of Cirta, he was a patronus, 
gives us the earlier part of his curstis konorum, from 
which we learn his father s name Titus, the name of 
his tribe Quirina, and that he was successively 
triumvir capitalis, quaestor in Sicily, plebeian aedile, 
and praetor. The office of quaestor gave him a place 
in the Senate. 

In 143, under Pius, he became consul suffisctus for 
July and August, the consul ordinarius for which 
year was Herodes the eminent Athenian rhetorician, 
himself like Fronto a tutor to the young princes. 
Frontons lesser honour gave occasion for the jesting 
allusion of Ausonius ^ to the consuls in whose con- 
sulship Fronto was consul. 

From his place in the Senate he tells us that he 
extolled Hadrian studio impenso et propenso in speeches 
that were still read many years later. ^ But he con- 
fesses that in this he courted rather than loved him. 
His great reputation,* but no doubt his character 
also, induced Pius on his accession to choose him as 
the instructor of his adopted sons in Latin and oratory* 

^ Corp, iTiscr. Lot. viii. 5350. 
. 2 " Unica mihi amplecteada est Frontonis imitatio : quern 
tamen Augusti magistrum sic consulatus ornavit, ut prae- 
fectura noA cingeret. Sed consulatus ille cuiusmodi ? Ordin- 
ario sufFectus, bimestri spatio interpositus, in sexta anni 
parte consumptus, quaerendum ut reliquerit tantus orator, 
quibus consulibus gesserit consulatum." In Gratiarum 
Actione, ad 7ned. ' Seep. 110. 

* Dio, Ixix. 8; Lucian, De Comer, Hist. 21, aoi^ifjLos «ir) 
\6ywv dvvafjL€i. 



He remained for the rest of his life on the 
most intimate and affectionate terms with the courts 
and there is no evidence that he abused his position 
in any way. He was not, however, above flattering 
his royal pupils on occasion, for he could scarcely 
have believed himself, when he attributed to Marcus 
the abilities of the great Julius or to Lucius the 
military genius of a Marius or a Vespasian. Still at 
times he could tell Marcus some home truths, and at 
all events impressed both his charges with his 
sincerity and love of truth.^ It was more excusable 
in Marcus to overrate, as he did, Fronto's oratorical 
gifts, and to set him beside Cato, Gracchus, Sallust, 
and Cicero, asserting that he alone of present-day 
orators talked Latin. ^ 

When the time came for Fronto to receive a pro- 
vincial appointment, the lot gave him Asia. He 
made preparations to take up his duties there, but a 
more than usually serious attack of illness supervened, 
and he was obliged to beg off his appointment. 

His political life being now ended, Fronto devoted 
his remaining years to his profession of eloquence 
and to literature. Aulus Gellius ^ gives us a picture 
of him as one of the recognized leaders in the in- 
tellectual salons of the time, where questions of 
literature and archaeology were habitually discussed. 
He is there seen surrounded by all the great authors 

* Ad M, Caes. iii. 12, Ad Feriwif ii. 2 {verique amorem). 

'-^ Ad M. Caes. ii. 13 ; Ad Ant. i. 4. 

3 iVoctes Attieae, ii. 26, xiii. 23, xix. 8, 10, 13. 



and critics of Rome^ and regarded as an oracle on 
Itngaistic and grammatical questions^ and in his letters 
we find him always inculcating a careful precision in 
the use of words and a deference to the authority 
of older writers. 

How far was his great reputation as orator and 
pleader justified ? Unfortunately we have no speci- 
men^ even approximately complete^ of his oratory^ 
whether forensic or epideictic^ on which to base a 
verdict. The longest extract extant is from a speech 
respecting oversea wills^ possibly delivered before 
the Emperor s Court of Appeal. There is besides 
the well-known fragment of an indictment of the 
Christians^^ preserved by Minucius Felix in his 
Octavius, which reads like a set declamation^ or an 
episode in a speech on behalf of some client. But 
we do not know how far the writer has given 
Fronto's words verbatim. 

The interesting and important letter to Arrius 
Antoninus on behalf of Volumnius Quadratus ^ is an 
example of legal caustdicatio. There remain besides 
a few sentences quoted by the orator himself ^ from 
his speech of thanks to Pius in 143^ and a simile^ 
perhaps from the same speech^ quoted by Eumenius^ 

^ Octavius, ix. It seems probable that the section im- 
mediately preceding this, and describing the **Thyeatean 
feasts" attributed to the Christians, also comes from the 
same speech. Some think the whole of the anti -Christian 
polemic of the Octavius is drawn from a Frontonian source. 
See Schanz, Khein. Mxia. 1895, 114-36. 

" Ad Amicos, ii. 7. ' Ad Af, Cues. i. 8, pp. 118 fif. 



where the success of the Roman arms in Britain is 
referred to.^ Moreover we have, preserved on a 
palimpsest in the Palatine Library, a few concluding 
words of a speech of thanks for the Carthaginians, 
some years later. ^ It was evidently one of his 
pompaticae orationes. 

Of other speeches we have a mere mention : the 
Pro Ptolemaeensibus, from which Charisius preserves a 
single grammatical form ; a speech against H erodes 
in 142, of which we do not know the title ; one Pro 
Demostrato Petitiano; several in behalf of Saenius 
Pompeianus and other friends ; ' and speeches on 
behalf of the Cilicians and Bithynians, the latter in 
its revised form giving details of his past life, the 
loss of which is to be regretted.^ His most famous 
effort, according to Sidonius Apollinaris, was the 
speech against Pelops, probably a physician of 
Pergamus, mentioned by Galen. 

It will be seen from this short summary that we 
have really no material for judging Fronto's capacity 
either as advocate in the courts or as orator in the 
Senate. Dirksen^ denies his juristic competence, 
but few will believe that he was not perfectly con- 
versant with Roman Law. How otherwise could he 
have gained his commanding position at the bar in 
an age which produced such eminent jurists and was 

^ See below. He made many speeches in praise of Pius. 
^ On the occasion of Pius's liberality to the city after a 
great fire. See Capit. i^it. Pii, ix. » See pp. 232, 238. 
^ For the mention of these, see Index. 
* 0pp. 1, pp. 243 flf. and 277 flf. 



almost the heyday of Roman Law. Not but that 
Fronto was^ first and foremost^ an orator^ whose ob- 
ject is not justice but persuasion. It cannot be denied 
that in the extract from the speech on wills he in- 
dulges in fancy pictures and ignores obvious and 
material facts. Still his presentment of the case is 
certainly not without point and vigour, though it is 
over-elaborated and smacks too much of the art of 

The letters on Matidia's will and the Falcidian Law 
are in their mutilated condition too ambiguous to 
assist us in our enquiry as to Fronto's legal attain- 

Fronto's ideals in oratory were high. The most 
difficult test of an orator seemed to him to be that 
he should please without sacrificing the true principles 
of eloquence. Smooth phrases for tickling the ears 
of the hearers must not be such as are offensive to 
good taste, a feebleness in form being preferable to a 
coarseness of thought.^ In spite of his insistence on 
style and the choice of words, Fronto knows well 
enough and affirms that noble thoughts are the essen- 
tial thing in oratory, for the want of which no verbal 
dexterity or artistic taste will compensate. It was his 
deficiency in "high thought's invention" that forced 
Fronto to concentrate his attention on the form and 
eke out the matter with the manner. Needless to 
say he has at his fingers' ends all the tropes and 

» P. 37. 


figures and devices of the art of rhetoric, and his 
knowledge of the Roman language and literature was 

It has too hastily been assumed that he slighted 
the great writers of the best age, except Cicero and 
Sallust, and totally ignored the silver age authors 
except Lucan and Seneca. But he constantly imitates 
Terence, recognizes the literary eminence of Caesar 
and quotes him with approval,^ calls Lucretius sublime, 
quotes him, and ranks him with his prime favourites, 
quotes Horace, whom he calls memorabilis, more 
than once, shows an intimate knowledge of Vergil,^ 
and borrows from Livy. He also shows some 
acquaintance with Quintilian, Tacitus and Juvenal. 

Fronto has been repeatedly called a pedant, but he 
was a true lover of his own language and guarded it 
jealously from unauthorized innovations and ignorant 
solecisms. His aim seemed to have been to shake 
the national speech out of the groove into which the 
excessive and pedantic purism of Cicero, Caesar and 
their followers had confined it. To do this effectually 
it was necessary to call in the aid of the great writers 
of an earlier age, such as Plautus and Ennius and Cato. 
But this sort of archaism was nothing novel. Thucy- 
dides was a thorough archaist, and so was Vergil, 
and Sallust was eminently one.^ As the cramping 

1 Aul. Gell. xix. 8. « AuI. Gell. ii. 26. 

' Bacon ''spaneled his speech with unusual words," and 
Ben Jonson says that Spenser **in affecting the ancients writ 
no language." 



effects of the Ciceronian tradition tended more and 
more to squeeze the life out of the language^ the 
ingrained feeling that ^^the old is better" gradually 
spread among the leaders of literary thought. An 
immense impetus was given to this tendency by the 
versatile Utt&raleur Hadrian^ who openly preferred 
Etinius to Vergil and Cato to Cicero. 

But Pronto^ fond as he was of old words and 
ancient locutions^ insisted that such must be not 
only old but more expressive and appropriate than 
modern ones^ or they must not be preferred. He 
himself confesses that he used only ordinary and 
commonplace words. No one in his opinion has a 
right to invent expressions — he calls such words 
counterfeit coin. He availed himself of old and 
established words^ that were genuine Latin and had 
all the charm of novelty without being unintelligible^ 
drawing largely on the vocabulary and idiom of 
Plautus, Ennius^Cato^ and Gracchus^ and interspersing 
his familiar letters with quotations from Naevius^ 
Accius^ Pacuvius^ and Laberius. But this was not an 
affected or repellent archaism^ such as Seneca and 
Lucian mock at.^ Pronto' s attitude somewhat re- 
sembled that of Rossetti^ who declares that '^ he has 
been reading early English ballads in search of stun- 
ning old words. "^ It is of such words that Pronto is 
thinking when he speaks of words that must be 
hunted out with toil and care and watchfulness and 

^ Seneca, Ep, 114 ; Lucian, Deimyimx^ 26. 
2 See Brock, Studies in FrorUo, p. 103». 



by the treasuring up of old poems in the memory.^ 
He explains that he has in mind the " inevitable " 
word, for which, if withdrawn, no substitute equally 
good could be found. Some old words would 
certainly have no modern equivalent, as for instance 
in English the word "hansel/* "The best words in 
the best places " would be Fronto's definition of 
oratory, as it was Coleridge's of poetry. 

It is a prevalent but mistaken idea that Fronto 
disparages or underrates Cicero. He may personally 
prefer Cato or Sallust, but he recognizes the pre-emin- 
ence of Cicero's genius. It is quite possible that if we 
had the works of the older Vriters, we also should 
prefer their simple dignity and natural vigour even 
to the incomparable finish and opulence of Tully. 
However that may be, Fronto credits Cicero with 
almost every conceivable excellence except the due 
search for the precise word.^ He calls him the greatest 
mouthpiece of the Roman language, the head and 
source of Roman eloquence, master on all occasions 
of the most beautiful language, and deficient only 
in unlooked for words.^ He candidly confesses his 
own inferiority.* Of his letters he says "nothing 
can be more perfect." He calls them iullianae and 
remissiores, and seems to envy their careless ease.^ 
But in practice he disavows the structure of the 
Ciceronian sentence and the arrangement of its 

1 P. 7. 2 p^ 4, 8 jd Amicos, i. 14. 

* When he bids Victorinus compare his Pro BUhynis with 
Cicero's Pro Sulla. Ad AmicoSy i. 14. * See p. 122. 



words. He breaks up the flowing periods of Cicer- 
onian prose and introduces new and abrupter rhythms. 
For older cadences he substitutes cadences of his own, 
though he occasionally prides himself on imitating 
the Tullian mannerisms.^ Where he affects the stac- 
cato style, and the historic present, as in Arion, the 
result is as unpleasing as it is in modern English. 
In some cases, for forensic speeches, he recommends 
a deliberate roughness and studied negligence at 
the end of sentences ; but in cpideictic displays 
everything must be neatly and smoothly finished off.^ 
Circumlocution and inversions he utterly condemns.^ 
Next to the [choice of words their natural and 
perspicuous arrangement counts most with him. 
This makes his work easy reading. Such difficulties as 
we find are chiefly due to the mutilated condition of 
the text in our copy. We have often not only to 
interpret but to divine what was written. 

It has been supposed that Fronto set himself 
purposely to renovate and remodel the language by 
recalling old words and obsolete idioms,* and by 
transferring into the literary language colloquialisms 
from the common speech. But the novella elocutio 
of which he speaks seems rather to mean a fresher, 
more vivacious diction, and a more individual form 
of expression : in fact originality of style. The 

* Brock, Studies in Fronto, p. 141, and Droz, De FiorUonis 
institV/tioTie oratmHa, p. 64; and see p. 110 below, and Ad 
Anton, i. 2. ^ P. 40. ' De Vrationihus, ad fin, 

* cp» Horace, Ars Poet, 70. 



patina of antiquity which he wished to give his 
work need not necessarily be thought to disfigure 
it ; and his minute accuracy in the use of words is 
surely more deserving of praise than of blame. He 
prided himself on distinguishing the nice shades of 
meaning in allied words^ and insisted that his pupil 
should be exact in his use of words, knowing well 
that clearness of thought is dependent on delinite- 
ness of expression. The extracts from Aulus Gellius 
given at the end of the book show us the care 
with which Pronto distinguished the meaning ot 
words, of which there is further evidence in the De 
Diffierentiis Vocabulorum,^ if that work is his, as it 
may well be. It was possibly written for the use 
of his pupils, that they might not misuse words 
apparently synonymous, such as the various terms 
for sight and perception. In this connexion it 
may be noted that Fronto set great store by the 
careful use of synonjmas, and they abound in his 
correspondence, but are seldom so colourless as, for 
instance, our ^^tied and bound," 'Met and hinder," 
many a time and oft " or so run to death as 
by leaps and bounds " or " in any shape or form." 
Eloquence was to Fronto the only thing that 
mattered in the universe. It was the real sovereign 
of the human race. Philosophy he disliked and even 

^ Printed in Mai's edition of Fronto, with another work 
attributed to Fronto, the Exempla ElociUionum, This consists 
of phrases from Terence, Vergil, Cicero, and Sallust. We 
know that he made extracts from Cicero, Ad Anton, ii. 5. 



despised^ though he admitted that it inspired great 
thoughts^ which it was for eloquence to clothe.^ 
Philosophy and rhetoric contended for the soul of 
Marcus in the persons of the austere Rusticus^^ the 
domestic chaplain of Marcus in the Stoic creeds and 
the courtly Fronto. But the result was a foregone 
conclusion. Marcus before he was twelve had already 
made his choice ; * and though he tried loyally to 
please his master and learn all the tricks of rhetoric^ 
yet his heart was always far from the wind-flowers of 
eloquence.'^ He aroused his master's ire by asserting 
that^ when he had said something more than usually 
brilliant^ he felt pleased^ and therefore shunned 
eloquence. Fronto pertinently rejoined, " You feel 
pleasure, when eloquent ; then, chastise yourself, 
why chastise eloquence ? ** Again when Marcus in 
his ultra-conscientiousness avows a distaste for the 
obliquities and insincerities of oratory, Fronto is 
clearly nettled, and counters smartly with a reference 
to the irony of Socrates. 

In spite of all Fronto's efforts Marcus in his 
twenty-fourth year finally declared his decision. He 
could no longer consent to argue on both sides of 
a question, as the art of oratory would have liim 
do. There is no doubt that his master was bitterly 

* De Eloqu, i. adfinem. 

^ Under him as Praef. Vrhi^ about 163, Justin Martyr and 
his companions were condemned. 
' Gapit. Vit Mar, ii. 6. 

* ThougUs, i. 7 ; i. 17, § 4. 



disappointed^ as he honestly believed he could make 
a consummate orator of Marcus. 

A few words require to be said now as to Fronto's 
method of instruction. He began by taking his 
pupil through a course of old farces, comedies, 
ancient orators and poets, and Marcus was en- 
couraged to make extracts from the authors that 
were read. Cato, Gracchus, Ennius, Sallust, and 
Cicero were especially studied. The first was Marcus's 
favourite, but Fronto preferred Sallust before all. 
In letter- writing Cicero was recognized as supreme, 
and the ^^ tullian " style of his more familiar letters 
was looked upon as worthy of imitation. 

Verse-making was regularly practised as an aid 
towards oratory. Only hexameters are mentioned 
in this connexion, and Vergil, who is both archaistic 
and intensely rhetorical, was no doubt the model. 
Horace was apparently read but Marcus took a 
dislike to him.^ 

Similes, or eticoi^cs^ formed an important part of 
Fronto's oratorical armoury. He always had numbers 
at command on every conceivable subject, some 
appropriate, and many ingenious, but others far- 
fetched and out of place. He clearly regarded them 
as indispensable, and gives elaborate instructions as 
to their use.^ They could scarcely have been of 
much use in his forensic speeches, one would think. 

The next step was to use the Commonplaces oj 

1 P. 140. 2 p. 36. 


c 2 


Theodorua for the manufacture of maxims or yvuifiai. 
One aphorism a day was the allotted task. The 
object was to strike out some neat epigrammatic 
xententia, such as are characteristic of Sallust^ aud to 
turn the same thought freely and boldly in various 
ways^ often from one language to another. Truth to 
say, Fronto is himself extraordinarily deficient in 
sayings of pith and moment. He imitates the 
panem el Circetises of Juvenal and perhaps the cupido 
gloriae novissima exuiiur ^ of Tacitus, but the most 
striking of his own maxims are noticeable chiefly for 
their rhythm, such as pleraque propria venustate car- 
entia gratiam sihimet alienam eodrinsecus miUuantur, and 
longeque praestat secundo gentium rumore iniuriafn 
neglegere quam adverse vindicare. We do not know 
which maxim of Marcus it was that Fronto declared 
worthy of Sallust,^ but this is a not unsuccessful 
one : turpe alioqui fuerit diutius vitium corporis quam 
animi studiwn ad reciperandam sanitatem posse durare.^ 

Translation from one language to another forms 
part of the curriculum. Original composition in 
history was also recommended by Fronto, and Marcus 
himself seems to have had some aspirations in that 
direction. Too much stress was laid upon the out- 
ward trappings of rhetoric, such as alliteration, oxy- 
moron, antithesis, paronomasia, paraleipsis, and every 
variety of trope or figure. And in the use of these 

^ Tac. Hist. iv. 6, and De Eloqu. i. ad med, below. 
2 P. 12. » Ad M. Caes, iv. 8. 



for his rhetorical flights Fronto is ever urging Marcus 
to " be bold, be bold, and evermore be bold." ^ 

Finally came the writing of themes and contro- 
versiae, in which the pros and cons of any question, 
historical or fictitious, are discussed as by a forensic 

Whether after all this study Marcus became a 
really accomplished speaker is not known. We have 
too little to judge by. But at all events he had 
mastered thoroughly the principles of the art,^ and 
that he was straightforward, sensible, and practical 
in his official orations is certain. The Senate, the 
soldiers, and the people alike heard him with 

There are several passages in this work where 
Fronto tries his hand at descriptive narrative, and 
two in which he essays the role of historian. But his 
view of history, and how it should be written, was 
thoroughly mistaken. His eyes are not on the facts, 
but on the best way to show his rhetorical skill in 
commonplace or panegyric. His efforts therefore in 
this direction are useless as history and of no account 
as literature. The descriptive passages are more suc- 
cessful, the best being the apologue on sleep, tran- 
slated by Pater in his Maritis the Epicurean. A 
favourable specimen is the mutilated passage referring 
to Orpheus at the beginning of Ad Marcum, iv. Arion 

^ Ennius, see p. 10. 

2 Dio, Ixxi. 35, § 1. He shows his skill in rhetoric even in 
the Greek of the Meditations. ^ Ad Anton, i. 2. 



is technically skilful but lacks distinction^ and the 
Ring of Pohfcraies is decidedly tame. The Praises 
of Smoke and Dust and Negligence are mere tours de 
force, but they throw light on his theory of rhetoric. 

After so long and close an intimacy as these letters 
reveal we are surprised to find so meagre a mention 
of Fronto in the gallery of Worthies, from whom he 
learnt enduring lessons, which Marcus sets at the 
head of his Thoughts. It is nothing but this : 

" From Fronto, to note the envy, the subtlety, and 
the dissimulation, which are habitual to a tyrant ; 
and that as a general rule those amongst us who 
rank as patricians are somewhat wanting in natural 

We find no trace in these letters of the former 
part of this obligation but there are references to 
^iXooTopyCa, in which Fronto says that the patricians 
are wholly deficient.* He was himself a notable 
exception. Marcus calls him philostorgus,^ His de- 
votion to his wife and daughter, and to Victorinus, 
her husband, and their children, shows him to us in 
a very amiable light. He was very fond of children, 
and his love for Marcus and Lucius was deep and 

We cannot help liking the old man for his honest, 
kindly disposition, and his loyalty to a high ideal of 
friendship.^ He always showed the greatest affection 

1 Thoughts, i. 11. » ^^ Verum, ii. 7. ' De Fer, Als, 4. 
* See his letter to Pius about his friend Censorius and the 
letter to Appian. 



for the young pupils who from time to time lived 
under his roof, and readiness to help them in their 
careers. He was the centre of a large literary coterie, 
and his personal friends were devoted to him, while 
his services as advocate had attached to him many 
influential friends in the provinces, especially in 
Cilicia and Africa. 

Though not really wealthy compared with many 
other patricians of his time, and very far behind 
his rival Herodes in this respect, he had by his 
profession and by taking pupils and also through 
good management, aided by legacies, gathered a 
competence sufficient not only for his own wants but 
for the helping of his friends. He owned one or 
more villas near Rome and probably estates in 
Africa. His Horti Maecenatiani on the Esquiline 
could have been no mean residence, and he was 
able on one occasion to spend as much as £3000 on 
new baths there. ^ 

The family life of Fronto was a singularly happy 
one in the mutual affection of its surviving members, 
though death deprived him of five out of his six 
children (all daughters) in their infancy. The sole 
surviving daughter. Gratia, married Aufidius Victor- 
inus, one of the best and most capable men of his 
age, who afterwards committed suicide under Com- 
modus. One child of this union died, aged three, 
in Germany, where Victorinus was governor, about 

1 Aul. Gell. xix. 10. 



165 A.D. One son certainly^ and possibly a second^ 
sunrived to manhood. The former^ M. Aufidius 
Victorinus Fronto, was brought up in Fronto's house 
and lived to be consul in 199^ and in an inscription ^ 
to his son at Pisaurum recalled his grandfather as 
" orator, consul, and master of Marcus and Lucius." 
We hear of an eloquent descendant of Fronto's, Leo 
by name, in the fifth century at Toulouse.^ 

Mommsen and others have supposed that Fronto 
lived till the year 1 75 at least, and possibly longer, 
because in the De OreUionibus he mentions coins of 
Commodus, but it is necessary to explain the allusion 
in some other way than as implying the date of 
Commodus's participation in the Empire. For it is 
certain that no letter in this correspondence, as we 
have it, can be dated later than 166, and we find 
Fronto 's health getting worse and worse, and the 
loss of his wife and grandchild in 165 also afiected 
him greatly. There can be little doubt that he 
predeceased Verus and died in 166 or 167. His grate- 
ful pupil Marcus rewarded his love and fidelity with 
equal affection, and on his death obtained, permission 
from the Senate to set up his statue in the Senate- 
house and kept his bust among his household gods. ^ 
No representation of him has come down to us. 

He founded a school of disciples who imitated his 
methods in oratory and language, and he playfully 
alludes to his secta,^ The Frontonian tradition had 

^ Corp. Inscr, Lai, xi. 6334. ^ gidon. Apoll. Ep. iv. 21. 

'^ Capit. ViU Mar, ii. § 5. ^ Ad Anton, i. 2. 

xl J 


a vogue of a least 300 years, as Sidonius ApoUinaris 
mentions the Frontoniani in an obscure passage.^ 

The great service that Fronto did to his country- 
men was to leave their language a freer and more 
plastic instrument of speech than he found it, by 
reinforcing it with those elements which were in 
danger of atrophy for want of use, or were being 
wasted by being left outside the pale of good 
literature. Moreover by minute accuracy in the 
use of words and careful definition of their meaning, 
he gave precision and clarity to the language, which 
was a work well worth doing, and deserving of 

To the reader his style is easy and perspicuous, 
and far less abnormal and fantastic than that of his 
fellow African Apuleius. Unfortunately Fronto lacked 
originality of thought, and his humour is rather 
heavy, but his fatal foible lay not in his leanings to 
archaism but in his faith in cikoVcs, which disfigure 
even the real pathos of his dirge over the loss of his 
grandson, and lessen the force of his special plead- 
ing for Volumnius of Concordia, though in his 

* Ep, i. 1. ** Nor did Jul. Titianus picture Cicero's whole 
epistolary style in a worthy image {by ineans of a series of 
fictitious letters) under the names of noble women. On this 
account all the FrontonianSf as rivals of their fellow-disciple, 
because he followed the languid (Ciceronian) style of speak- 
ing, called him the orators' ape.'* Here the style of Cicero's 
letters, which Fronto calls remissior, easy or careless, seems 
to be disparaged. See Barth, Advers. xlvii. 9, and Nieb., 
Introd. to his ed. of Fronto, p. xxiii. The word used by 
Sidonius is vetemosus. How Cicero's style could be called 
languid or senile (vetemosus) is incomprehensible. 



criticism of Seneca they find an effective place. He 
never grasped the fact that comparaiio is not ratio. 
Whether he was proof against the seductive powers 
of the simile in the speeches which earned for him 
the epithets graviit and siccus we do not know^ but 
the fragment on overseas wills is not free from this 
favourite device. One thing seems highly probable, 
that, if the bulk of Fronto's speeches should ever be 
recovered, we should form a much higher opinion of 
his abilities. As it is we can say of him, and this is 
surely much, that he was vir bonus dicendi peritus. 



1. M, Comelii Frontonis Opera inedita cum Epistulis itevi 
ineditis Antonini Pii, M, Aureliit L, Veri, et Appiani^ necTion 
aliorum frag^nerUis. Invenit et commerUario praevio notisque 
UlustravU Angeltts Mains, Pars prior. Pars alteray cuiad- 
dunturseu edila seu cognita eiusdem Fronlonis opera: Mediolani, 
regiis typis, 1815, 4to.^ 

This first edition only contained the Fronto leaves from 
the Ambrosian Codex with a facsimile page of the MIS., 
followed by the two works previously attributed to Fronto, 
viz. De Differefitiis Voccbbulorum and Exempla Eloculionum, 
together with the passages in Aulus Gellius where Fronto is 

2. M, Comelii Frontonis Beliquiae ah Angela Maio primum 
editae : meliorem in ordinem digestas suisque et Ph, BtiMinanniy 
L, F, Heindorfii ac selectis a Maii animadversionibits instructor 
iteritm edidit. B, O, Niebuhrivbs, C.F, Aeceduiit Liber de 
Differentiis Vocabulorum et ah eodem a Maio primum edita 
Q, Aurelii Symma^ihi octo orationum fragmenta: Berolini, 


This was a great advance on Mai's edition, many of his 
erroneous readings being corrected, the text itself emended 
in various places, the dislocated fragments better arranged, 
and valuable noteii added. 

3. M, Comelii Frontonis et M, Aurelii Imperatoris Epis- 
tulae : L, Veri et Antonini Pit et Appiani Epistularum reli- 
quiae: Fragmenta Frontonis et Scripta Grammatica, Editio 
prima Romana plus centum epistulis aucta ex codice rescripto 
hihliothecae pontifidae Vaticanaey curante Angela Maio : Bomaej 


^ One of three copies only on thick bluish paper, is in the 
Cambridge University Library. It contains Mars autograph. 



This, besides the same facsimile and supplements as the 
Milan edition, has a second facsimile page of the Vatican 
M8., the Caecilius signature, and a few lines of the Palatine 
palimpsest, containing part of Fronto's Actio Gratiarum pro 
CarthaginiemibuBt the whole of which fragment, as far as it is 
decipherable, is given at the end of the volume*. 

4. Lettrea iiMUes de Marc AurUe et de Fronton retrouv6es 
Mur les palimptcstes de Milan et de Rome : traduites avec le texte 
latin en regard et des notes par M. Armand Canaan : 2 vols. , 
Paris, 1830. 

This is a most disappointing edition.^ No impravements 
are made in the text and the translation evades or omits all the 
difiiculties. But the notes, with their numerous illustrative 
passages from the older Roman writers, are useful. 

5. In 1832 the Vatican portion of Mai's Roman edition was 
published at Zell by Schultz. It had no new features. 

6. In 1867 S. A. Naber brought out the serviceable edition, 
from which everyone has since derived his knowledge of 
Fronto. Its title was : M. Cornelii Frontonis et M, Aurelii 
Imperatoria Epiatulae : L, Veri et T, Antonini Pii et Appiani 
Epistulancm Reliquiae : post Angelujn Maium cum codicibios 
Ambroaiano et Vaticano iterum contulit Q. N, du Hieii : recen- 
suit Samuel Adrianus Kaher: Lipsiaty 1867. 

This was a great improvement on previous editions, the 
text being based on a fresh inspection of the MS. by du Rieu 
in 1858. But it left a great deal still to be desired. Owing 
to certain perverse ideas, especially about the date of 
Marcus's marriage, the editor went far astray in his chron- 
ology of the correspondence. The main indices, taken almost 
entirely from Mai, are totally inadequate. 

The following translations of selected letters from the 
correspondence nave appeared in English : — 

(a) Selection.^ from Fronto'a Letters, translated into English : 
Rome, 1824. By J. McQuige. This contains paraphrases 
rather than translations of some twenty-three of the letters. 

^ A. Pierson, in his edition of Marcus Aurelius, 1843, has 
reproduced seventy of these letters, with trifling alterations. 



{b) Dr. W. H. D. Rouse, in an Appendix to his edition of 
Merio Casaubon's translation of the Meditations of Marcus 
Aurelius, published in 1900, has given us an excellent version 
of some entire letters and parts of many others. 

(c) Miss M. D. Brock, Litt.D. Dubl , in her Studies in 
Fronto and his Age, published in 1911, has translated more 
than thirty letters, mostly in full, with the text opposite. 
Her rendering gives a very good idea of the original, and 
the whole bo<^ is most helpful to the student of Fronto and 
his literary claims. 

Besides the above, P. B. Watson, in his Life of Marcus 
Aurelius, London, 1884, gives versions of several passages 
from the Correspondence, but he is an unsafe guide as to 
Fronto's meaning, his knowledge of Latin being inadequate. 

A more scholarly contribution to the same subject is that 
of HastlngH Crossley in his Fourth Book of the Meditations 
of Marcus Aureliiuf, London, 1882, an appendix to which 
contains a number of select passages from the letters 
admirably Englished with a running comment. 

Finally, Robinson Ellis published at Oxford in 1904 a 
lecture on The Correspondence of Fronto and Marcus Aurelius. 
It translates a considerable number of passages from various 
parts of the work with connecting comments. 

The more important contributions to the study of Fronto 
beside the above are as follows :— 

Alan, H., Coniecturae et AnimadversioTys : Dublin, 1841. 

Observationes in Frontonem : Dublin, 1863, 1867. 
Anon. , Index Phil, Leutschianus, i. 60 ff. 
Bahrens, E., Fleckh. Jahrbuch, 105, pp. 632-4 (1872). 
Beck, J .W., De Different* Script. Latinis (on the Lie Nominnm 

Verborumque Differentiis of Fronto (?) ) ; Mnem. x. 9 : 

review of Brakman's work. 
Becker, G., Jenaer Lit. Ztg. 1874, p. 631. 
Beer,Rud.,^7t2;. d. philos.-hist.Kl. derk.Akad.d. JViss. : Vienna, 

1911, nr. xi. *' Uber den aeltesten Handschriftenbestand 

des Klosters Bobbio." 
Beltrami, Ach. , Le tendenze letterarie negli scritti di Frontone : 

Milan, 1907. " II ' numerus ' e Frontone," in Eiv, di 

fil. 36, 1906. See also BerL Phil. Woch. xxx. 1 ; Bibl 

Phil, klass, 1908, p. 61 ; Classid e Neolatini, v. 1. 



Blase, H., Archivf, laiein. Lexicographie (WolflSin), 9, p. 491 

BoisBonade, Biographic Universelkf xvi. 121 ff. : article 

*' Fronton." See also Gassan's translation of Fronto, ii. 

p. 382. 
Brakman, C, Frontoniana, Series i., ii. : Utrecht, 1902. 
Bursian-Miller, Jahresbericht ilber die Fortschritte dcr Tclaas. 

Alterthumsvnsaenachaft. Berlin, 1873 : 2, 1320 ; 7, 172 ; 

18, 172; 27, 8; 40, 232; 56, 238-240; 84, 189, 192, 

Cobet, C. O., Mnem. 3, p. 305 (1875) and 5, p. 232 : see also 

Bursian-Miller, Jahrenber. 2, 1320. 
Cornelissen, J. J., Mnem., N.s. 1, pp. 91-6 (1873); 13, pp. 

115 ff. (1885). 
Crossley, H., HerrnxjUhena, 5, p. 67. See also above. 
Crutwell, C. T., History of Roman Literature, pp. 463-5, 

Lond. 1887. 
Daunon, Joum,d. Sav. Sept. 1816, pp. 27 ff.: review of Mai's 

edition (1815). 
Dareste, A. C, De rhetore Ael. Aristidc, 1843. 
Desrousseaux, A. M., Rew de Phil. 10, pp. 149 ff. (1886). 
Dircksen, H. E., 0pp. 1, pp. 243-253, 276-280. 
Dobson, J. F., Classical Quarterly, Jan. 1912. 
Droz, E. , De M, Comelii Frontonis instittUione oratoria, 
Ebert, Ad., ** De Frontonis Syntaxi," Acta Semin, phil. 

Erlangenaia, ii. 311-354 (1881) ; BL /. d, bayr. Oymn.-wes, 

xix. 527-30(1883). 
Eckstein, F. A., Allgemeine Fncyclopddie (J. S. Ersch and 

J. G. Griiber), Section 1, Pt. 51, pp. 442 ff. See also 

Naber's edit. p. xxxiv. 
Egger, E., Fragmcnta ad Stoicorum et rhetorum historiam 

coTigruentia, 1852. 
Ehrenthal, L., Quaestiones FrorUonianae : Konigsberg, 1881. 
Eickstadt, Coriulii Fro^ttonis Operum nuper in Iticem protrac- 

torum notitia et specimen, Jenae, 1846. See also Niebuhr's 

edit. pp. 293-4. 
Ellis, Robinson, Journal of Phil. i. pp. 15 ff. (1868); xxix. 

(1902), and see above, p. xlv. 
Eussner, Ad., Fleckh. Jahrb, 107, pp. 522-3 (1873); pp. 766 ff. 

(1875) ; Bhein. Mus. 25, pp. 541-7 (1870); Liier, Centralbl 

Freytag, F. G. , Fx antique historia literaria de M. Com. Fron- 

tone et Frontonianorum secta rhetorica, Nuremberg, 1732. 



Friedlandler, L., Darstellungen aus d. Sittengeschichte Boms, 

ii. 127 ff. Leipzig, 1901. 
Frohner, W., PhiloL SuppL 6, pp. 49-62 (1889). 
Greef, A., Pkilol. 1876, pp. 682 ff. 

Haines, C. R., Classical Quarterly, Apr. 1914, **0n the 
Chronology of the Fronto Correspondence"; and ibid, 
Jan. 1916, "On the text of Fronto." 
Hauler, £dm. 

Ferh. d. 41 Vers. d. deuL Phil, inKoln{lS95), pp. 78-88, 
338. '* Vortrag iiber das Ergebnis der neuen Unter- 
suchungen der Mailander Frontoreste" : Leipzig, 1896 ; 
ibid, 69 in Graz : Vienna, 1909 ( Wiener Eranos). **Zum 
Sendschreiben des Catulus und iiber die Consilia des 
Asinius PoUio." 
Serta ffartelianay pp. 263-269 : Vienna, 1896. 
Archiv, f, lateinische Lexicographie, x. 145 : Leipzig, 
1898; XV. 106-112 (1908). " Lepturgus and Chirur- 


Mein. Mus. 64, Pt. 2, pp. 161-170 (1899). 

Festschrift Theod, Qomperz, pp. 392, 393 : Vienna, 1902. 

Zeitsc. f, d, oe^terr. Qymn, 64, pp. 32-37 (1903); 61, 

pp. 673-684 : Vienna, 1910. 
Melanges Boissier, pp. 243 ff.: Paris, 1903. 
Mitteil. d. konig. detUsch, archaeol. Instil, Rom. Abteil 19, 

pp. 317-321 : Rome, 1904. "Fronto iiber Protogenes 

and Nealkes." 
Ver, d, 48. Versam. d, PhiloL in Hamburg , pp. 61-53 

(1906) : Leipzig, 1906. ** Bericht uber dem Stand der 

Fronto Aufgabe." 
Miscellanea Cerianiy pp. 601-610 : Milan, 1909. 
irien. Siudien, 22, pp. 140, 318 (1900). 

23, p. 238 (1901). 

24, Pt. 1, pp. 232, 619-22 ( 1902). 

26, Pt. 1, pp. 162-4, 331 (1903). 
„ 26, p. 344 (1904). 

27, K 1, p. 146 (1906). 

27, Pt. 2, p. 304 (1906). 

28, Pt. 1, pp. 169, 170 (1906). 

29, Pt. 1, pp. 172, 328 (1907). 
29, Pt. 2, p. 328 (1907). 

31, Pt. 1, pp. 179, 180,269, 268-270 (1909). 

32, Pt. 1, p. 160(1910). 
32, Pt. 2, pp. 325, 326 (1910). 





Hauler, Edm. (cont.) 

Wien. atudieii, 33, Pt. 1, pp. 173-176 (1911). 

33, Pt. 2, p. 338 (1911). 

34, Pt. 1, pp. 25a-259 (1912). 
36, pp. 398, 399 (1913). 

36, pp. 342, 343 (1914). 

37, pp. 187, 188 (1915). 

38, Pt. 1, pp. 166-175 (1916). 
38, Pt. 2, pp. 379-381 (1916). 

»> »> 

>» >» 

l» >» 

>J »» 

»» >> 

>» »> 

39, pp. 132-134, 173-176 (1917). 

9, pp. u 
>, Pt. 2, 

39, Pt. 2, pp. 193 ff. (1917). 

40, Pt. 1, p. 195 (1918). 

Festschrift Bormanni, pp. 287-290 (1902). 

Milanges Emile Chatelain, pp. 622-627 (1910). 

Bibl, phiL'klass., p. 66 (1910) : see Woch. f, klass, Phil. 
36, p. 979 (1910). "Neues aus dem Fronto-palim- 
Haupt, M., Index Lectionum Berolin, pp. 3ff.: Berlin, 1867 ; 

Hermes, v. pp. 190, 191 (1871) ; viii. p. 178 (1874) ; 

O^iusc, ii. pp. 346-367 ; iii. pp. 316, 663, 616, 619. 
Havet, L., Rev, de Phil, 10, p. 189 (1886). " Le Reviseur du 

MS. de Fronton." 
Heinrich, C. F., Auctuarium emendationum in Frontonis 

reliquias ex edit. Berolin, 1817, Kiel. 
Hertz, M., Renaissance und Rococo in dcr rdm, Litteratur: 

Berlin, 1865 ; Flcckh. Jahrbuch, 93, pp. 679, 680 (1866) ; 

Rliein, Mus, 1874, pp. 29, 367 ; Vindidae Gellii Alteram, 

p. 23 adn. 52, 53 ; Program. Vratislav. 1873, De liido 

talario ; Philol. 1876, p. 757. 
Herwerden, N. van, Mncm. n.s. 1, pp. 223, 292-294 (1873) ; 

ibid, 31, p. 210. 
Hirschfield, 0., apud Stademund, Epist. ad Klussm. xxxii. 
Jacobs, Fr., TFolfii Analecta, i. pp. 108 fif.; ii. pp. 246 ff.: Berlin, 

1817-1818; Zimmermann, Diar. Antiq.y p. 1019 (1838). 
Jahn, O., Rhein, Mus. 3, p. 166 ; Be7'l. Sachs. Oesellsch, 1851, 

pp. 360 ff. 
Jordan, H., Herm. 6, pp. 68-81 (1872). " Catulus de Con- 

sulatu ; Ad Catonem, p. xcviii. " 
Kaemmel, H., Ann. Paedag. 1870, pp. 13 ff. 
Kessler, K. C. G., De locis qui in Frontonis Epistulis litiira 

corrupti depreJienduntur coniectura sa/rdendis, Progr. 

Gymn. Rosslebiensis, 1828. 




VOL. I. B 


Ad M, Caeaarem d invicemj it. 3 (Naber, p. 61). 

CoJ. Vat I Domino meo Fronto. 

180, coL 2 , ^ 

admtd, 1. Omiuum artiuni^ ut ego arbitror^ imperitum 

et indoctum omnino esse praestat quam semiperitum 
ac semidoctum. Nam qui sibi conscius est artis ex- 
pertem esse minus adtemptat^ eoque minus prae- 
cipitat; diffidentia profecto audaciam prohibet. At 

Vftt. 179 ubi quis leviter quid cognitum pro comperto | ostent- 
at, falsa fiducia multifariam labitur. Philosophiae 
quoque disciplinas aiunt satius esse numquam adtig- 
isse quam leviter et primoribus, ut dieitur, labiis 
delibasse^ eosque provenire malitiosissimos^ qui in 
vestibulo artis obversati prius inde averterint quam 
penetraverint. Tamen est in aliis artibus ubi inter- 
dum delitescas et peritus paulisper habeare quod 
nescias. In verbis vero eligendis conlocandisque ilico 
dilucet^ nee verba dare diu quis ^ potest^ quin se ipse 

^ Klussmann for Cod. diutius, 

' Certainly an early letter, possibly the earliest preserved 
{m^ %4), In a subseqaent letter to Marcos, as Emperor, it 
•eema to be referred to as prima iUa iom^narHia epi^ttim (see 



Fronto to Marcus Aurelius as Caesar 

Fronto to my Lord.i ' ^^^ ^'^' 

1. In all arts^ I take it^ total inexperience and 
ignorance are preferable to a semi-experience and a 
half-knowledge. For he who is conscious that he 
knows nothing of an art aims at less^ and con- 
sequently comes less to grief: in fact, diffidence ex- 
cludes presumption. But when anyone parades a 
superficial knowledge as mastery of a subject, through 
false confidence he makes manifold slips. They say, 
too, that it is better to have kept wholly clear of the 
teachings of philosophy than to have tasted them 
superficially and, as the saying goes, with the tips of 
the lips ; and that those turn out the most knavish 
who, going about the precincts of an art, turn aside 
or ever they have entered its portals. Yet in other 
arts it is possible, sometimes, to escape exposure, 
and for a man to be deemed, for a period, proficient 
in that wherein he is an ignoramus. But in the 
choice and arrangement of words he is detected 
instantly, nor can anyone make a pretence ^ with 

j4d Ant. i. 2). Marcus became consul in 140, and this fact 
could scarcely have been ignored in § 6. 

' The Latin phrase verba dare alicui means ** to use mere 
words to a person," i.e. to deceive him. It is difficult to 
reproduce the 'subtle play on the words. 

B 2 


indicet verborum ignarum esse^ eaque male probare 
et temere existimare^ et inscie contrectare, neque 
modum neque pondus verbi internosse. 

2. Quam ob rem rari admodum veterum scriptorum 
in eum laborem studiumque et periculum verba in- 
dustriosius quaerendi sese eommisere. Oratorum 
post homines natos unus omnium M. Porcius eiusque 
frequens seetator C. Sallustius; poetarum maxime 
Plautus^ multo maxime Q. Ennius^ eumque studiose 
aemulatus L. Coelius^ nee non Naevius^ Lucretius^ 
Accius etiam^ Caecilius, Laberius quoque. Nam 
praeter hos partim scriptorum animadvertas particul- 

Vat. 146 atim elegantes, Novium et Pom|ponium et id genus 
in verbis rusticanis et iocularibus ac ridiculariis^ Attam 
in muliebribus, Sisennam in lascivis,^ Lucilium in 
cuiusque artis ac negotii propriis. 

3. Hie tu fortasse iamdudum requiras quo in 
numero locem M. TuUium, qui caput atque fons 
Romanae eloquentiae cluet. Eum ego arbitror us- 
quequaque verbis pulcherrimis elocutum et ante 
omnes alios oratores ad ea, quae ostentare vellet, 
ornanda magnificum fuisse. Verum is mihi videtur 
a quaerendis scrupulosius verbis pfocul afuisse vel 
magnitudine animi vel fuga laboris vel fiducia, non 
quaerenti etiam sibi, quae vix aliis quaerentibus sub- 
venirent, praesto adfutura. Itaque comperisse videor, 
ut qui eius scrip ta omnia studiosissime lectitarim, 
cetera eum genera verborum copiosissime uber- 

* Mai for Cod. lasdviis. 


words for long without himself betraying that he is 
ignorant of them^ that his judgment of them is in- 
correct^ his estimate of them haphazard^ his handling 
of them unskilful^ and that he can distinguish neither 
their propriety nor their force. 

2. Wherefore few indeed of our old writers have 
surrendered themselves to that toil, pursuit, and 
hazard of seeking out words with especial diligence. 
M. Porcius alone of the orators of all time, and his 
constant imitator C. Sallustius, are among these ; of 
poets Plautus especially, and most especially Q. 
Ennius and his zealous rival L. Coelius, not to omit 
Naevius and Lucretius, Accius, too, and Caecilius, 
also Laberius. Besides these, certain other writers 
are noticeable for choiceness in special spheres, as 
Novius, Pomponius, and their like, in rustic and 
jocular and comic words, Atta in women's talk, 
Sisenna in erotics, Lucilius in the technical language 
of each art and business. 

3. At this point, perhaps, you will have long been 
asking in what category I should place M. Tullius, 
who is hight the head and source of Roman elo- 
quence. I consider him on all occasions to have used 
the most beautiful words, and to have been magni- 
ficent above all other orators in embellishing the 
subject which he wished to set out. But he seems 
to me to have been far from disposed to search 
out words with especial care, whether from greatness 
of mind, or to escape toil, or from the assurance that 
what others can scarcely find with careful search 
would be his at call without the need of searching. 
And so, from a most attentive perusal of all his 
writings, I think I have ascertained that he has with 
the utmost copiousness and opulence handled all 


rimeque tractasse, verba propria translata simplicia 
composita et, quae in eius scriptis ubique dilucent, 
verba honesta^ saepenumero etiam amoena: quom 
tamen in omnibus eius orationibus paucissima admod- 
um reperias insperata atque inopinata verba, quae 
non nisi cum studio atque cura atque vigilia atque 
Vat. 145 multa veterum carminum memoria indagantur. | In- 
speratum autem atque inopinatum verbum ^ appello, 
quod praeter spem atque opinionem audientium aut 
legentium promitur, ita ut, si subtrahas atque eum 
qui legat quaerere ipsum iubeas, nullum aut non ita 
significando adeommodatum verbum aliud reperiat. 
Quam ob rem te magno opere conlaudo, quod ei rei 
curam industriamque adhibes, ut verbum ex alto 
eruas et ad significandum adcommodes. Verum, ut 
initio dixi, magnum in ea re periculum est, ne minus 
apte aut parum dilucide aut non satis deeore, ut a 
semidocto, conlocetur, namque multo satius est volg- 
aribus et usitatis quam remotis et requisitis uti, si 
parum significet.^ 

4. Haud sciam an utile sit demonstrare quanta 
diffieultas, quam serupulosa et anxia cura in verbis 
probandis adhibenda sit, ne ea res animos adulescen- 
tium retardet aut spem adipiscendi debilitet Una 
plerumque littera translata aut exempta aut immut- 
ata vim verbi ac venustatem commutat et elegantiam 
vel scientiam loquentis declarat. Equidem te anim- 
adverti, quom mihi scripta tua relegeres, atque ego 

* Studemund for Cod. vcro, '-^ Schopen reads significerU. 


other kinds of words — words literal and figurative^ 
simple and compound and^ what are conspicuous 
everywhere in his writings, noble words, and often- 
times also exquisite ones : and jet in all his speeches 
you will find very few words indeed that are un- 
expected and unlocked for, such as are not to be 
hunted out save with study and care and watchful- 
ness and the treasuring up of old poems in the 
memory. By an unexpected and unlooked-for word 
I mean one which is brought out when the hearer 
or reader is not expecting it or thinking of it, yet so 
that if you withdrew it and asked the reader himself 
to think of a substitute, he would be able to find 
either no other at all or one not so fitted to express 
the intended meaning. Wherefore I commend you 
greatly for the care and diligence you shew in digging 
deep for your word and fitting it to your meaning. 
But, as I said at first, there lies a great danger in the 
enterprize lest the word be applied unsuitably or 
with a want of clearness or a lack of refinement, as 
by a man of half-knowledge, for it is much better 
to use common and everyday words than unusual 
and far-fetched ones, if there is little difference in 
real meaning. 

4. I hardly know whether it is advisable to shew 
how great is the difficulty, what scrupulous and 
anxious care must be taken, in weighing words, for 
fear the knowledge should check the ardour of the 
young and weaken their hopes of success. The 
transposition or subtraction or alteration of a single 
letter in many cases changes the force and beauty of 
a word and testifies to the taste or knowledge of 
the speaker. I may say I have noticed, when you 
were reading over to me what you had written 


Vat. 152 de verbo syllabam per|mutarem, te id neglegere nee 
multum referre arbitrari. Nolim igitur te ignorare 
syllabae unius discrimen quantum referat. Os col- 
lucre dicam^ pavimentum autem in balneis pelluere, 
non colluere ; lacrimis vero genas lavere dicam^ non 
pelluere neque colluere, vestimenta autem lavare, 
non lavere ; sudorem porro et pulverem abluere, non 
lavare ; sed maculam elegantius eluere quam abluere. 
Si quid vero magis haeserit nee sine aliquo detri- 
mento exigi possit, Plautino verbo elavere dicam. 
Tum praeterea mulsum diluere, fauces prohiere, un- 
gulam iumento suhluere, 

5. Tot exemplis unum atque idem verbum syllabae 
atque litterae commutatione in varium modum ac 
sensum^ usurpatur: tam hercule quam faciem medica- 

V mento Utam, caeno corpus conlitum, calicem melle 

delitum, mucronem veneno <inlitum>, radium visco 
oblitum rectius dixerim. 

6. Haud sciam an quis roget Namquis me prokibet 
vestimenta lavere potius quam lavare, sudorem lavare 
potius quam abluere dicere ? Tibi vero nemo in ea re 
intercedere aut modificari iure ullo poterit qui sis 

Vat. 151 liber | liberis prognatus et equitum censum praeter- 
vehare,^ et in senatu sententiam rogere ; nos vero 
qui doctorum auribus servituti serviendae nosmet 

1 C. F. W. Miiller for Cod. adcenmvi (- a^wdeV, Ellis). 
* Fronto may have in mind here Hor. Ars PoH. 382-4. 

^ i.e. **to rinse the mouth." 

2 i.e. ** to swab the flagged floor in the baths." 

• " To bathe the cheeks in tears." 



and I altered a syllable in a word, that you paid no 
attention to it and thought it of no great conse- 
quence. I should be loth, therefore, for you not to 
know the immense difference made by one syllable. 
I should say Os colluere,^ but in balneis pavimentnm 
pelluere,'^ not colluere ; I should, however, say lacrimis 
genas lavere,^ not peUuere or colluere; but vestimenta 
lavare,^ not lavere ; again, sudorem ei pulverem abluere,^ 
not lavare; but it is more elegant to say maculam 
eluere than ahluere ; if, however, the stain had soaked 
in and could not be taken out without some damage, 
I should use the Plautine word elavere.^ Then there 
are besides muUuvi diluere^ fauces proluere,^ ungulam 
iumento suhluere.^ 

5. So many are the examples of one and the same 
word, with the change of a syllable or letter, being 
used in various ways and meanings ; just as, by Her- 
cules, I should speak with a nicer accuracy of a face 
painted with rouge, a body splashed with mud, a 
cup smeared with honey, a sword-point dipped in 
poison, a stake daubed with bird-lime. 

6. Someone maybe will ask. Who, pray, is to pre- 
vent me saying vestimenta lavere rather than lavare, 
sudorem lavare rather than abluere } As for you, in- 
deed, no one will have any right to interfere with or 
prescribe for you in that matter, as you are a free 
man born of free parents, and have more than a 
knight's income, and are asked your opinion in the 
Senate ; we, however, who have dedicated ourselves 
in dutiful service to the ears of the cultured must 

* "To wash clothes." 

* ** To wash oflf sweat and dust." • ** To scour out." 
7 '* To watermead." « ** To gargle the throat." 

•* To scrub out a horse's frog." 


dedimus^ necesse est tenuia quoque ista et minuta 
summa cum cura persequamur. Verba prorsus alii 
vecte et malleo ut silices moliuntur, alii autem caelo 
et marculo ut gemmulas exculpunt ; te aequius erit 
ad quaerenda soUertius verba quod correctus sis 
meminisse, quam quod deprehensus detrectare aut 
retardari. Nam si quaerendo desistes^ numquam 
reperies ; si perges quaerere, reperies. 

7. Denique visus etiam es mihi insuper habuisse^ 
quom ordinem verbi tuum^ immutassem, uti ante 
tricipitem diceres quam Geryonam iiominares. Id quo- 
que ne ignores ; pleraque in oratione ordine immut- 
ato vel rata verba fiunt vel supervacanea. Navem 
triremem rite dixerim ; triremem navem supervacaneo 
addiderim. Neque enim periculum est ne quis lecti- 
culam aut redam aut citharam triremem dici arbitre- 
tur. Turn praeterea quom commemorares, cur Parthi 
manuleis laxioribus uterentur^ ita^ opinor^ scripsisti^ 
Vat. 150 inter vallis vestis aestum ut suspendi di|ceres. Ain 
tandem quo pacto aestus suspenditur? Neque id 
repraehendo, te verbi translatione audacius progres- 
* sum, quippe qui Ennii sententia oratorem audacem 
esse debere censeam. Sit sane audax orator, ut Ennius 
postulat: sed a significando quod volt eloqui nus- 
quam digrediatur. Igitur voluntatem quidem tuam 
magno opere probavi laudavique, quom verbum 

* Cod. m* for tui. 

^ As it happens, it might mean one or two other things in 



needs with the utmost care study these nice distinc- 
tions and minutiae. Some absolutely work at their 
words with crowbar and maul as if they were flints ; 
others, however, grave them with burin and mallet 
as though they were little gems. For you it will be 
better, for greater deftness in searching out words, 
to take it to heart when corrected, than to demur or 
flag when detected in a fault. For if you give up 
searching you will never find ; if you go on searching 
you will find. 

7. Finally, you seemed even to have thought it a 
work of supererogation when I changed your order 
of a word, so that the epithet three-headed should 
come before the name Geryon. Bear this, too, in 
mind : it frequently happens that words in a speech, 
by a change in their order, become essential or 
superfluous. I should be right in speaking of a ship 
with three decks, but ship would be a superfluous 
addition to three-decker. For there is no danger ^ of 
anyone thinking that by three-decker was meant a 
litter, a landau, or a lute. Then, again, when you 
were pointing out why the Parthians wore loose wide 
sleeves, you wrote, I think, to this effect, that the 
heat was suspended^ by the openings in the robe. Can 
you tell me, pray, how the heat is suspended } Not 
that I find fault with you for pushing out somewhat 
boldly 3 in the metaphorical use of a word, for I 
agree with Ennius his opinion that " an orator should 
be bold." By all means let him be bold, as Ennius 
lays down, but let him in no case deviate from the 
meaning which he would express. So I greatly 
approved and applauded your intention when you 

2 Used in the sense of .mppi'imo, "checked." 
' cp. below, Ad Goes, ii. 5, Ad Ant, i. 2, ad med. 



quaerere adgressus es ; indiligentiam autem quaesiti 
verbi, quod esset absurdum^ repraehendi. Nam- 
que manuleorum intervallis, quae interdum laxata 
videmus Ht(}ue fluitantia^ suspendi aestus non potest : 
potest aestus per vestis intervalla depelli, potest degi, 
potest demeare, potest drcumduci, potest interverti, 
potest eveniilari — omnia denique potius potest quam 
posse suspend!^ quod verbum superne quid ^ sustineri, 
non per laxamenta deduci significat. 

8. Post ista monui quibus studiis^ quoniam ita 
velles, te historiae scribundae praeparares. Qua de 
re quom longior sit oratio, ne modum epistulae 
egrediar, finem facio. Si tu de ea quoque re scribi 
ad te voles^ etiam atque etiam admonebis. 

Ad M. Goes, et invicem, iii. 11 (Naber, p. 48). 
Vat. 114, end | DoMINO HieO. 

Gratia ad me heri nocte venit. Sed pro Gratia 
mihi fuit quod tu gnomas egregie convertisti, banc 
quidera quam hodie accepi prope perfecte, ut poni in 
libro Sallustii possit, nee discrepet aut quicquam 
decedat. Ego beatus hilaris sanus iuvenis denique 
fio, quom tu ita proficis. Est grave quod postulabo ; 

* Cod. quit (Mai) : Brakm. reads the word as volt. 

^ Marcus (see Thoughts, iii. 14) possibly wrote some 
sort of History of the Greeks and BomanSf which Nioephoms 



set about seeking for a word; what I found fault 
with was the want of care shewn in selecting a word 
which made nonsense. For by openings m sleeves^ 
which we occasionally see to be loose and flowing^ 
heat cannot be suspended : heat can be dispelled 
through the openings of a robe, it can be thrown off, 
it can radiate away, it can be given a passage, it can 
be diverted, it can be ventilated out — it can be 
almost anything, in fact, rather than be suspended, 
a word which means that a thing is held up from 
above, not drawn away through wide passages. 

8. After that I advised you as to the preparatory 
studies necessary for the writing of history, ^ since 
that was your desire. As that subject would require 
a somewhat lengthy discussion, I make an end, that 
I overstep not the bounds of a letter. If you wish 
to be written to on that subject too, you must 
remind me again and again. 

Fronto to Marcus Aurelius as Caesar 

rri T J ? 139 A.D. 

To my Lord. 

Gratia^ came home last night. But to me it 
has been as good as having Gratia, that you have 
turned your " maxims " so brilliantly ; the one which 
I received to-day almost faultlessly, so that it could 
be put in a book of Sallust*s without jarring or shew- 
ing any inferiority. I am happy, merry, hale, in a 
word become young again, when you make such pro- 
gress. It is no light thing that I shall require ; but 

Callistus (ill. 31) may perhaps refer to. But Marcus in his 
Thoughts, i. 17 ad fin,, disclaims the study of histories. 

' Gratia was Fronto's wife. He had also a daughter 
Gratia, who was married about 160, and so probably born 
between 140 and 145. 


sed quod ipse mihimet profuisse memini non potest 
quin a te quoque postulem. Bis et ter eandem con- 
vertito, ita ut fecisti in ilia gnome brevicula. Igitur 
Vat. 113 longiores quoque | bis ac ter converte naviter, audac- 
ter. Quodcumque ausus fueris cum isto ingenio^ 
perficies ; at enim cum labore^ laboriosum quidem 
negotium concupisti, sed pulchrum et rectum et 
paucis impetratum. De . . . . ^ perfecte absolveris. 
Plurimum tibi in oratione facienda <proderit hie 
labor> : tum certe quidem cotidie <aliquas sentent- 
ias excerpere> ex lugurtha aut ex Catilina. Deis 
propitiis, quom Romam reverteris, exigam a te denuo 
versus diurnos. Dominam matrem tuam saluta. 

Ad M. Caes. et invieemy iii. 12 (Naber, p. 49). 

Magistro meo. 

Duas per id<em> tempus epistulas tuas excepi. 
Earum altera me increpabas et temere sententiam 
scripsisse ^ arguebas, altera vero tueri studium meum 
laude nitebaris.* Adiuro tamen tibi meam^ meae 
matris^ tuam salutem mihi plus gaudii in animo co- 
ortum esse illis tuis prioribus litteris ; meque saepius 
exclamasse inter legendum me felicem ! Itane, 
dicet aliquis^ feUcem te, si est qui te doceat quomodo 

^ Madvig would put a colon here and a comma after 

^ A few words are lost, of which Mai gives a dozen letters, 
one word probably being <voc>dbnla. 

^ Cod. m* exseripsisse. 

* Brakraan reads the MS. as tuehare studium meum laude 
et lei'abas. 


what I remember to have been of service to myself, 
I cannot but require of jou also. You must turn 
the same maxim twice or thrice, just as you have 
done with that little one. And so turn longer 
ones two or three times diligently, boldly. What- 
ever you venture on, such are your abilities, you will 
accomplish : but, indeed, with toil have you coveted 
a task that is truly toilsome, but fair and honourable 
and attained by few .... you have got (it) per- 
fectly out. This exercise will be the greatest help 
to you in speech making; undoubtedly, too, the 
excerpting of some sentences from the JuguHha or 
the CaiiUne, If the Gods are kind, on your return 
from Rome I will exact again from you your daily 
quota of verses. Greet my Lady, your mother.^ 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

^ ^ ? 139 A.D. 

lo my master. 

I have received two letters ^ from you at once. 
In one of these you scolded me and pointed out that 
I had written a sentence carelessly ; in the other, 
however, you strove to encourage my efforts with 
praise. Yet I protest to you by my health, by my 
mother's and yours, that it was the former letter 
which gave me the greater pleasure, and that, as I 
read it, I cried out again and again happy that I 
am I Are you then so happy, someone will say, for 
having a teacher to shew you how to write a maxim more 

* Domitia Lucilla, the widow of Annius Verus. The 
adopted mother of Marcus, the elder Faustina, wife of Pius, 
died between July 140 and July 141. 

* The second of these must be the preceding letter. The 
other may possibly be the first letter given above. 



yvco/xi/v sollertius dilucidiiis hrevius politius scrihas ? Non 
hoc est quod me felicem nuneupo. Quid est igitur ? 

Vat. 112 Quod verum dicere ex te disco. Ea res — verum|dic- 
ere — prorsurn deis hominibusque ardua : nullum 
denique tam veriloquum oraculum est, quin aliquid 
ancipitis in se vel obliqui vel impediti habeat, quo 
imprudentior inretiatur, et^ ad voluntatem suam 
dictum opinatus captionem post tempus ac negotium 
sentiat. Sed ista res lucrosa ^ est et plane mos talia 
tantum pio errore et vanitate ex<cus>are.f At tuae 
seu accusationes seu lora confestim ipsam viam os- 
tendunt sine fraude et inventis verbis. Itaque deber- 
em etiam gratias agere tibi si verum me dicere satius 
simul et audire verum me doces. Duplex igitur 
pretium solvatur, pendere quod ne valeam <ela- 
bora>bis. Si resolvi vis^ nil, quomodo tibi par pari 
expendam nisi obsequio ? Impius tamen mihi malui 
te nimia motum cura .... die<s isti quom essent> 
vacui, licuit me .... bene st<udere et multas 
sententias> excerpere .... Vale mi bone et op- 
time <magister. Te>, optime orator, sic m<ihi in 

Vat. Ill amicitiam> venisse gaudeo. { Domina mea te salutat. 

* From here to motum cura is as read by Hauler (see 
Melanges Boissier, pp. 245-248). He reserves further addi- 
tions to this letter for his forthcoming edition. 

2 Cod. m* for via ludiosa : m* also praelerea for plane, and 
m* has vel for libi after agere below. 

^ m* si remisens. 



deftly, more clearly^ more tersely, more elegantly ? No, 
that is not my reason for calling myself happy. 
What, then, is it? It is that 1 learn from you to 
speak the truth. ^ That matter — of speaking the 
truth — is precisely what is so hard for Gods and 
men : in fact, there is no oracle so truth-telling as 
not to contain within itself something ambiguous or 
crooked or intricate, whereby the unwary may be 
caught and, interpreting the answer in the light of 
their own wishes, realize its fallaciousness only when 
the time is past and the business done. But' the 
thing is profitable, and clearly it is the custom to 
excuse such things merely as pious fraud and delu- 
sion. On the other hand, your fault-findings or your 
guiding reins, whichever they be, shew me the way 
at once without guile and feigned words. And so I 
ought to be grateful to you for this, that you teach 
me before all to speak the truth at the same time 
and to hear the truth. A double return, then, 
would be due, and this you will strive to put it 
beyond my power to pay. If you will have no return 
made, how can I requite you like with like, if not by 
obedience ? Disloyal, however, to myself, I preferred 
that you, moved by excess of care .... since I 
had those days free, I had the chance .... of 
doing some good work and making many extracts 
.... Farewell, my good master, my best of 
masters. I rejoice, best of orators, that you have so 
become my friend. My Lady* greets you. 

^ His other pupil, Lucius Verus, also pays Fronto this 
compliment ( Ad P'er. ii. 2). But Marcus, in his tribute to 
Fronto in his Thoughts (i. 11), omits all mention of it. 

'^ This title can stand for the mother of Marcus as it does 
in the previous letter, or for Faustina the elder, his adopted 
mother, or, after his marriage in 145, for his wife Faustina 
the younger. ^ 

VOL. I. C 


JSpist. Oraecaey 6 (Naber, p. 252). 
Ambr. Cod. I Have mi mafi^ister optime.^ 

136 : Vat. 

121, towards Si quid somni redit post vigilias^ de quibus ques- 

end of col. 2 , . ., •! • i. oi j a. 

tus es, oro te, scribe mihi ; et illud oro te primum, 
valetudini operam da. Turn securim Tefiediam, quam^ 
Vat. 120 minaris, abde aliquo ac reconde, nee | tu consilium 
causarum agendarum dimiseris^ aut tum simul omnia 
ora taceant. 

Graece nescio quid ais te compegisse, quod* ut 
aeque pauca a te scripta placeat tibi. Tune es qui 
me nuper concastigaras,* quorsum Graece scriberem.^ 
Mihi vero nunc ^ potissimum Graece scribendum est. 
Qiiam oh rem rogas? Volo periculum facere, an id 
quod non didici facilius obsecundet mihi^ quoniam 
quidem illud^ quod didici^ deserit. Sed si me ama- 
res^^ misisses mi istud novicium quod placere ais. 
Ego vero te vel invitum istic lego ; et quidem hac re 
una vivo et resto.^ 

Materiam cruentam misisti mihi. Necdum^ legi 
Coelianum excerptum quod misisti^ nee legam prius 
quam sensus ipse venatus fuero. Sed me Caesaris 
oratio uncis unguibus adtinet. Nunc denique sentio 
quantum operis sit tenios vel quinos versus tornare,® 
et aliquid diu scribere. Vale, spiritus mens. Ego 

* This letter is copied twice in the Codex, after iii. 8, Vat. 
and oiX^v EpisL GraecaeQ, Ambr., possibly, as there are so 
•many variations, from different exemplars. 

* qua Vat. • Vat. omits quod and reads plticcant. 

* Ambr. concasiigabas. * Ambr. quid. • Ambr. amas. 
^ Ambr. has (says Naber) una • egresu • (? adquiesco). 

** Ambr. omits dum, • Vat. etomare, 



Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

Hail my best of masters. 

If any sleep comes back to you after the wakeful 
nights of which you complain, I beseech you write 
to me and, above all, I beseech you take care of your 
health. Then hide somewhere and bury that " axe 
of Tenedos," ^ which you hold over us, and do not, 
whatever you do, give up your intention of pleading 
cases, or along with yours let all lips be dumb. 

You say that you have composed something in 
Greek 2 which pleases you more than almost any- 
thing you have written. Are you not he who gave 
me such a castigation for writing in Greek ? How- 
ever, I must now, more than ever, write in Greek. 
Do you ask why} I wish to make trial whether 
what 1 have not learnt may not more readily come 
to mv aid, since what I have learnt leaves me in the 
lurch. But, an you really loved me, you would have 
sent me that new piece you are so pleased with. 
However, I read you here in spite of yourself and, 
indeed, that alone is my life and stay. 

It is a sanguinary theme you have sent me. I 
have not yet read the extract from Coelius which 
you sent, nor shall I read it until I, on my part, have 
hunted up my wits. But my Caesar-speech ^ gnps 
me with its hooked talons. Now, if never before, I 
find what a task it is to round and shape* three 
or five lines and to take time over writing. Fare- 
well, breath of my life. Should I not burn with 

^ A proverb for unflinching justice or determination. 

* The Discourse on Love which follows. 

' The speech of thanks to Pius in the Senate for being 
given the title of Caesar in the year 139 is probably meant. 

* cp. Hor. Ars Poet, 441. 

c 2 


non ardeam tuo amore qui mihi hoc ^ scripseris ! 

Quid faciam? Non possum insistere. At mihi 
Arabr. 135 anno | priorc datum fuit hoc eodem loco eodemque 

tempore matris desiderio peruri. Id desiderium hoc 
Vut. 110 anno tu mihi accendis. I Salutat te Domina mea. 

Epist. Oraecae, 8 (Naber, p. 255). 

<'Ep<i)TtKos \6yos> 

Ambr. 138 1. | 12 ^iXc TTttl, TpLTOV 8lJ 0"0l TOVTO TTCpi TWI/ aVTWV 

CTrtOTcXXw, TO fjLev irptarov 8ia Kvaiov tov K€<^aAov, 
b€.vT€pov 0€ Ota ilAaro)V09 tov aoffiov, to 0€ orj TpiTOV Ota 
TovSe TOV $€vov avhpoSf Trjv fikv <f}(ovriv oXiyov Seiv 
Papfidpov, Trjv Sc yvdifirjVy ws ey^fiai, ov Trdw a(w€T0V. 
ypd.<f}Oi §€ vvv ovSev tl t<dv irpoTepov y€ypa/JL/jL4v(i)V k^xnrr- 
Ofievos, fxrjSk d/xcX^oT^S tov koyov w^^rdXiWoyovvTO^. 
€t 8c cot 3o^€t Twv 7rpoT€p(av 8ta Auo-tov Kol nXaroivos 
iireo'TaX.fiivoyv TrXctw raSc cTvat, Io^tco cot TiKfiYjpLOV ws 
cvAoya d^to), ort ouk ajropS). Xoywv. trpoai^oLS 8* av tov 
vovv, €t Katva tc a/xa Kat 8tKata Xcyw. 

2. EotxaS) 2) Trai, irpo tov Xoyov TravTOS PovkeaOai 
fiaOtiv, Tl Si^oT€ ye firj ipiav iyto /xera Too-avnys o'lrovSiys 

* Ambr. ^«c. 

^ Possibly Lorium, twelve miles from Rome, where Pius 
had a villa. 

2 If the preceding sentence can be taken to imply that his 
mother Lucilla was away, this must refer to Faustina the 
elder, wife of Pius. 



love of you, who have written to me as you have ! 
What shall I do? I cannot cease. Last year it 
befell me in this very place,^ and at this very time, 
to be consumed with a passionate longing for my 
mother. This year you inflame that my longing. 
My Lady ^ greets you. 

Fronto to Marcus -Aurelius as Caesar 


Ar<lHscourse on Love^ 

1. This iirthe third letter, beloved Boy, that I am 
sending you on the same theme, the first by the 
hand of Lysias, the son of Kephalus, the second of 
Plato, the philosopher,^ and the third, indeed, by 
the hand of this foreigner, in speech little short 
of a barbarian, but as regards judgment, as I think, 
not wholly wanting in sagacity. And I write now 
without trenching at all upon those previous writings, 
and so do not you disregard the discourse as saying 
what has been already said. But if the present 
treatise seem to you to be longer than those which 
were previously sent through Lysias and Plato, let 
this be a proof to you that I can claim in fair words 
to be at no loss for words. But you must consider 
now whether my words are no less true than new. 

2. No doubt, O Boy, you will wish to know at the 
very beginning of my discourse how it is that I, who 
am not in love, long with such eagerness for the 

' This is the piece referred to ia the previous letter. 

* He is alluding to the speeches of Lysias and Socrates in 
Plato's Phaedrus. Philostratus {Ep. 6) sums up the opinions 
expressed in them thus : rh fihv /x^ ip&vri xap^C^tr^at, Au<r/ov 
8($|a* T^ $€ ipwyrif 8oKf7 n?^rcoyi. 



y\i\ofiaL Tuxciv wwep oi €p<0VT€^. tovto Stj col <f>paiTiii 
TrpcoTov oircDS t€ €;(€«. OX) fia At'a w€<^vic€v opav o^vrepov 
ovTotrl 6 irdw €pa(TTq<; ifiov tov firf iptavTO^, dAA' cywyc 
Tov aov kolWov^ ato'^<av>o/xat ovSevos rprov rCiv aAAo>v* 
hvvaifxrfv 8 av ciweiv on tovtov kol "ttoXv oKpipioT^pov. 
oirep 8c cTTt Toiv TrupcTTovTwv #cat twv €V fid\a iv ttoX- 
aiOTfijf. yvfivao'afievviiv opw/Licv, ovk i^ ofioLa^ a mas 
ravTov <rvfJLPaiv€LV. St^wcriv fxlv yap, o fxkv vtto votrov, 
o 8c VTTO yvfJLvaaiSiV' TOiavSc riva KOLfioi /ca/xciv -^ <v6<rov 

VTT tpiHTO^ (TVp.P^PriK€0 ' 

Arabr. 70 . . . . | . • • XctTOP T€ a/xa Kat oKiO'dov, 

3. 'AAA* OVK l/jboiye iv okiOpto Trpocrct, ov8€ cttI 
PXaprj TLvl OfifX-qaeiSj a AX' ctti iravri dyaSw. kol 
(O^eAoOvrac yap Kat 8tao'o>foKTat oi koAoi vtto twv /i,^ 
ipwvTiov fJLoXXov, w<nr€p ra <f>vTa vtto twv v8aT<ov. ou 
yap ipiacLV ovt€ 'irrjyai ovt€ irorajjioi twv </>VTajv, ctAAa 
7raptovT€S ovTco Srj kol Trapappcovrcs dv^civ aura Kal 
daAAciv jrapccTKCvacav. yprjpxiTa hr) ra fikv vtt* ifiov 
8i8d/x€va 8tKaai)9 ai' koXolt^s 8(upa, ra 8€ vtt €K€ivov 
AvTpa. yxaKT€0)v 8c TratScs fjiaciv Kat rots dcois rfStovs 
ctvat Twv OvaiSiV ra? ^apurrrjptovq rj tols /x€<Ai;(tovs' wv 

TttS /LtCV Ot CVrV^OUVTCS CTTt ^vAttK^ T€ Kat K7TyO"€t TWI' 

ayaSiov, ras 8c oi KaKtos irpdrrovTiq iwl aTroTpoTrJ twv 
8ctv<3v ^vovo'ii'. TaSc /jici/ ircpt T(ov crv/JLKJyepovTfov Kal 
t(ov (Toi re KaxctVo) d}<ti€\CfiijDV dpYjcBui. 

4. Et 8c TOVTO 8iKat()9 ^OTiv Tv;(€tv T^s Trapa o*ov 
P<yqO€ia% .... rfpfLau) (rv tovto .... avT<p tov IpoiTa 
ctckttJvo) Kat €fJLYf\avy(r(o ra? 0CTTa<Aas €7ra)8as> .... 
ai/atVtos .... Tii^os 8ta r^f avT<3 KaTaLKO<pov liriOvpr 

Ambr. 69 tav> . . . . | ttA^v ct ftiy Tt 6ff>6ti^ rf^LKrjKa^.^ 

^ The Codex is said to have ko/aoi icac ira/xot. The last three 
words are added by Dobson. 

^ At least two pages are lost. 

3 This mutilated passage covers eleven lines (Mai) or four- 
teen lines (du Rieu) of the Codex. 



very same things as lovers. 1 will tell you, therefore, 
first of all how this is. He who is ever so much a 
lover is, by Zeus, gifted with no keener sight than I 
who am no lover, but / can discern your beauty as 
well as anyone else, aye, far more accurately, I might 
say, even than your lover. But, just as we see in 
the case of fever patients, and those who have taken 
right good exercise in the gymnasium, the same 
result proceeds from different causes. They are both 
thirsty, the one from his malady, the other from his 
exercise. It has been my lot also to suffer some such 
malady from love 

3. But me you shall not come near to your ruin, 
nor associate with me to any detriment, but to your 
every advantage. For it is rather by non-lovers that 
beautiful youths are benefited and preserved, just as 
plants are by waters. For neither fountains nor 
rivers are in love with plants, but by going near 
them and flowing past them they make them bloom 
and thrive. Money given by me you would be right 
in calling a gift, but given by a lover a quittance. 
And the children of prophets say that to gods also 
is the thank-offering among sacrifices more accept- 
able than the sin-offering, for the one is offered by 
the prosperous for the preservation and possession 
of their goods, the other by the wretched for the 
averting of ills. Let this suffice to be said on what 
is expedient and beneficial both to you and to him. 

4. But if it is right that he should receive aid 
from you .... you set this on a firm basis .... 
you framed this love for him and devised Thessalian 
love-charms owing to his in- 
satiable desire .... unless you have manifestly 
done wrong. 



5. M^ dyvoci 3c Koi dStKT/^cts avros icat vfipif^ofitvos 
ov fi€rpLav rjSr) ravrrfv vfipiv, to arravras ciScvai t€ Kai 
<^av€pa)9 ovrcDS StaXcyca^ai, on cov cfiy oSc ipaarrj^' 
<l>Odv€i^ 8c Kal irpiv Tt twv TOtwvSc Trpa^ac rovvofia rrj^ 
irpa^€ta% xnrofjievtov. Kakovo'L y ovv o-c ot TrActorot twv 

TToXtToJv TOV TOuSc €p<jl)fJL€VOV CyO) Sc 0*01 Sui<f)v\di(t$} TOV- 

vofia KaOapov koX avvfipurrov, KaXos ydp, ov;(i 6 cpw- 

fJL€VOSf TO y€ KttT* C/AC OVOpMXTOrja'iK. Ct 8c 8^ TOVTW 0>S 

8t#caap Ttvl xp-^arirai, otl /jloXXov hrtOvfitiy tOTO) oTt ovk 
i-mOvfiti /xaXXov oXXa iTa/LKorcpov. Tag Sc fivtas fai TCts 
c/A7ri8as fidXioTa awoaoPovfitv koX awoiOovfJitOa, otl dvaiS- 
ecTara kol IrafxtoTaTa cTrwrerovTai. tovto fxkv ow Kai 
Orfpia iirLa-TaraL ^cvyciv fjuakiara irdintnv tows icvKiyyeras, 
icai Ttt imyva tovs Orjpevrd^* koI iravra 8^ Tct f«a 
TouTovs /AoXiora iicrpemrai rov^ piAXurra cvc8p€vovTas 
Kai SuaKovras* 

6. Et 8c Tts otcTttt €v8ofoTcpov jcttt ivTi/ioTepov etvai to 
KoXXos 8ta Tovs ipaaTa^, rov TravTos SuLfJLapTdv€i.. klvS- 
wcvcTC ^cv yap ot KaXol n-cpi tov koXXovs t^s eg tov9 
dicovovTas TTtoTCois 8ia tovs cptoKTa? <8ia/LtapTdvctv>,^ 8t* 
^/Lids 8c TOV9 dXXous fie/Saioripav rrjv S6(av K€KTrf(rO€, 
el yovv Tt5 Tojv fAriSiirti} ere ccopaicoTCDV irw^avotTO, 6?roi09 

Ambr. 84 Tis ctjiys r^v o^iv, ifiol fitv &v irLcrreva-ai CTraivowTt, 
fxaOtiiV oTi OVK cp<o* Tw 8c air i<rrq<r at, a>s ovk dXi^^o)? dXX* 
cpa>T(#ca)9 cwatvovvTt. 00*019 ftcv ouv XtLp-q Tts oroifJiaTos 
Koi at(r\o^ Koi d/iop<l>La irpoo'tfTTiVy cufatrro av cikotcos 
IpaxTTo.^ avroi9 ycVco-^af ov yap av vtt' dXXcov Oepawev- 

* Heindorf. 

^ As your relations with him imply. 


5. And do not ignore the fact that you are your- 
self wronged and subjected to no small outrage in 
this^ that all men know and speak openly thus of 
you, that he is your lover; and so, by anticipation 
and before being guilty of any such things,^ you 
abide the imputation of being guilty. Consequently 
the generality of the citizens call you the man's 
darling; but I shall keep your name unsullied and 
inviolate. For as far as I am concerned you shall be 
called Beautiful,^ not Darling, But if the other use 
this name as his by right because his desire is greater, 
let him know that his desire is not greater, but more 
importunate. Yet with flies and gnats the especial 
reason why we wave them away and brush them off 
is because they fly at us most impudently and im- 
portunately. It is this, indeed, that makes the wild 
beast shun the hunter most of all, and the bird the 
fowler. And, in fact, all animals avoid most those 
that especially lie in wait for and pursue them. 

6. But if anyone thinks that beauty is more glori- 
fied and honoured by reason of its lovers, he is totally 
mistaken. For you, the beautiful ones, through your 
lovers, run the risk of your beauty winning no cred- 
ence with hearers, but through us non-lovers you 
establish your reputation for beauty on a sure basis. 
At any rate, if anyone who had never seen you were 
to enquire after your personal appearance, he would 
put faith in my praises, knowing that I am not in 
love ; but he would disbelieve the other as praising 
not truthfully but lovingly. As many, then, as are 
maimed or ugly or deformed would naturally pray 
for lovers to be theirs, for they would find no others 

' Ka\6s was the recognised tribute to the victorious 
boy-athlete, and is constantly so used on vases. See also 
Aristoph. Vespae, 199. 



Ambr. 83 

Ambr. 74 

oivTO rj t5)V Kar iptariKrjv \vTTav koi ovayKrjv irpocriov- 
Tiav' o'v §€ €1/ T<3 TOi^Se KoAAci ovK tcO* on Kap7ro)(rct 
ttXcov \nr €p(o<v>Tos. ouSei/ yap lyTTOV hiovrai crov ot 
/x^ cpo>VT£S. d;(p£ioi Se ot cpacrral rots ovtws KaXots 
ouSci/ ^TTOi' 17 Tots StKaicDs iiraivovfiivois oi KoAaKCS. 
dp€Trj 8c 8^ Kal 8o^a Kal rip.*^ #cal Kep8o9 <^ai> Kocryio^ 
OaXdrTrj fikv vavrai kol KvP^pvr^ai koX Tpirjpap)(OL koI oi 
IfiTTopoi KoX 01 aA.X(i)s ^AcovTCs — ov fia Aca ScX^ti^cs, ots 
aSuj/arov to (^rjv on fxrj ev OaX a TT Yj , KaXots ^ 8c '^fiels ot 
TTyvaWws cTraii'ovvTcs Kat dcrTrafoftcvot, ouk epaorai, ois 
dfittoTOv av ctiy (TT€pofi€voLS Twv 7rai8tic(uv. cvpots 8' av 
CJcoTToiv irX.f.Co'Trjs dSoiias ainovs p.€V ovras tovs ipaards' 
dSo^tW 8c ^cuyctv arravTas ftcv ;(p^ tovs €V(f>povovvTasy 
fidkurra Bk rovs vcovs, ots c^rt fianporepov lyKutrirai to 
/caKOi/ €1/ dpx5 f^'O'Xpov pCov trpoairmav. 

7. 'HoTTcp ow tcpa)V Kttt Ovaia^, ovno /cat tov )3tov, 
Tovs dp\ofi€vovs cvXo-ytas | p.dXicrra 7rp<e7rct CTrt/xcAci- 


Tot9 Toiv . . . . cts ifrxdrrjv dho^iav 

d<ydvTa)v> .... tovtovs 8^ Toirs ■^(prjaTOVS cpaoras 
?^ov, ct Kttt .... ircyre koI .... )(prjfia ipaarais 

^ Kat yap ot cpcuvrcs 

8ta Twv T0ta)v8c <f>oprffJLdTiji}v ovk ckciVovs Tt/i.o)0"tv, dW* 
avTot dXa| fovcuo vrat tc Kat €7rt8€tKvuvTat, Kat ws ciiretv 
cfop^ovvTat Tov cpcoTa. OT^yypd^ct 8c, ws <^ao'tv, 6 o"os 
cpaoT^s cpcDTtKct Ttva ircpt o'ov o'uyypd/A/txaTa, ws touto) 
8^ /xdXto'Td o'C 8c\cdo-o)v Kat Trpoo-afo/ACVOS Kat atpijo'cov 

* Naber for Cod. kcLwous. 

2 Heindorf. 

3 The greater part of a page is lost. 



to court them but those who approach them under 
the madness and duress of love ; but jou^ such is 
your beauty, cannot reap any greater advantage from 
a lover. For non-lovers have need of you no less 
than they. And indeed, to those who are really 
beautiful, lovers are as useless as flatterers to those 
who deserve praise. It is sailors and steersmen and 
captains of warships and merchants, and those that 
in other ways travel upon it, who give excellence 
and glory and honour and gain and ornament to the 
sea — not, heaven help us, dolphins that can live only 
in the sea: but for beautiful boys it is we who 
cherish and praise them disinterestedly, not lovers, 
whose life, deprived of their darlings, would be un- 
livable. And you will find, if you look into it, that 
lovers are the cause of the utmost disgrace. But all 
who are right-minded must shun disgrace, the young 
most of all, since the evil attaching to them at the 
beginning of a long life will rest upon them the 

7. As, then, in the case of sacred rites and sacri- 
fices, so also of life, it behoves above all those who 
are entering upon them to have a care for their 
good name 

For indeed by such 

adornments lovers do them no honour, but are them- 
selves guilty of affectation and display, and, as it 
were, vulgarize the mysteries ^ of love. Your lover, 
too, as they say, composes some amatory writings 
about you in the hope of enticing you with this bait, 
if with no other, and attracting you to himself and 

^ cp. Lucian, De Saltat. 16: rohs i^ayop€^oyTas rh, fivirriipta 
i^opx*i<r9ai \4yov<ny ol iroWoL 



TO, 8c loTiv alcryrj koX ovt&q koX povj tis dicoXaoTos vrr' 
otarpov irp07r€/x7ro/xcr»7, oirotat Orjptuiv rj PocKr^fidrtov xnro 

IpCDTOS PpV\t$}fl€VO}V rj ^€/JL€TL^6vTiJ}V TJ fJLVKiJ}fX€Vt$}V Tf 

wpvofi€v<av» TO-vTOL^ €OLK€V TO, t5>v kpiavTtov acT/uiara. €i 
yovv €7riT/oei/rai9 (ravrov ^ tw ipacr^ yprjo'Bai ottov kol 


a'\o\rjv ovre eprjfxiav, aAAa Orjpiov SUrjv xnro Xvrrrjq €vBv 
ae toLTO ^ av koL PaCvtiv TrpoOvfAolro fJirjSev atSov/xcvos. 

8. TovTO tri TTpocrOel^ Karairava'a} tov koyov, on iravra 
&€wv Siopa Koi €/oya, ocra cs avOpdririov \p€iav re koX 
ripif/LV Kol (o^cXctav a^iirrat, Ta /i€V avrSiv Trdw Ka\ 
Trdvrrf Otla, y^v <f>'qp^i koX ovpavov koi rjkiov kol OdXarrav, 
vfjLV€Lv fi€V Kol Oavfid^€tv TTC^VKa/ACV, cpfiv 8c ou* icaA,<i)i/ 8c 
Ttvwv <^avXorcp(i>v ^at drtfiiOTcpas ftotpas tcti;;(17icoto)|', 
TOVTtDV ^81; <l}66vos Kol cpa)9 Kai f^Xos fcat i/Acpo? dTrrcrai. 

Ambr 78 Kal 01 /' rti^C9 K€p8ov^ IptafriVy ol ^ oif/iov av, 01 | 8c 
oivov. cv 8^ r^ rot(38c dpiO/ita icat fiepiSi KaOLorarai ro 
<aXXo9 VTTO Twv cpa)VT(ov, bfiOLov KcpSci Kttt oj/ro) Kttt fiiOrj' 
vrro 8c i7p,o)v twv ^av/AafdvTwv fiiv, fir) iptovrtov ii, ofioiov 
rjXito KOL ovpav^ kol yy kol OaXdrrri* to. yap rotavra 


9. Ev Tt (70t <j>pda'U} irpo^ ToJrot?, o #cat <rv Trpo^ Toi>s 
ctAAovs Xcywv '7rai8a9 7rt^ai/os ctvai 8d^cts. cticos 8c ac 17 
irapa firirpb^ rj rSiv dva6p€il/afi€vu)V firj dv^KOov civat on 
Twv avc/o)V ccTti/ Tt o or] tov i^Aiov cp^ Kai rraar^ei ra to)V 

^ The Codex has avr^y. 
^ Heindorf tbeb trov : Kaber l^x^iro, 


catching you ; but such things are a disgrace and an 
insult and a sort of licentious cry^ the outcome of 
stinging lust^ such as those of wild beasts and fed 
cattle, that from sexual desire bellow or neigh or low 
or howl. Like to these are the lyrics of lovers. If, 
therefore, you submit yourself to your lover to enjoy 
where and when he pleases, awaiting neither time 
that is fitting nor leisure nor privacy, then, like a 
beast in the frenzy of desire, will he make straight 
for you and be eager to go to it nothing ashamed. 

8. I will add but one thing before I conclude my 
discourse, that we are formed by nature to praise 
and admire, but not to love, all the gifts of the gods 
and their works that have come for the use and 
delight and benefit of men — those indeed of them 
which are wholly and in every way divine, I mean 
the earth and sky and sun and sea — while in the 
case of some other beautiful things of less worth, 
and formed to fulfil a less comely part, these at 
once are the subject of envy and love and emulation 
and desire. And some are in love with wealth, 
others again with rich viands, and others with 
wine. In the number and category of such is beauty 
reckoned by lovers, like wealth and viands and 
strong drink; but by us, who admire, indeed, but 
love not, like sun and sky and earth and sea, for 
such things are too good for any love and beyond its 

9. One thing more will I tell you, and if you will 
pass it on to all other boys, your words will seem 
convincing. Very likely you have heard from your 
mother, or from those who brought you up, that 
among flowers there is one that is indeed in love 
with the sun and undergoes the fate of lovers, lifting 



iptovrutVf StvariWovTo^ eiraxpoiifvov xal iropcvoficyov 
Kara(rTp€<f}6ix€yoVf Swovros 8c 7r€/otTpe7ro/u.cvov* oAX' ovSev 
y€ Tr\lov &Tro\av€i^ ovSc €v/i€V€a'T€pov Trct/oarai Sia tov 
ipona TOV rjkiov. aTLfiorarov yovv larXv ^vruxv /cat 
AuOwv ovT€ €is iopra^ovTiav OtiXias ovt€ crc^^avovs $€it}v rj 
avBpiSinnav TrapaXafifiavOfiivov, coiKa?, w Trat, to dvOos 
rovro tSciv iOtXeiy, dAA' lycoyc trot cTrtSci^a), <€i lfa»> T€t- 
^ou? * Trpos TOV 'lAorov aju,a afifjaa ^SaSiVai/tev .... 

Jgjpw/. Oraecae, 7 (Naber, p. 253). 
Ainbr. ISO I Have mi mafidster optime. 

and Vat. 121 ' ° ^ 

1. Age perge^ quantum libet^ comminare et 
argumentorum globis criminare : numquam tu tamen 
erasten tuum^ me dico, depuleris. Nee ego minus 
amare me Frontonem praedicabo^ minusque amabo^ 
quod tu tam variis tamque vehementibus sententiis 
adprobaris minus amantibus magis opitulandum ac 
largiendum esse. Ego hercule te ita amore depereo^ 
neque deterreor isto tuo dogmate^ ac si magis ens 
aliis non amantibus properus et promptus^ ego tamen 
vivus salvusque amabo. 

Ceterum quod ad sensuum densitatem^ quod ad 
inventiones ^ argutiarum^ quod ad aemulationis tuae 
felicitatem adtinet^ nolo quidem * dicere .<te> multo 
plaeentes illos sibi et provoeantes Atticos anteven- 

1 Cod. hw6\\vai. 

^ Naber reads f / tMs irphs for Cod. nxovs. 



itself up when the sun rises^ following his motions 
as he runs his course, and when he sets, turning itself 
about ; but it takes no advantage thereby, nor yet, 
for all its love for the sun, does it find him the 
kinder. Least esteemed, at any rate, of plants and 
flowers, it is utilized neither for festal banquets nor 
for garlands of gods or men. Maybe, O Boy, you 
would like to see this flower.^ Well, I will shew it 
you if we go for a walk outside the city walls as far 
as the Ilissus .... 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

AIL, my best oi masters. 

1. Go on, threaten as much as you please and 
attack me with hosts of arguments, yet shall you 
never drive your lover, I mean me, away ; nor shall 
I the less assert that I love Fronto, or love him the 
less, because you prove with reasons so various and 
so vehement that those who are less in love must be 
more helped and indulged. So passionately, by Her- 
cules, am I in love with you, nor am I frightened off by 
the law you lay down, and even if you shew yourself 
more forward and facile to others, who are non-lovers, 
yet will I love you while I have life and health. 

For the rest, having regard to the close packing 
of ideas, the inventive subtilties, and the felicity of 
your championship of your cause, I hardly like, in- 
deed, to say that you have far outstripped those 
Atticists, so self-satisfied and challenging, and yet I 

^ Possibly the sunflower {Girasole), or marigold ; see 
Shaks. SonnetSf xxv. 6. 

* Cod. i7ive7Uionis, which Buttm. keeps, and reads argtitiam. 

* For Cod. quicqicam. 



isse^ ac tamen nequeo quin dicam. Amo enim^ et 
hoc denique amantibus vere tribuendum esse censeo^ 
quod victoriis riav Iptofievtav magis gauderent. Vici- 
Ambr. 134 mus igitur^ vicimus, inquam. Num . . . . ^ | prae- 
stabilius^ sub laquearibus quam sub platanis^ intra 
pomerium quam extra murum^ sine deliciis quam 
ipsa proxime adsistente habitanteve Lai disputari? 
Nequeo reteiaelari utra re magis eaveam^ quod de 
Lai' ista orator saeculi huius dogmam tulerit an 
quod magister meus de Platone. 

2. Illud equidem non temere adiuravero : Si quis 
iste revera Phaeder fuit^ si umquam is a Soerate 
afuit^ non magis Socratem Phaedri desiderio quam 
me per istos dies^ dies dico ? menses inquam^ tui ad- 
spectus cupidine arsisse ?....* amet, nisi confestim 
tuo amore corripitur. Vale mihi maxima res sub 
caelo^ gloria mea. Sufiicit talem magistrum habuisse. 
Domina mea mater te salutat. 

Vat. 116, 
col 2, 
some 11. 

Ad M, Cms. iii. 7 (Naber, p. 44). 

Maoistro meo. 
Quom tu quiescis et quod commodum valetudini 
sit tu facis^ tum me recreas.^ Et libenter et otiose 
age. Sentio ergo: recte fecisti, quod brachio cur- 

^ A loss of two and a half lines. 

' For Hauler's reconstruction of the following passage, 
see Wien. Stud, xxxiv. pt. i. pp. 253-259 (1912). He reads 
delietis, for which J. I. Sheppard suggested deliciis. The 
words habilarUeve Lai are marKed by Hauler as doubtful. 



cannot but say so. For I am in love and this, if 
nothing else, ought, I think, verily to be allowed to 
lovers, that they should have greater joy in the 
triumph of their loved ones. Ours, then, is the 
triumph, ours, I say. Is it . . . . preferable to talk 
philosophy under ceilings rather than under plane- 
trees, within the city bounds than without its walls, 
scorning delights than with Lais herself sitting at 
our side or sharing our home ? Nor can I " make a 
cast " which to beware of more, the law which an 
orator^ of our time has laid down about this Lais, 
or my master's dictum about Plato. 

2. This I can without rashness affirm : if that 
Phaedrus of yours ever really existed, if he was ever 
away from Socrates, Socrates never felt for Phaedrus 
a more passionate longing than I for the sight of you 
all these days : days do I say ? months I mean .... 
unless' he is straightway seized with love of you. 
Farewell, my greatest treasure beneath the sky, my 
glory. It is enough to have had such a master. My 
Lady mother sends you greeting. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

Probably from Naphs 139 a.d. 
To my Master. 

When you rest and when you do what is good 
for your health, then am I, too, the better for it. 
Humour yourself and be lazy. My verdict, then, is : 
you have acted rightly in taking pains to cure your 

^ Orator and Tiiastcr seem both to refer to Fronto. We do 
not know what he may have said about Lais. 

* Sheppard suggests Lysia, * One line missing. 

* Brakman reads the Codex as recreav<i>. 

VOL. I. n 


ando operam dedisti. Ego quoque hodie a septima 
in lectulo nonnihil egi, nam ctVovas decern ferine 
expedivi. <In> nona te socium et optionem mihi 
sumo^ nam minus secunda fuit in persequendo mihi. 
Est autem quod in insula Aenaria intus lacus est : in 
Vat. 115 eo lacu alia | insula est, et ea quoque iuhabitatur. 
*Ev^£<i'8€ Tc>i'a €(#cova TTotor/Acv. Vale, dulcissime 
anima. Domina mea te salutat. 

Ad M. Caes, iii. 8 (Naber, p. 45). 

Domino meo. 

1. Imaginem quam te quaerere ais, meque tibi 
socium ad quaerendum et optionem sumis, num 
moleste feres si in tuo atque in tui patris sinu id 
fictum quaeram.'* Ut insula ^ in mari lonio sive 
Tyrrhenico sive vero potius in 'Hadriatico mari, seu 
quod aliud est mare, eius nomen maris addito — 
igitur ut ilia in mari insula [Aenaria] fluctus mari- 
timos ipsa accipit atque propulsat, omnemque vim 
classium praedonum beluarum procellarum ipsa per- 
petitur, intus autem in lacu aliam insulam protegit 
ab omnibus periculis ac difficultatibus tutam, omnium 
vero deliciarum voluptatumque participem — namque 
ilia intus in lacu insula aeque undis alluitur, auras 
salubres aeque recipit, liabitatur aeque, mare aeque 

^ Kluss. for Cod. ilia. It is impossible that Fronto should 
not have known where Aenaria was. 

* Referring to a letter not preserved. 

' Off Naples. It is mentioned in connection with Marius 
by Plutarch. 



arm.i I, too, have done something to-day since one 
o'clock on my couch, for I have been successful with 
nearly all the ten similes; in the ninth I call you 
in as my ally and adjutant, for it did not respond so 
readily to my efforts in dealing with it. it is the 
one of the inland lake in the island Aenaria;^ in 
that lake there is another island, it, too, inhabited. 
From this we draw a certain simile. Farewell, 
sweetest of souls. My Lady ^ greets you. 

Fronto to Marcus Aurelius as Caesar 

rp X -1 ? 139 A.D. 

lo my JLord. 

I. As to the simile, which you say you are 
puzzling over and for which you call me in as your 
ally and adjutant in finding the clue, you will not 
.take it amiss, will you, if 1 look for the clue 
to that fancy within your breast and your father's * 
breast? Just as the island lies in the Ionian or 
Tyrrhenian sea, or, maybe, rather in the Adriatic, or, 
if it be some other sea, give it its right name — as 
then that sea-girt island (Aenaria) itself receives and 
repels the ocean waves, and itself bears the whole 
brunt of attack from fleets, pirates, sea-monsters 
and storms, yet in a lake within protects another 
island safely from all dangers and difficulties, while 
that other nevertheless shares in all its delights 
and pleasures (for that island in the inland lake is, 
like the other, washed by the waters, like it catches 
the health-giving breezes, like it is inhabited, like it 

' Probably the mother of Marcus, to whom Fronto sends a 
greeting in the next letter. 

* His adopted father, the emperor Antoninus Pius. 


D 2 


prospectat — item pater tuas imperii Romani molestias 
ac difficultates ipse perpetitur, te tutum ^ intus in 
tranquillo sinu suo dignitatis gloriae bonorumque'^ 
omnium participem tutatur. Igitur hac imagine 
Vat. 122 multimodis uti potes ubi patri | tuo gratias ages, in 
qua oratione locupletissimum et copiosissimum te 
esse oportet. Nihil est enim quod tu aut honestius 
aut verius aut libentius in omni vita tua dieas quam 
quod ad ornandas patris tui laudes pertinebit. 
Postea ego quamcumque eUova huie ^ addidero, non 
aeque placebit tibi, ut haec quae ad patrem tuum 
pertinet : tam hoc scio quam tu novisti. Quam ob 
rem ipse aliam eUova nullam adiciam^ sed ration em 
qua tute quaeras ostendam. Tu quas eiKovag in 
eandem rem demonstrata ratione quaesiveris et 
inveneris, mittito mihi ut, si fuerint scitae atque 
concinnae, gaudeam et amem te.* 

2. lam primum illud scis ctKova ei rei adsumi ut 
aut ornet quid aut deturpet aut aequiparet aut de- 
minuat aut ampliet aut ex minus credibili credibile 
. efficiat. Ubi nihil eorum usus erit, locus cikoi/os non 
erit. Postea ubi re<i> propositae imaginem scribes, 
ut, si pingeres, insignia animadverteres eius rei cuius 
imaginem pingeres, item in scribendo facies. In- 
signia autem cuiusque rei multis modis eliges, ra 

* tutum . . . tutaivj' : query totuin or autem. 

* Another reading given in the margin of Cod. is konoruvi. 
' Cod. has hue. 

* These three words occur as an interlinear correction in 
the Codex after ostendam. Ehrenthal suggested their trans- 



looks out on the sea), so your father bears on his 
own shoulders the troubles and difficulties of the 
Roman empire while you he safeguards safely in his 
own tranquil breast, the partner in his rank and 
glory and in all that is his. Accordingly you can 
use this simile in a variety of ways, when you return 
thanks to your father,^ on which occasion you should 
be most full and copious. For there is nothing that 
you can say in all your life with more honour or 
more truth or more liking than that which concerns 
the setting forth of your father's praises. ^ Whatever 
simile I may subsequently suggest will not please 
you so much as this one which concerns your father. 
I know this as well as you feel it. Conse- 
quently I will not myself give you any other simile, 
but will shew you the method of finding them out 
for yourself. You must send me any similes you 
search out and find by the method shewn you for 
that purpose, that if they prove neat and skilful I 
may rejoice and love you. 

2. Now, in the first place, you are aware that a 
simile is used for the purpose of setting off a thing 
or discrediting it, or comparing, or depreciating, or 
amplifying it, or of making credible what is scarcely 
credible. Where nothing of the kind is required, 
there will be no room for a simile. Hereafter when 
you compose a simile for a subject in hand, just as, 
if you were a painter, you would notice the charact- 
eristics of the object you were painting, so must 
you do in writing. Now, the characteristics of a 
thing you will pick out from many points of view, 

^ For the honour of being made "Caesar" in 139. It 
could no doubt refer to the Consulship in 146, or the 
Tribunicia Potestas in 147 ; but these dates are too late. 

^ Marcus painted this portrait with a loving hand in his 
Tlumghts, i. 6, vi. 30. 



ojjioyfvrjj TO. ofJLOci^rj, ra oka, to. fJi^prj, tol tSta, to. 8ia<^opay 
Vat. 121 TO. dvTLK^Lfiiva, TO. irrofieva kol \ irapaKoXovSovvTa, ra 
ovo/Aara, to, avixP^p-qKora, to. crroi)(€ia, et fere omnia 
ex quibus argumenta sumuntur : de quibus plerum- 
que audisti^ quom ®€o^iJipov locos lirix^nprjfWTiiiv tract- 
aremus. Eorum si quid memoriae tuae elapsum est^ 
non inutile erit eadem nos retractare, ubi^ tempus 
aderit. In hac ctKove,^ quam de patre tuo teque 
depinxi^ cv tl tidv (rv^piPrjKOTiJiv lA-ajSov, to o/xolov rrjs 
do-^oActas Kttt T^9 aTToXavo-co)?. Nunc tu per hasce 
vias ac semitas, quas supra ostendi, quaeres quonam 
modo Aenariam commodissime venias. 

3. Mihi dolor cubiti baud multum sedatus est. 
Vale, Domine, cum eximio ingenio. Dominae meae 
matri tuae die salutem. T^v 8c 6\rjv riov cikovcov 
r€xyrjv alias diligentius et subtilius persequemur : 
nunc capita rerum adtigi.^ 

(Naber, p. 211.) 


Ambr. 240, | CaESARI SUO Fronto. 

col. 2 1. Plerique legentium forsan rem de titulo con- 

temnant, nihil <enim> serium potuisse fieri de fumo 
et pulvere : tu pro tuo excellenti ingenio profecto 
existimabis lusa sit opera ^ ista an locata. 

^ Schopen for Cod. detractare tihi. * So Cod. 

' This is followed in the Cod. Vat. by the letter, given 
above, which is found in Cod. 4«ibr. 136 as Epist. Grace. 6. 
* Plautine, 



the likenesses of kind^ the likenesses of form, the 
whole, the parts, the individual traits, the differ- 
ences, the contraries, the consequences and the 
resultants, the names, the accidents, the elements, 
and generally everything from which arguments are 
drawn, the point in fact so often dwelt upon when 
we were dealing with the commonplaces of the argu- 
ments of Theodorus.^ If any of them have slipped 
your memory, it will not be amiss for us to go over 
them afresh when time serves. In this simile, which 
I have sketched out about your father and you, I 
have taken one of the accidentals of the subject, the 
identity of the safety and the enjoyment. Now it 
remains for you, by those ways and paths which I 
have pointed out above, to discover how you may 
most conveniently come at your Aenaria. 

3. The pain in my elbow is not much better. 
Farewell, my Lord, with your rare abilities. Give 
my greeting to my Lady your mother. On another 
occasion we will follow out,^ with more care and 
exactness, the whole art of simile-making; now I 
have only touched upon the heads of it. 

Eulogy of Smoke and Dust 

Fronto to his own Caesar. 

1. The majority of readers may perhaps from 
the heading despise the subject, on the ground that 
nothing serious could be made of smoke and dust. 
You, with your excellent abilities, will soon see 
whether my labour is lost or well laid out. 

^ There were two rhetoricians of this name, one of Byzan- 
tium, the other of Gadara. The latter is probably meant. 

* We have more on the subject in a letter to Marcus's 
mother (Epist. Graec. 1>. 


2. Sed res poscere videtur de ratione scribeiidi 
pauca praefari, quod nullum huiuscemodi scriptum 
Romana lingua extat satis nobile^ nisi quod poetae in 
comoediis vel atellanis adtigerunt. Qui se eiusmodi 
rebus scribendis exercebit, crebras sententias con- 
quiret, easque dense conlocabit et subtiliter coniung- 

Anibr. 248 et, neque verba multa geminata supervacauea | in- 
ferciet; turn omnem sententiam breviter et scite 
concludet. Aliter in orationibus iudiciariis, ubi sedulo 
curamus ut pleraeque sententiae durius interdum et 
incautius^ finiantur. Sed contra istic laborandum 
est, ne quid inconeinnum et hiulcum relinquatur, 
quin omnia ut in tenui veste oris detexta et revi- 
mentis sint cincta. Postremo, ut novissimos in epi- 
grammatis versus habere oportet aliquid luminis, 
sententia clavo aliquo ^ vei fibula terminanda est. 

3. In primis autem sectanda est suavitas. Nam- 
que hoe genus orationis non capitis defendendi nee 
suadendae legis nee exercitus hortandi nee inflam- 
mandae contionis scribitur, sed facetiarum et volup- 
tatis.^ Ubique vero ut de re ampla et magnifica 
loquendum, parvaeque res magnis adsimilandae com- 
parandaeque. Summa denique in hoc genere orat- 
ionis virtus est asseveratio. Fabulae deum vel 
heroum tempestive inserendae ; item versus congru- 

^ For this incomtius and iiicuUius have been suggested. 
For the sense cp. Seneca, Ep. 114, ad 7ned. 
2 Frohner for Cod. clavi aliqua. 
' Nov^k supplies caiisa witli these genitives. 

^ The best of such nugalia that we possess is Lucian's on 
the Fly. Dio wrote one on the Gnat, and even Plato on 



2. But the subject seems to require a little to be 
said first on the method of composition, for no writ- 
ing of this kind of sufficient note exists in the Roman 
tongue,' except some attempts by poets in comedies 
or Atellane farces. Anyone who practises this kind of 
composition will choose out an abundance of thoughts 
and pack them closely and cleverly interweave them, 
but will not stuff in superfluously many duplicate 
words, nor forget to round off every sentence con- 
cisely and skilfully. It is different with forensic 
speeches, where we take especial care that many 
sentences shall end now and again somewhat 
roughly and clumsily. But here, on the contrary, 
pains must be taken that there should be nothing 
left uncouth and disconnected, but that everything, 
as in a fine robe, should be woven with borders and 
trimmed with edgings. Finally, as the last lines in 
an epigram ought to have some sparkle, so the sen- 
tence should be closed with some sort of fastening 
or brooch. 

3. But the chief thing to be aimed at is to please. 
For this kind of discourse is not meant as a speech 
for the defence in a criminal trial, nor to carry a 
law, nor to hearten an army, nor to impassion the 
multitude, but for pleasantry and amusement. The 
topic, however, must everywhere be treated as if it 
were an important and splendid one, and trifling 
things must be likened and compared to great ones. 
Finally, the highest merit in this kind of discourse 
is an attitude of seriousness. Tales of gods or men 
must be brought in where appropriate ; so, too, per- 

Fever. There were others on Gout, Blindness, Deafness, 
and Baldness, cp. also Augustine, De Vera Relig. Ixxvii., 
who says that some had written the praises of ashes and 
dung verissime atque icberrime, 



entes et proverbia accommodata et non inficete con- 
ficta mendacia^ dum id mendacium argumento aliquo 
lepido iuvetur. 

4. Cum primis autem difficile est argumenta ita 
disponere ut sit ordo eorum rite eonnexus. Quod 

Arabr. 247 ille | Plato Lysiam culpat in Phaedro, sententiarum 
ordinem ab eo ita temere permixtum, ut sine ullo 
detrimento prima in novissimum locum transferantur^ 
et novissima in primum^ eam culpam ita devitabimus^ 
si divisa generatini argumenta nectemus^ non sparsa 
nee sine discrimine aggerata^ ut ea quae per saturam 
feruntur, sed ut praecedens sententia in sequentem 
laciniam aliquam porrigat et oram praetendat ; ubi 
prior sit finita sententia, inde ut sequens ordiatur ; 
ita enim transgredi potius videmur quam transilire. 

5. Verum hi non .... Variatio vel cum detri- 
mento aliquo gratior est in oratione quam recta 
continuatio ^ . . . . Jocularia austere, fortia h<ilari>- 

Ambr. 254 tcr dicenda ^ | . . modo dulce illud in- 

corruptum sit et pudicum, Tusculanum et lonicum, 
id est Catonis et Herodoti.^ .... In omni re 
facilius est rationem dicendi nosse quam vim agendi 

Ambr. 253 obtinerc ^ . . . . re sic est qui | sicuti bene velle et 
bene precari, quae res voce animoque sine opibus 

6. Igitur ut quisque se benignissimum praestabit, 
ita is plurimos laudabit, nee tantum eos, quos alii 
quoque laudibus ante decoraverint, verum conquiret 

* From the margin of the Codex. ^ Ibid. ' Ihid. * Ihid. 

* This sentence is repeated in the margin of the Codex, 
but with opere for opibus. Should not sictit be sci-at ? 



tinent verses and proverbs that are applicable, and 
ingenious fictions, provided that the fiction is helped 
out by some witty reasoning. 

4. One of the chief difficulties, however, is so to 
marshal our materials that their order may rest on 
logical connexion. The fault for which Plato blames 
Lysias in the Phaedrus, that he has mingled his 
thoughts in such careless confusion that the first 
could change places with the last and the last with 
the first without any loss, is one which we can only 
escape if we arrange our arguments in classes, and so 
concatenate them, not in a scattered way and in- 
discriminately pjled together like a dish of mixed 
ingredients, but so that the preceding thought in 
some sort overlaps the subsequent one and dovetails 
into it ; that the second thought may begin where 
the first left off; for so we seem to step rather than 
jump from one to the other. 

5. But these do not .... Variety even with 
some sacrifice is more welcome in the discourse than 
a correct continuity .... Merry things must be 

severely said, brave things with a smile 

only let that sweetness be untainted and chaste, of 
Tusculan and Ionian strain, that is in the style of 
Cato or Herodotus .... In every case it is easier 
to master the method of speaking than to possess 
the power of performing .... to wish (others) 
well and to pray for their welfare, things which are 
compassed by voice and mind without aid. 

6. Accordingly the more generously disposed a 
man shews himself, the more persons will he praise, 
nor those only whom others before him decked with 
praises ; but he will choose out gods and men that 



deos et homines a ceterorum laudibus relictissimos, 
ibique signum benignitatis expromet ; ut agricola 
agrum intactum si conserat^ laboriosus est ; sacerdos 
si apud fanum desertum et avium sacrificet, religiosus 

7. Laudabo igitur deos infrequentes quidem a 
laudibus^ verum in usu cultuque humano frequentis- 
simos^ Fumum et Pulverem, sine quis neque asae ^ 
neque foci nee viae, quod volgo aiunt, nee semitae 
usurpantur. Quodsi quis hoc ambigit, habendusne 
sit Fumus in numero deorum, cogitet Ventos quoque 
in deum numero haberi, quaeque sunt fumo similli- 
mae. Nebulas Nubesque putari deas et in caelo 
conspici et, ut poetae ferunt, amiciri deos nubibus, 
et lovi lunonique cubantibus nubem ab arbitris 
obstitisse, quod<que> unice^ divinae naturae pro- 
prium est, nee fumum manu prehendere nee solem 
queas, neque vincire neque verberare neque detinere 
Knd of neque, vel minimum rimae si dehiscat,^ excludere * | 


(xxxvii, or 


(Naber, p, 214.) 


Quat. xxxix 

<Cae8ari suo Fronto>. 


Nam qui nimis anxie munia conficiunt parum amic- 
Anibr. 242 itiae confidunt ^ . | . . Agitavi laudes 

^ An Umbrian form for ara. 

* Alan for Cod. nuric ; query sane. 

^ Heind. for Cod. deposcat. * There is a large gap here, 

* From the margin of the Codex, 



have been most passed by in the praises of others^ 
and there give proofs of his generous disposition, 
just as a farmer shews .his industry, if he sows a 
field never before ploughed, and a priest his de- 
votion, if he sacrifices at a desolate and inaccessible 

7. I will therefore praise gods who are indeed not 
much in evidence in the matter of praises, but are 
very much in evidence in the experience and life of 
men. Smoke and Dust, without whom neither altars, 
nor hearths, nor highways, as people say, nor paths 
can be used. But if any cavil at this, whether 
Smoke can be counted among gods, let him consider 
that Winds too are held to be gods and though they 
can scarcely be distinguished from Smoke, Clouds 
and Mists, are reckoned goddesses and are seen in 
the sky, and according to the poets gods " are clad 
in clouds," ^ and a cloud shielded from onlookers 
Jove and Juno as they couched.^ Again, and this is 
a property peculiar to the divine nature, you cannot 
grasp smoke in the hand any more than sunlight, 
nor bind nor beat nor keep it in nor, if there be the 
slightest chink open, shut it out 

Eulogy of Negligence 

Fronto to his own Caesar. 


For those, who are too anxious in the performance of 

their duties, rely too little on friendship 

.... I have taken upon myself to indite the 

1 Horace, Od. i. 2, 31 
* Homer, //. xiv. 350. 



Ambr. 238, 

Ambr. 220 

Neglegentiae conscribere, quas cur nondum etiam 
[etiam id] conscripserim^ ut res est, id quoque 

neglego ^ | | . . . . 

temperantia coercetur. Volgo etiam laudata indulg- 
entia promptam peccatis hominutn veniam dare : nisi 
delicta facile neglegas,^ parum clementer indulgeas. 

2. Quod autem quis intutam et expositam periculis 
neglegentiam putet, mihi omne contra videtur, multo 
multoquc diligentiam magis periculis obnoxiam esse. 
Namque neglegentiae baud quisquam magno opere 
insidias locat, existimans etiam sine insidiis semper 
et ubique et uti libeat neglegentem hominem in 
proclivi fore fallere : adversus diligentes vero et 
circumspectos et excubantes^ opibus fraudes et 
captiones et insidiae parantur. Ita ferme neglegentia 
contemptu tutatur, diligentia astu oppugnatur. Et 
erratis neglegentia venia paratior datur et benefactis 
gratior* gratia habetur. Nam praeter opinionem 
gratum est ceterarum rerum indiligentem bene 
facere in tempore baud neglexisse. 

3. lam illud a poetis saeculum aureum memoratum, 
si cum animo reputes, intellegas neglegentiae sae- 
culum fuisse, quom ager neg|lectus fructus uberes 
ferret, omniaque utensilia neglegentibus nullo neg- 
otio suppeditaret. Hisce argumentis neglegentia 
bono genere nata, dis accepta, sapientibus probata. 

* Two pages are lost. * Mai for Co<l. intellegas. 
' Scbopen for Cod. exuUantes. 

* Heind. for Cod. gratiis. 



praises of Negligence, and the reason why I have 
never to this day indited them^ that too, as the sub- 
ject demands, 1 neglect to give 

is checked by self-control. Generally 

too is the mildness praised, which readily pardons 
the sins of men, but unless you good-naturedly 
neglect offences, you are not likely to deal over 
mildly with them. 

2. A man may think negligence to be unsafe and 
exposed to dangers, but my view is clean contrary, 
that it is diligence which is much much more liable 
to perils. For there is not one who takes the 
trouble to lay traps for negligence, judging that 
even without a trap it would be easy work to take in 
a negligent man always and everywhere and at 
pleasure : against the diligent, however, and the 
wide-awake and those who watch over their wealth, 
wiles and deceptions and traps are made ready. So 
general is it for negligence to be safeguarded by 
contempt, diligence to be assailed by craft. Mistakes 
too, committed through negligence are more readily 
pardoned and for kindnesses so done a more gracious 
gratitude is felt. For that a man in all other 
respects neglectful should not liave neglected to do 
a kindness in season is from its unexpectedness 

3. Now the famous golden age celebrated by the 
poets, if you think over it, you will find to have 
been the age of negligence, when the earth neglected 
bore rich crops and, without trouble taken, provided 
all the requisites of life to those who neglected it. 
These arguments shew that negligence comes of 
good lineage, is pleasing to the gods, commended by 



virtutum particeps, indulgentiae magistra^ tuta ab 
insidiis grataque benefactis, excusata in erratis, et ad 
postremum aurea declarata. Multa^ de Favorini 
nostri pigmentis fuci quisnam appingere <pro>hibet ? 
Ut quaeque mulier magis facie freta est, ita facilius 
cutem et capillum neglegere ; plerisque autem, ut 
sese magno opere exornent, diffidentia fonnae dilig- 
entiae illecebras creari. 

4. Myrtum buxumque ceteraque tonsilia arbusta 
atque virgulta summa diligentia et studio radi rigari 
comi solita, humi reptare aut ibidem baud procul a 
solo cacumina erigere : at illas intonsas abietes 
neglectasque piceas caput aemulum nubibus abdere.^ 

5. Non aeque diligentes ad quaerendum victum et 
comparandum cibum leones ut formicas esse, texendi 
vero araneas diligentiores esse quam Penelopam 
ullam vel Andromacham. Et omnino tenuibus in- 

Ambr. 280 geniis et . . . . | et voluntariis quod 

Ambr. 248, vel praecipuum . . . . | j . . . . 


. . . .^ statuit quern admodum .... Quota, oro 
te, portio Lucullanae .... caesam aureo'. . . . 

^ Mai read the Codex, but doubtfully, as muUa certej and 
after appingere \vide\licet. 

* From the margin for addere, which is in the text of Cod. 

^ The gap to statuit is half a column, from there to aureo 
about thirteen lines, and eleven lines are lost after aureo. 



the wise, has her share of virtues, is the teacher of 
mildness, shielded from traps, welcomed in well- 
doing, pardoned in faults, and, finally, pronounced 
golden. Who pray prevents us from painting-in 
much colour from the paint-box of our friend 
Favorinus ^ ? The more a woman relies on lier 
looks, the more easily does she neglect her com- 
plexion and her coiffure ; but with most women 
it is because they distrust their beauty that all 
the alluring devices which care can discover are 
brought into being that they may particularly adorn 

4. The myrtle and the box and all the other 
shrubs and bushes that submit to the shears, accus- 
tomed as they are to being most diligently and 
carefully pruned, watered, and trimmed, creep on 
the ground, or raise their tops but little over the 
soil where they stand ; but those unshorn firs and 
neglected pines hide their aspiring heads amid the 

5. Lions are not so diligent in seeking their food 
and procuring their prey as ants, while spiders are 
more diligent in weaving than any Penelope or 
Andromache. And altogether insignificant abilities 

How small 

a part, I ask you, of the Lucullan 

^ A philosopher and rhetorician of Aries, a friend of the 
emperor Hadrian and of Herodes Atticus and Fronto. 


VOL. 1. E 


Ad M. Cats. iii. 9 (Naber, p. 47). 

Vat. 119 I Have mi magister optime. 

1. Scio natali die quoiusque pro eo^ quoius is dies 
natal is est^ amicos vota suscipere ; ego tamen^ quia 
te iuxta ac^ memet ipsum amo^ volo hoc die tuo 
natali mihi bene precari. Deos igitur omnes^ qui 
usquam gentium vim suam praesentem promptamque 
hominibus praebent, qui vel somniis vel mysteriis vel 
medicina vel oraculis usquam iuvant atque pollent^ 
eorum deorum unumquemque mihi votis advoco, 
meque pro genere cuiusque voti in eo loco constituo^ 
de quo deus ei r^i praeditus facilius exaudiat. 

2. Igitur iam primum Pergami arcem ascendo et 
Aesculapio supplico^ uti valetudinem magistri mei 
bene temperet vehementerque tueatur. Inde Athen- 
as degredior^ Minervam genibus nixus obsecro et oro^ 
si quid ego umquam litterarum sciam^ ut id potis- 
simum ex Frontonis ore in pectus meum commigret. 
Nunc redeo Romam deosque viales et permarinos^ 
votis imploro^ uti mihi omne iter tua praesentia 
comitatum sit^ neque ego tam saepe tam saevo desid- 

vat. 114 erio fatiger. Postremo omnes omnium | populorum 
praesides deos^ atque ipsum lucum^ qui Capitolium 
montem strepit^f ^ quaeso tribuat hoc nobis^ ut istum 
diem quo mihi natus es tecum firmato^ laetoque 
concelebrem. Vale mi dulcissime et carissime mag- 
ister. Rogo^ corpus cura, ut quom venero videam 
te. Domina mea te salutat. 

* Cod. avi. '^ Klussmann for Ccd. protnarinos, 

* Haupt suggests saepit. * Cod. Jimw tc. 

^ Especially worshipped by Pius and Marcus. 
* These words point to an early letter. 


Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

rj U * *• 4. ? 140-143 A.D. 

Hail, my best or masters. 

1. 1 know that on everyone's birthday his friends 
undertake vows for him whose birthday it is. I, 
however, since I love you as myself, wish to offer up 
on this day, which is your birthday, hearty prayers 
for myself. I call, therefore, with my vows to hear 
me each one of all the Gods, who anywhere in the 
world provide present and prompt hislp for men; 
who anywhere give their aid and shew their power 
in dreams or mysteries, or healing, or oracles ; and I 
place myself according to the nature of each vow 
in that spot where the god who is invested with 
that power may the more readily hear. 

2. Therefore I now first climb the citadel of the 
God of Pergamum and beseech Aesculapius ^ to bless 
my master's health and mightily protect it. Thence 
I pass on to Athens and, clasping Minerva by her 
knees, I entreat and pray that, if ever I know aught 
of letters, this knowledge may find its way into my 
breast from the lips of none other than Fronto. ^ 
Now I return to Rome and implore with vows the 
gods that guard the roads and patrol the seas that in 
every journey of mine you may be with me, and I be 
not worn out with so constant, so consuming a desire 
for you. Lastly, I ask all the tutelary deities of all 
the nations, and the very grove, whose rustling fills 
the Capitoline Hill, to grant us this, that I may keep 
with you this day, on which you were born for me, 
with you in good health and spirits. Farewell, my 
sweetest and dearest of masters. I beseech you, 
take care of yourself, that when I come I may see 
you. My Lady greets you. 

1, 9 


Ad M. Caes, iii. 10 (Naber, p. 48). 

Domino meo. 

Omnia nobis prospera sunt, quom tu pro nobis 
optas, neque enim quisquam dignior alius te, qui a 
dis quae petiit impetret ; nisi quod, ego quom pro te 
precor, nemo alius te dignior est pro quo impetretur. 
Vale, domine dulcissime. Dominam saluta. 

Ad M. Caes. iii. 1 (Naber, p. 40). 

<Caesari suo Fronto.> 
Vat. 126 : .... <oratio nisi ffravitate>^ I verborum honest- 

Quat.vii. ® 'it-.. 

begins atur, fit plane impudens atque impudica. Denique 
idem tu, quom in senatu vel in contione populi dic- 
endum fuit, nullo verbo remotiore usus es,^ nulla 
figura obscura aut insolenti : ut qui scias eloquentiam 
Caesaris tubae similem esse debere, non tibiarum, in 
quibus minus est soni, plus difficultatis. 

Ad M. Caes. v. 59 (Naber, p. 92). 

Vat. 109, I Have mi magister optime. 

Egone ut studeam quom tu doleas, praesertim 
quom mea causa doleas ? Non me omnibus incom- 
modis sponte ipse adfiictem ? Merito hercule. Quis 

col. 2 

^ Added by Mai. 

'^ This possibly points to a later date than 140-143. 



Fronto to Marcus Aurelius as Caesar 

rp T J ? 140-143 A.D. 

lo my Lord. 

All is well with us since your wishes are for us, 

for there is no one who deserves more than you to 

win from the Gods fulfilment of his prayers, unless I 

should rather say that, when I pray for you, there is 

no one who deserves more than you the fulfilment of 

prayers offered on your behalf. Farewell, most sweet 

Lord. Greet my. Lady. 

Fronto to his own Caesar. ~ ^' ' 

.... unless speech is graced by dignity of lan- 
guage, it becomes downright impudent and indecent. 
In fine you too, when you have had to speak in the 
Senate or harangue the people, have never used a 
far-fetched word,^ never an unintelligible or unusual 
figure, as knowing that a Caesar's eloquence should 
be like the clarion not like the clarionet, in which 
there is less resonance and more difficulty. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

rr I ^ r 1. 9 ? 140-143 A.D. 

Hail, my best of masters. -^ 

What, am I to study while you are in pain, 
above all in pain on my account } Shall I not of 
my own accord punish myself with every kind of 
penance? It were only right, by Hercules. For 

^ cp. Thoughts, viii. 30, and below, Ad Ant. i. 1. 
■■* This would seem to be an early letter, in spite of its 
position in the Codex. 



enim tibi alius dolorem genus^ quern scribis nocte 
proxima auctum^ quis alius eum suscitavit^ nisi Cen- 
tumcellae, ne me dieam ? Quid igitur faeiam^ qui 
Vat. 84 nee te video et tanto angore | discrucior ? Adde eo 
quod etiamsi libeat studere^ iudicia prohibent^ quae^ 
ut dicunt qui sciunt, dies totos eximent.^ Misi tamen 
hodiemum yvtofirjv et nudustertianum locum com- 
munem. Heri totum diem in itinere adtrivimus. 
Hodie difficile est ut praeter vespertinam yvdyfjLrfv 
quicquam agi possit. Nocte^ inquis^ tam longa dormis? 
Et dormire quidem possum^ nam sum multi sonmi ; 
sed tantum frigoris est in cubiculo meo^ ut manus 
vix exseri possit. Sed re vera ilia res maxime mihi 
animum a studiis depulit^ quod^ dum nimium litteras 
amo^ tibi incommodus apud Portum^ fui^ ut res 
ostendit. Itaque valeant omnes Porcii et Tullii et 
Crispi, dum tu valeas, et te vel sine libris firmum 
tamen videam. Vale, praecipuum meum gaudium, 
magister dulcissime. Domina mea te salutat. Tvu}fjLas 
tres et locos communes mitte. 

(Naber, p. 237.) 

Amhr. 190, I M. FroNTONIS ArioN 

eol. 2 

1. Arion Lesbius, proinde quod Graecorum me- 
moria est, cithara et dithyrambo primus, Corintho, 

^ The reading of the margin of Cod. for text exhibent 
* So m^ of Cod., but corrected to Porciumy say a Mai. 

* On the coast of Etruria (now Civita Vecchia), 47 miles 
from Rome. Pius inherited the magnificent villa built there 
bj' Trajfan. ^ i,e. for the purpose of writing or study. 



who else brought on that pain in the knee^ which 
you write was worse last night, who else if not Cen- 
tumcellae,^ not to mention myself? What then shall 
I do, who cannot see you and am racked with such 
anxiety ? Besides, however much I might be minded 
to study, the courts forbid it, which, as those say who 
know, will take up whole days. Still I send you 
to-day's maxim and the day-before-yesterday*s com- 
monplace. The whole day yesterday we spent on 
the road. To-day it is hard to find time for anything 
but the evening maxim. Do you sleep, say you, the 
livelong night ? Aye, I can sleep, for I am a great 
sleeper; but it is so cold in my room that I can 
scarcely put my hand outside the bed-clothes.^ But 
in good sooth what most of all put my mind off 
study was the thought that by my undue fondness 
for literature ^ I did you an ill turn at the Harbour,* 
as the event shewed. And so farewell to all Catos 
and Ciceros and Sallusts, as long as you fare well 
and I see you, though with never a book, established 
in health. Farewell, my chief joy, sweetest of mas- 
ters. My Lady greets you. Send me three maxims 
and commonplaces. 

Marcus Fronto's Arion^ 

? 140-143 A.D. 

1. Arion of Lesbos, according to Greek tradition 
foremost as player on the lyre and as dithyrambist, 

' Possibl}'^ Fronto had brought Marcus some books from 
Rome. * Centumcellae. 

* Fronto follows Herodotus, as Gellius also professes to do. 
Fronto probably intended this piece to be a model of narrat- 
ive style for his pupil. It seems to be of the matter-of-fact 
style {siceum genuf) for which Fronto was celebrated. 



ubi frequens incolebat, secundum quaestum pro- 
fectus, magnis divitiis per oram Siciliae atque Italiae 
paratis ^ Corinthum Tarento regredi parabat. Socios 
navales Corinthios potissimum delegit ; eorum navem 
audacter re bona maxima^ onerat. Nave in altum 
provecta cognovit socios, quae^ veherent cupidos 
potiri, necem sibi machinari. Eos precibus fatigat 
aurum omne ipsi* haberent, unam sibi animam sin- 
Ambr. 166 erent. Postquam id frustra | orat, aliam tamen ve- 
niam impetravit, in exitu vitae quantum possit ^ can- 
taret. Id praedones in lucro duxere, praeter spolia 
summum artificem audire, cuius vocem praeterea 
nemo umquam post ilia auscultaret. Ille vestem 
induit auro intextam itemque citharam insignem. 
Turn pro puppi aperto maxime atque edito loco 
constitit, sociis inde consulto per navem ceteram 
dispersis. Ibi Arion studio impenso cantare orditur 
scilicet mari et caelo artis suae supremum com- 
memoramentum. Carminis fine cum verbo in mare 
desilit : delphinus excipit, sublimem avehit, navi 
praevortit, Taenaro exponit, quantum delphino fas 
erat, in extimo litore. 

2. Arion inde Corinthum proficiscitur : et homo 
et vestis et cithara et vox incolumes. Periandrum 
regem Cprinthium, cui per artem cognitus acceptus- 
que diu fuerat, accedit ; ordine memorat rem gestam 
in navi et postea in mari. Rex homini credere, 
miraculo addubitare, navem et socios navales dum 

^ NovAk partis. 

* Heind. for Coil, maxime {cp. Anl. Gell. xvi. 19, also of 
Arion, re bona multa). 

' Eussner for Corl. qui. But Mai says potiri may be auri 
in the Cod. 

* For Cod. sibi, ^ Cod. pomct. 



setting out from Corinth, where he constantly so- 
journed, in pursuit of gain, after amassing great riches 
in the coast-towns of Sicily and Italy, prepared to 
make his way home from Tarefhtum to Corinth. For 
his ship's crew he chose Corinthians by preference, 
and lK)ldly freighted their ship with his immense 
gains. When the ship was well out at sea he realized 
that the crew, coveting the wealth which they carried, 
were plotting his death. He wearied them with 
prayers to take all his gold for themselves, but leave 
him his life alone. When that boon was denied 
him, he was yet granted another grace, in taking 
farewell of life to sing as much as he would. The 
pirates put it down as so much to the good that over 
and above their booty they should hear a consummate 
artist sing, to whose voice moreover no one should 
ever thereafter listen. He donned his robe em- 
broidered with gold, and withal his famous lyre. 
Then he took his stand before the prow in the most 
open and elevated place, the crew being afterwards 
intentionally scattered over the rest of the ship. 
There Arion, exerting all his powers, began to sing, 
for sea and sky, look you, the last reminder of his 
skill. His song ended, with a word on his lips he 
sprang into the sea : a dolphin received him, carried 
him on his back, outstripped the ship, landed him 
at Taenarus as near the shore as a dolphin might. 

2. Thence Arion made his way to Corinth, man and 
robe and lyre and voice all safe ; presented himself 
before Periander, the king of Corinth, who had long 
known him and esteemed him for his skill ; recounted 
in order what had happened on the ship and subse- 
quently in the sea. The king believed the man but 
did not know what to think of the miracle, and 



reciperent opperiri. Postquam cognovit portum in- 
vectos, sine tumult u acciri ^ iubet ; voltu comi verbis 
lenibus percontatur, num quidnam super Arione 
Lesbio comperissent. Illi facile respondent Tarenti 
Arnbr. 165 | vidissc fortunatissimum inortalem secundo rumore 
aur<um> quaerere, <artemque> esse <cithara>2 can- 
tare ; quo diutius amore et lucro et laudibus retineri. 
Quom haec ita dicerent, Arion inrupit <salvos illaes- 
usque^ ita ut in puppi> steterat cum veste auro 
intexta et cithara insigni. Praedones inopina<to 
visu> consternati sunt,* neque quicquam post ilia ne- 
gare aut non credere aut deprecari ausi sunt. Del- 
phini facinus <ad Taenarum testatur^> delphino 
residens homo parva figura atque ut argumento 
magis quam simulacro composita. 

Ad M. Caes, ill. 2 (Naber, p. 40). 
Vat. 126, I AuRELius Caesar Frontoni suo salutem. 

toward end ' 

of col. 1 Saepe te mini dixisse scio ® quaerere te quid 

maxime faceres gratum mihi. Id tempus nunc adest : 

^ Naber for Cod. accipi {cp. Herod. K\ri04pTa5). 

^ Mai. He reads pretiogiie for artemgue. Brakman prefers 

^ I have added these words, which just fill the gap ; or 
80spes iwolumisque would stand equally well. 

* For Cod. cunif Naber turn. 

* Cod. visitur (Mai). * Query sets. 

^ Or possibly " love of his art." 

2 This and the next four letters refer to a trial at Rome, 
in which the famous Greek rhetorician, Herodes Atticus, on^ 



waited for the return of ship and crew. When he 
learnt that they had put into harbour^ he gave orders 
for their being summoned without any excitement ; 
questioned them with a pleasant countenance and 
gentle words as to whether they had any news of 
Arion the Lesbian. They answered glibly that they 
had seen that most fortunate of men at Tarentum 
making golden profits and applauded by all, his pro- 
fession being to sing to the lyre ; and that his stay 
was prolonged by reason of his popularity,^ his profits, 
and his praises. As they were saying this, Arion 
sprang in safe and sound, just as he had stood on the 
ship's stern with his gold -embroidered robe and his 
famous lyre. The pirates were dumbfounded at the 
unexpected sight, nor did they thereafter attempt 
any denial or disbelief or exculpation. The dolphin's 
exploit is recorded by a statue set up at Taenarus 
of a man seated on a dolphin, small in size 
and executed as a subject-piece rather than as a 

? 140-143 A.D. 

AuRELius Caesar to his own Fronto greeting.^ 
It is a fact that you have often said to me. What 
can I do to give you the greatest pleasure ? Now is the 

of Marcus's teachers and his friend, was accused by the 
Athenians of various crimes. Their principal spokesman was 
Demostratus, who is mentioned again, Ad Ver. ii. 9. Of the 
circumstances we only know what the Letters tell us. But a 
very similar accusation was l)rought against him nearly 
thirty years later (see Philostratus, Vit. Soph. p. 242, 
Kayser). Herodes must have been honourably acquitted on 
the present occasion, as he was made consul in 14.3. The 
trial, one must suppose, preceded the consulship, as he could 
hardly have been elected to it with such accusations hanging 
over him. 



nunc amorem erga te meum augere potes, si augeri 
potest. Adpropinquat cognitio, in qua homines non 
modo oration em tuam benigne audituri, sed indign- 
ationem maligne spectaturi videntur. Neque ullum 
video qui te in hac re monere audeat. Nam qui 
minus amici sunt malunt te inspectare inconstantius 
agentem ; qui autem magis amici sunt^ metuunt ne 
adversario tuo amiciores esse videantur, si te ab ac- 
cusatione eius propria tua abducant. Tum autem, si 
quod tu in eam rem dictum elegantius meditatus es, 
per silentium dictionem auferre tibi non sustinent. 
Vat. 125 Ideo.^ sive I tu me temerarium consultorem sive 
audacem puerulum sive adversario tuo benivolen- 
tiorera esse existimabis, non propterea quod rectius 
esse arbitrabor, pedetemptius tibi consulam. Sed 
quid dixi consttlavi ? qui id a te postulo et magno 
opere postulo et me, si impetro, obligari tibi repro- 
mitto. Sed - dices Quid I si lacessitus fuero, ?ion eum 
simili dido remunerabo ? At ex eo tibi maiorem 
laudem quaeres, si nee lacessitus quicquam res- 
ponderis, Verum si prior fecerit, respondenti tibi 
utcumque |H>terit ignosci : ut autem non inciperet, 
postulavi ab eo et impetrasse me credo. Utrumque 
enim vestrum pro suis quemque mentis diligo^ et 
seio ilium quidem in avi mei P. Qilvisii domo edu- 
eatuui,^ me autem apud te eruditum. Propterea 
maxima m euram in animo meo habeo^ uti quam 

* Khivnthftl for Cixl. <«</<i>. - Miiller for Co^l. «r/. 
* Naber for Coil. erHiiitum. 



opportunity. If my love for you admits of any in- 
crease, you can increase it now. The trial approaches 
in which men, it seems, will not only give a generous 
ear to your eloquence, but turn a grudging eye upon 
your angry animosity. And I see no one else who 
can venture to advise you in this matter. For those 
who are less friendly to you prefer to see you acting 
inconsistently, while those who are truer friends 
are afraid of seeming too friendly to your opponent 
if they divert you from accusing him as you are 
entitled to do. Then again, if you have conned some 
eispecially choice phrase for the occasion, they cannot 
bear to rob you of its due delivery by an enforced 
silence. And so, even if you think me an ill-advised 
counsellor or a forward boy, or too partial to your 
opponent, I will not, for all that, shew any the more 
hesitation in pressing upon you what 1 think the best 
counsel. But why have I said comisel, whereas it is a 
favour I claim, urgently claim, from you and, if it is 
graiited, promise to be bound to you in return ? But 
you will say. What / if assailed, shall I not requite in 
like terms ? Nay, you will win by this means greater 
glory for yourself if, even when assailed, you make 
no reply.^ Still, if he is the first to attack, it will be 
excusable in you to answer as you can ; however, I 
have begged of him not to begin, and I think I have 
got my way. For I love both of you, each one for 
his own merits, and I do not forget that he was 
brought up in the house of my grandfather/^ P. Cal- 
visius, and I educated under you. Wherefore I am 
most anxious that this very disagreeable business 

^ Marcus practised what he preached in the second trial 
of Herodes, mentioned above. 

5* His maternal grandfather. It seems as if Herodes was 
not yet a teacher of Marcus. 

^ 6i 


honestissime negotium istud odiosissimum trans- 
igatur. Opto ut consilium comprobes, nam volun- 
tatem probabis. Ego certe minus sapienter magis 
scripsero, quam minus amice tacuero. Vale mi 
Pronto carissime et amicissime. 

Ad M, dies. ill. 3 (Naber, p. 41). 

Vat. 124 I Domino meo Caesari Pronto. 

Merito ego me devovi tibi, merito fructus vitae 
meae omnes in te ac tuo parente constitui. Quid 
fieri amicius^ quid iucundius^ quid verius potest? 
Aufer ista, obsccro, puerulum audacem aut temerarium ^ 
consuUorem, Periculum est plane ne tu quicquam 
pueriliter aut inconsulte suadeas ! Mihi crede, si 
tu vis — si minus^ egomet mihi credam — seniorum a 
te prudentiam exsuperari. Denique in isto negotio 
tuum consilium canum et grave, meum vero puerile 
deprendo. Quid enim opus est acquis et iniquis 
spectaculum praebere.'* Sive sit iste Herodes vir 
frugi et pudicus, protelari conviciis talem a me 
virum non est verum ; sive nequam et improbus est, 
non aequa mihi cum eo certatio, neque idem detri- 
menti^ capitur. Omnis enim cum polluto com- 

* These two adjectives are distinguished in the De Dif- 
ferentiis Vocahulorum, attributed to Fronto, and possibly 
written by him for his pupils : see Mai's Froiito, ed. 1823, 
p. 349. 

* Mai reads the Codex as detrimentum, Braknian as here 



should be handled as honourably as possible. I trust 
my advice will commend itself to you, for my good- 
will you must commend. At any rate, 1 would 
rather fail in judgment by writing than fail in friend- 
ship by keeping silence. Farewell, my Fronto, most 
beloved and most loving of friends. 

? 140-143 A.D. 
Fronto to my Lord Caesar. 

Rightly have I devoted myself to you, rightly 
invested in you and your father all the gains of my 
life. What could be more friendly, what more 
delightful, what more true^? But I beseech you, 
away with your forward hoys and rash counseliors ! 
There is danger, forsooth, of anything you suggest 
being childishly conceived or ill-advised ! Believe 
me, if you will — if not, I will for my part believe 
myself — that in good sense you leave your elders 
far behind. In fact, in this affair, I realise that your 
counsel is weighty and worthy of a greybeard, while 
mine is childish. For what is the good of providing 
a spectacle for friends and foes ? If your H erodes 
be an honourable and moral man, it is not right that 
such a man *^ should be assailed ^ with invectives by 
me ; if he is wicked and worthless, my fight with 
him is not on equal terms, nor do we stand to lose 
the same. For any contact with what is unclean 

* Fronto is probably punning on Marcus's name Vems. 
Hadrian gave him the pet name of Verissimus, which Justin 
Mart3rr also uses, and it appears on the coins of Tyras on 
the Euxine. 

* We can scarcely keep the assonance : ** It is not right 
that such a wight." 

^ Lit. *'keep at a distance with darts." 



plexus, tametsi superes, commaculat. Sed illud 
verius est, probum virum esse, quern tu dignum 
tutela tua iudicas. Quod si umquani scissem, turn 
me di omnes male adflixint, si ego verbo laedere 
ausus fuissem quemquam amicum tibi. Nunc me 
Vat. 123 velim pro tuo erga me amore, quo sum | beatissimus, 
in hac etiam parte consilio iuves. Qui<n>^ nihil 
extra causam dicere debeam, quod Herodem laedat, 
non dubito. Sed ea quae in causa sunt — <sunt> 
autem <sane>2 atrocissima — quemadmodum tractem, 
id ipsum est quod addubito, et consilium posco. 
Dicendum est de hominibus liberis crudeliter ver- 
beratis et spoliatis, uno vero etiam occiso ; dicendum 
est de filio impio et precum paternarum immemore ; 
saevitia et avaritia exprobranda ; carnifex quidam 
[Herodes]^ in hac causa est constituendus. Quodsi 
in istis criminibus, quibus causa nititur, putas debere 
me ex summis opibus adversarium urgere et premere, 
fac me, Domine optime et mihi dulcissime, consilii 
tui certiorem. Si vero in his quoque remittendum 
aliquid putes, quod tu suaseris, id optimum factu ^ 
ducam. Illud quidem, ut dixi, firmum et ratum 
habeto, nihil extra causam de moribus et cetera eius 
vita me dicturum.^ Quodsi tibi videbitur servire me 

^ Naber for Cod. qui. * For Cod. suvt. 

• Uerodes appears to be a gloss. 

* Schopen for Cod. factum. * \\\^ of Cod. has edicturum. 

^ It is curious that Fronto did not know of this friend- 
ship and, indeed, more about such a man as Herodes. 

2 Herodes himself is meant, not his son, as generally 
supposed. His father left by his will a yearly sum of 
money to every Athenian citizen. But Herodes compounded 



contaminates a man^ even though you come off best. 
But the former supposition is the truer, that he, 
whom you count worthy of your patronage, is a 
virtuous man. Had I had an inkling of the fact, 
may all the gods plague me if I should ever have 
ventured to say a word against any friend of yours. ^ 
As it is I should wish you for the great love you 
bear me, wherein I am most blest, to help me with 
your advice on this point also. I quite admit that I 
ought not to say anything, which does not bear on 
the case, to damage H erodes, but those facts which 
do bear on it — and they are undoubtedly of a 
most savage character — how am I to deal with 
them ? that is the very thing I am in doubt about, 
and I ask your advice. I shall have to tell of free- 
men cruelly beaten and robbed, of one even slain ; 
I shall have to tell of a son unfilial ^ and deaf to 
his father's prayers, cruelty and avarice will have 
to be denounced ; there is one who must in this 
trial be made out a murderer. But if on those 
counts, on which the indictment is based, you think 
1 ought to press and assail my opponent with might 
and main, assure me, best of Lords and sweetest to 
me, that such is your opinion. If, however, you 
think that I ought to let him off lightly in these 
also, I shall consider what you advise to be the best 
course. You may, indeed, as I said, rest assured of 
this, that I shall not go outside the case itself to 
speak of his character and the rest of his life. But 
if you think I must do the best for my case, I 

with the Athenians for a single payment of 5 minae. How- 
ever, by deducting from this sum moneys owed by them to 
his father, he exasperated the citizens against himself, and 
this may have caused the high-handed proceedings described 
here. See Philost. y'it. Soph. 236, Kays. 


VOL. I. F 


causae debere^ iam nunc admoneo ne me immoderate 
usurum quidem causae occasione^ atrocia enim sunt 
crimina et atrocia dicenda. Ilia ipsa de laesis et 
Yat. 118 spoliatis hominibus ita | a me dicentur ut fel et 
bilem sapiant : sicubi graeculum et indoctum dixero^ 
non erit internecivum. 

Vale, Caesar, et me ut facis ama plurimum. Ego 
vero etiam literulas tuas disamo ^ : quare cupiam, 
ubi quid ad me scribes, tua manu scribas. 

Ad M. Caes, iii. 4 (Naber, p. 43). 

Have Domine. 

Clausa iam et obsignata epistula priore, venit 
mihi in mentem fore uti et qui causam banc agunt — 
acturi autem complures videntur — dicant aliquid in 
Herodem inclementius : cui rei, quemadmodum me 
unum putes,2 prospice. Vale Domine et vive, ut 
ego sim beatus. Acturi videntur Capreolus, qui 
nunc abest, et Marcianus noster; videtur etiam 

Ad .1/. Caea, iii. 5 (Naber, p. 43). 

Have mi Pronto carissime. 

Iam hinc tibi, Pronto carissime, gratias ago 
habeoque, quom consilium non tantum non repudi- 

^ The Codex has room for a letter between dis and amo. 
Possibly Fronto uses disamo (op. dispereo) for deamo. 
2 For Cod. puias. 




warn you herewith that I shall not even use in a 
disproportionate manner the opportunity my case 
gives me, for savage charges are made and must 
be savagely spoken of. Those in particular which 
concern the robbing and injuring of freemen shall 
be so told by me as to smack of gall and spleen : 
if I chance to call him a greekling and unlearned, 
it need not mean war to the knife.^ 

Farewell, Caesar, and love me, as you do, to the 
utmost. 1, indeed, dote on the very characters of 
your writing : wherefore, whenever you write to me, 
I would have you write with your own hand. 

Fronto to Marcus Aurelius as Caesar 

Hail, my Lord. ' 140-143 a.d. 

After I had already closed and sealed the pre- 
ceding letter, it occurred to me that those who plead 
in this case — and many seem likely to plead in it — 
may speak of H erodes in less measured terms. Take 
care how you think that I alone am concerned in 
this affair. Farewell, my Lord, and live, that 1 may 
be happy. Capreolus, who is now away, and our 
friend Marcianus ^ seem likely to plead ; Villianus too, 
it seems. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

Hail, my dearest Fronto. ' ^^^-^^^ a.d. 

I must acknowledge and tender you at once, 
my dearest Fronto, my thanks, that, so far from 

^ In spite of Fronto's speech they became great friends. 
See below, Ad, Ant. ii. 8. 

• Probably not the jurist, mentioned in the Digest, who 
was later. Nothing is known of the persons named. 


F 2 


asti^ sed etiam comprobasti. De iis autem^ quae per 
litteras amicissimas tuas consulis^ ita existimo. Omnia 
quae ad causam quam tueris adtinent plane pro- 
ferenda ; quae ad tuas proprias adfectiones adtinent^ 
Vat. 117 licet iusta | et provocata sint, tamen reticenda. 
Itaque neque fidem in negotio pannychio ^f neque 
modestiam in existimatione tua laeseris . . . .^ et 
dicant quae <velint, quom> una haec cura maxime 
me exercet, ne quid tu tale dicas^ quod tuis moribus 
indignum^ negotio inutile,^ cireumstantibus repreh- 
ensibile videatur esse. Vale mi Fronto carissime et 
iucundissime mihi. 

Ad M. Goes, iii. 6 (Naber, p. 44). 

Domino meo. 

Ita faciam^ quod ad haec nomina^ quod ad vitam^ 
ut te velle intellexero <uti> faciam ; teque oro et 
quaeso ne umquam quod a me fieri volueris <taceas>. 
Sed ut nunc <bene> suades, ita <suade, si tal>e 
umquam adversus voluntatem tuam quicquam iii- 
cipiam. Malim etiam <omnia nomina . . • ^ quae 
in>* causa sunt, singillatim sint ; ut Ciceronis modum 
proferamus. Nam quom in tantulum id ^ consultum 
cogunt, versuj* cupio,® praesertim qu<om> .... 

* This word is certainly corrupt. We seem to want a 
word like odiosrssimum of Marcus's previous letter. Possibly 
TravovpyiK^ might stand. 

2 A gap of about thirty-four letters, but the word ceteri 
can be read. 



rejecting my advice, you have approved it. As to the 
points on which you consult me in your very friendly 
letter, my opinion is this. Whatever has relation to 
the case, which you safeguard, should obviously 
be put forward ; whatever to your own private feel- 
ings, although legitimate and provoked by the facts, 
must, nevertheless, be left unsaid. So will you not 
wound your honour in an all-night business, nor your 
own standard of self respect. (Let the others 
conduct the case as they will) and say what they 
please, since the one thing that greatly concerns me 
is, that you should say nothing that shall seem 
unworthy of your character, useless to your case, 
and to your audience deserving of blame. Farewell, 
my dearest, and to me most delightful Fronto. 

Fronto to Marcus Aurelius as Caesar 

rj. T . ? 140-143 A.D. 

lo my Lord. 

I will act, my Lord, as to these counts and as 
to my whole life in the way I see you wish me to 
act; and I pray and beseech you never to forbear 
mentioning what you wish done by me, but dissuade 
me, as you are now rightly doing, if I ever under- 
take any such thing against your wishes. I should 
prefer (all the counts , ... in the) case to be 
taken separately, that we may apply the method 
of Cicero. For when they compress that decision 
into so little, 1 desire but a fight 

' Schopen for Cod. invite, 

• About forty letters are lo8t]^here. 

• m^ of Cod. has veL M -~^ ^ 

• J. W. E. Pearce suggests valde cupio . . . quod petia ipse 
pugna milius, etc. 



sed pugna mi<iiime> hoc modo transigi possit. 
Quodsi agemus perpetuis orationibus, licet extra 
Vat. 116 causam nihil progrediar, tamen | et oculis acrioribus 
et voce vehementi et verbis gravibus utendum, 
<hinc>^ autem <nutu> hinc digito irato, quod 
<modeste> hominem tuum ferre decet. Sed difficile 
est ut istud ab eo impetrari possit^ dicitur enim 
cupidine agendi flagrare. Nee reprehendo tamen 
ne hoc quidem^ se<d vide> ne tibi ipsa ilia <quae> 
in causa sunt infestius pro<:ferre> videatur. Verum 
et ipse suades inprimis fidei parendum : et si armis 
vel palaestrica lu<das>, ne has quid em ludicras 
exercitationes sine contentione confici posse .... 
facundior .... laudavi beatius opicum tuum. 

Ad M. Caes. iv 1 (Naber, p. 58). 

<DoMixo meo Fronto>. 

Quoniam scio quanto opere sis anxius^ .... 
Vat. 228 <oves> | ct columbac cum lupis et aquilis cantantem 
sequebantur, immemores insidiarum et unguium et 
dentium. Quae fabula recte interpretantibus illud 
profecto significat, fuisse egregio ingenio eximiaque 
eloquentia virum, qui plurimos virtutum suarum 
facundiaeque admiratione devinxerit ; eumque amicos 
et sectatores ita instituisse, ut quamquam diversis 

^ The words in brackets that follow are added by Eussner. 

^ These words are from the Index in the Codex. They 
are followed by a gap of two pages, containing the first half 
of the letter, the purport of which can be partly gathered 
from Marcus's answer. 



could never be conducted in this way. But if 
we proceed with unbroken speeches^ though I go 
no step outside the case^ my glance must needs 
be somewhat keen, and my voice vehement, and 
my words stem, and 1 must shew anger with a 
gesture here and a finger there ; and this your 
man^ ought to bear with composure. But it is no 
easy matter to get that concession from him, for he 
is said to be inflamed with a passion for pleading. 
Nor yet do I find fault with even this ; but take heed 
that he seem not to you to put forward what actually 
belongs to his case too bitterly. But it is your own 
plea that honour should be the first consideration : 
and if one practises arms or wrestling, not even 
these mimic exercises can be carried through without 

strife I have praised more 

happily your " country bumpkin." ^ 

Fronto to Marcus Aurelius as Caesar 

p ^ T J ? 140-143 A.D. 

r ronto to my Lord. 

Since I know how anxious you are .... sheep 
and doves with wolves and eagles followed the 
singer, regardless of ambushes and talons and 
teeth. This legend rightly interpreted surely signi- 
fies this, that Orpheus^ was a man of matchless 
genius and surpassing eloquence, who attached to 
himself numerous followers, from admiration of his 
virtues and his power of speech, and that he so 
trained his friends and followers, that, though met 

^ Herodes appears to be meant. 

^ OpicuSf another form for Oscan = a rude, unlettered 
^ Orpheus appears on the Alexandrine coins of Marcus. 



nationibus con venae, variis moribus imbuti, concord- 
arent tamen et consuescerent et congregarentur, 
mites cum ferocibus, placidi cum violentis, cum super- 
bis moderati, cum crudelibus timidi : omnes deinde 
paulatim vitia insita exuerent, virtutem sectarentur, 
probitatem condiscerent, pudore impudentiam, ob- 
sequio contumaciam,^ benignitate malivolentiam 
commutarent. Quodsi^ quis umquam ingenio tan- 
tum valuit ut amicos ac sectatores suos amore inter 
se mutuo copularet, tu hoc profecto perficies multo 
facilius, qui ad omnes virtutes natus es prius quam 
institutus. Nam prius quam tibi aetas institutioni 
sufficiens adolesceret, iam tu perfectus atque omni- 
Vat. 227 bus bonis artibus | ^ absolutus : ante pubertatem vir 
bonus, ante togam virilem dicendi peritus. Verum 
ex omnibus virtutibus tuis hoc vel praecipue admir- 
andum, quod omnes amicos tuos concordia copulas. 
Nee tamen dissimulaverim multo hoc esse difficilius 
quam ut ferae ac leones cithara mitigentur : quod tu 
facilius obtinebis, si unum illud vitium funditus ex- 
tirpandum eruendumque curaveris, ne liveant neve 
invideant invicem amici tui sibi,* neve quod tu alii 
tribueris aut benefeceris, sibi quisque illud deperire 
ac detrahi putet. Invidia pemiciosum inter homines 
malum maximeque intemecivom, sibi aliisque pariter 
obnoxium ; sed si procul a cohorte tua prohibueris, 

^ Schopen for Cod. contumdiam. 
^ Naber for Cod. quo si. 

^ In this page are traces of a third writing, which like the 
second refers to the Acta Goncilii. 
^ Added by Brakman from the margin of Cod« 



together from different nations and endowed with 
diverse characteristics, they, nevertheless, lived 
sociably together in unity and concord, the gentle 
with the fierce, the quiet with the violent, the meek 
with the proud, the sensitive with the cruel. Then 
all of them gradually put off their ingrained faults, 
went after virtue and learned righteousness, ex- 
changed shamelessness for a sense of shame, self- 
will for deference, ill-feeling for kindliness. But if 
ever anyone by his character had so much influence 
as to unite his friends and followers in mutual love 
for one another, you assuredly will accomplish this 
with far greater ease, for you were formed by nature 
before you were fitted by training for the exercise of 
all virtues. 1 For before you were old enough to be 
trained, you were already perfect and complete in all 
noble accomplishments, before adolescence a good 
man, before manhood ^ a practised speaker. But of 
all your virtues this even more than the others is 
worthy of admiration, that you unite all your firiends 
in harmony. And. I cannot conceal my opinion that 
this is a far harder task than to charm with the lyre 
the fierceness of lions and wild beasts : and you will 
achieve this the more easily, if you set yourself to 
uproot and utterly to stamp out this one vice of 
mutual envy and jealousy among your friends, that 
they may not, when you have shewn attention or 
done a favour to another, think that this is so much 
taken from or lost to themselves. Envy among men 
is a deadly evil and more fatal than any, a curse to 
enviers and envied alike. Banish it from your circle 
of friends, and you will keep them, as they now are, 

^ So Dio, Ixxi. 35, § 6, and Zonaras, ii : ^y yhp koX ^t;<rct 
kyaBhi iivfipf irXtiffra St koI &irb iraiBtias )3cA.t/wk iyeytro. 
^ Marcus would have assumed the toga virilis about 135 A. d. 



uteris amicis concordibus et benignis^ ut nunc uteris. 
Sin aliqua pervaserit^ magna molestia magnoque 
labore erit restinguendum. 

Sed meliora quaeso fabulemur. Amo lulianum — 
inde enim hie sermo defluxit — ; amo omnes qui te 
diligunt ; amo deos qui te tutantur^ amo vitam 
propter te ; amo litteras tecum ; <cum amicis> ^ 
tuis mihi amorem tui ingurgito. 

Jd M. Goes. iv. 2 (Naber, p. 60). 
Vat. 178: <Have mi maeister> I carissime.* 

Quat. viii. , ^ i 

endi 1. Quamquam ad te eras venio^ tamen tam 

amicis tamque iucundis litteris tuis^ tam denique 
elegantibus nihil^ ne hoc quidem tantulum^ rescri- 
bere non sustineo^ mi Fronto carissime. Sed quid 
ego prius amem ? pro quo prius habeam gratiam ? 
Idne primum commemorem, quod in tantis domes- 
ticis studiis tantisque extrariis negotiis occupatus^ 
tamen ad lulianum nostrum visendum mea maxime 
gratia — nam sim ingratus nisi id intellegam — ire coni- 
sus es } Sed non magnum est. Tamen ita ^ est, si cetera 
addas, tanto temporis spatio ibi te demorari, tantum 
sermocinari, idque de me sermocinari, aut quod ad 
valetudinem eius consolandam esset ; aegrum commo- 
diorem sibi, amicum amiciorem mihi facere; turn 
autem de iis singillatim ad me perscribere; inibi 

* Mai to fill an equivalent gap. But query < ex epistulis > ? 
^ Naber adds the words in brackets. Mai begins the 
letter with Carissime and gives a different heading. 
» For Cod. ut. 



harmonious and kindly; but let it in any way spread 
among them, and it can only be stamped out with 
immense toil and immense trouble. 

But prithee let us talk of better things. I love 
Julianus — for this discussion originated with him — ; 
I love all who are fond of you ; I love the gods who 
watch over you ; I love life for your sake ; with you 
I love letters; like all your friends I take deep 
draughts of love for you. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

r, J 4. r *. ? 140-143 A.D. 

Hail, my dearest of masters. 

1. Although I am coming to you to-morrow, yet 
I cannot refrain, my dearest Fronto, from writing 
some answer, however trifling, to a letter so friendly, 
so delightful, so felicitous as yours. But what am I 
to love first } feel grateful first for what ? Shall I 
not mention this first, that, occupied though you are 
with such important pursuits at home and business 
no less important outside, you nevertheless made a 
point of going to see our friend Julianus i chiefly — for 
I were ungrateful if I did not realize this — on my 
account. But, you will say, there is not much in that. 
Yet it does amount to much, if you count in all the 
rest, your staying there so long, having so protracted 
a talk, a talk, too, about me, or something to cheer 
hiip up in his illness, your making a sick man more 
comfortable in himself, a friend more friendly to 
me ; then again, your writing out for me a detailed 
account of all this, giving in your letter most welcome 

^ Probably Salvius Julianus, the great jurist, who is 
mentioned in the Digest^ xxxvii. 14, 17 Pr. by Marcus as 
amicus noster. 



Vat. 180 urjgebat^ et fratrem tuum maturius ad te reverti 
aequom erat. Quaeso igitur, si quod verbum absurd. 
ius aut inconsultior sensus aut infirm ior littera istic 
erit, id tempori apponas. Nam quom te ut amicum 
vehementissime diligam^ tum <me> meminisse 
oportet^ quantum amorem amico, tan tum reverentiae 
magistro praestare debere. Vale mi Fronto earissime 
et supra omnes res duleissime. 

4. Sota Ennianus remissus a te et in charta puriore 
et volumine gratiore et littera festiviore quam antea 
fuerat videtur. Gracchus cum cado musti maneat, 
dum venimus, neque enim metus est Gracchum in- 
terea cum musto defervere posse. Valeas^ semper 
anima suavissima. 

Ad M. Caes, iii 18 (Naber, p. 66). 

Vat. 154 ad | Maoistro suo Caesar suus. 

In quantum me iuverit lectio orationum istarum 

Vat. 158 Gracchi, non opus est | me dicere, quom tu scias 
optime, qui me ut eas legerem doctissimo ingenio ac 
benignissimo animo tuo hortatus es. Ne autem sine 
comite solus ad te liber tuus referretur, libellum istum 
addidi. Vale mi magister suavissime, amice amicis- 
sime, cui sum debiturus quidquid litterarum sciero. 

* Mai for Cod. valeat. 

* Called amicus Twster by Marcus and Verus in Digest^ 
xxxvii. 14, 17 Pr. He was one of Marcus's teachers, and 
wrote a book for him De Asse ac Ponderibiis, which is still 






^ was pressing, and it was right that your 
lould return to you in good time. I beseech 
ifore, if you find any solecism or confusion 
it or shaky letter herein, put it down to 
[or though 1 am desperately fond of you as 
at the same time 1 must not forget that I 
shew no less respect to my master than 

ly friend. Farewell, my Fronto, dearest and 

11 things sweetest to me. 
Sola 2 of Ennius, which you have returned, 
be on clearer paper, in a more handsome 

[nd a prettier hand than before. Let Orac- 
le with the cask of new wine until we come, 
no risk of Gracchus fermenting out^ 

lie along with the wine. Fare ever well, 

Jtest soul. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

r. ... . ? 140-143 A.D. 

^n Caesar to his master. 

leed not say how pleased 1 was at reading 

leeches of Gracchus, for you will know well 

since it was you who, with your experienced 

it and kind thoughtfulness, recommended 

my reading. That your book might not be 

to you alone and unaccompanied, I have 

lis letter. Farewell, my sweetest of masters 

indliest of friends, to whom I am likely to be 

for all the literature I shall ever know. 

^rding to Teuflfel's Latin Literature, Sota (SwtSs) = 
There was a metre called Sotadean, but probably 

*om a licentious Greek poet mentioned by Martial 

i. 86). ^ See next letter. 

fibly the word means "to cool down" {cp. defcrvescere) 

;rs to the vehemence of Gracchus's style, see Ad 
ad med. 




Non sum tain ingratus ut non intellegam quid mihi 
praestiteris, quom excerpta tua mihi ostendisti et 
qiiom cotidie non desinis in viam me veram inducere 
et "oculos** mihi "aperire," ut vulgo dicitur. Merito 

Ad If. Caes. i. 1 (Naber, p. 3). 

<Caesari suo Fronto 
Ambr 93* . • . .^ | mittam igitur tibi quantum pote librum 

Quat* hunc descriptum. Vale, Caesar, et ride et omnem 
beinii^t*** vitam laetare et parentibus optimis et eximio iugenio 
tuo fruere. 

Ad M, Caes, i. 2 (Naber, p. 3). 

M. Caesar [Imp.] Frontoni Magistro meo I. 

1 . Quid ego <de> ista mea fortuna satis ^ dixerim, 
vel quomodo istam necessitatem meam durissimam 
eondigne ineusavero quae me istic ita animo anxio 
tantaque soUieitudine praepedito adligatum adtinet, 
neque me sinit ad meum Frontonem, ad meam pul- 
cherrimam animam confestim percurrere, praesertim 
in huiusmodi eius valetudine prope accedere, man us 
tenere, ipsum denique ilium pedem, quantum sine 
incommodo fieri possit, adtrectare sensim, in balneo 
fovere, ingredienti manum subicere? Et tu me 
amicum vocas, qui non abruptis omnibus cursu con- 

^ Two pages are lost. 

^ Heind. adds <digne> to give a construction to fortuna, 

* Excerpts from Terence, Vergil, Cicero, and Sallust, en- 
titled Exempla JSloeutimium, attributed by some to Fronto, 
have come down to us. Marcus followed this ha1)it of 
making extracts. See Thoughts, iii. 14, and below, Ad Caes. 
ii. 10. 



I am not so ungrateful as not to recognize what a 
favour you have done me by letting me see your 
extracts,^ and by ceasing not to lead me daily in the 
right way and, as the saying goes, ^^to open my 
eyes." Deservedly do I love you. 

143 A.D. 

Fronto to his own Caesar. 

.... I will send you, therefore, as far as I can, 
this book copied out. Farewell, Caesar, and smile 
and be happy all your life long and enjoy the best 
of parents and your own excellent abilities. 

Baiae, 143 a.d. 

Marcus Caesar Imperator^ to my master Fronto. 
1. What shall I say, that is adequate, as to my 
ill-fortune, or how inveigh as it deserves against this 
most hard necessity which keeps me a prisoner 
here with a heart so anxious and fettered with such 
great apprehension and does not let me run at once 
to my Fronto, to my most beautiful of souls, above 
all to be with him at a time when he is so unwell, 
to clasp his hands and in fine, as far as may be 
without pain, to massage the poor foot itself, foment 
it in the bath, and support him as he steps in ? And 
do you call me a friend, who do not throw aside all 

2 Marcus did not receive the Imperium till 147 (with the 
Trib. Put.), nor was he styled Imperator till 161. There 
must be some error in the word. The number (I.) that 
follows the heading may mean the first letter by Marcus in 
the Codex, in which case the whole first quaternion, which 
is lost, must have contained letters of Fronto. 


VOL. I. O 


cito <ad te>^ pervolo ? Ego vero magis sum claudus 
cum ista ^ mea verecundia, immo pigritia. O me — 
quid dicam ! metuo quicquam dicere quod tu audire 
nolis ; nam tu quidem me omni modo conisus es 
iocularibus istis tuis ac lepidissimis verbis a cura 
Ambr. 04 moverc, atque te omnia ista aequo animo | perpeti 
posse ostendere. At ego ubi animus meus sit nescio : 
nisi hoc scio^ illo nescio quo ad te profectum eum 
esse. Cura, miserere, omni temperantia abstinentia 
omni 3 istam tibi pro tua virtute tolerandam, mihi 
vero asperrimam nequissimamque, valetudinem de- 
pell ere. 

2. Ad <quas>* aquas proficisceris et quando, et 
nunc ut commode agas, cito, oro, perscribe mihi et 
mentem in pectus meum repone. Ego interim vel 
tales tuas litteras mecum gestabo. Vale mihi Fronto 
iucundissime : quamquam ita me dispositius ^ dicere 
oportet — ^nam tu quidem semper avesf — : o qui ubi- 
que estis di boni, valeat oro meus Fronto iucundis- 
simus atque carissimus mihi : valeat semper integro 
inlibato incolumi corpore : valeat et mecum esse 
possit. Homo suavissime, vale. 

Ad M. Caes. i. 3 (Naber, p. 6). 

Caesari suo Fronto. 

1. Tu, Caesar, Frontonem istum tuum sine fine 

amas, vix ut tibi homini facundissimo verba sufiiciant 

^ NovAk. * For Cod. icita. ^ For Cod. omnem. 

* Added by Naber. Studemund says the Codex seems to 
have profidscens. 



hindrances and fly in hot haste to you ? I, indeed, 
am more lame than you with that diffidence or, rather, 
laziness of mine. Oh, as to myself — what shall I say ? 
1 am afraid of saying something you would not like 
to hear, for you indeed have always striven in every 
way, with your humorous sallies and your wittiest of 
words, to divert my mind, and to shew me that you 
can put up with all your ills with unruffled fortitude. 
But where my fortitude has gone to I know not, if it 
be not yonder in some mysterious way to you. For 
mercy's sake endeavour with all self-denial and all 
abstinence to shake off this attack which you, indeed, 
can endure with your usual courage, but to me it is 
the worst and sorest of trials. 

2. Write and tell me quickly, I beseech you, to 
what waters you are going and when, and how well you 
now are, and set my mind going in my breast again. 
Meanwhile I will carry about your letter in spite 
of its sad tenor. Farewell, my most delightful 
Fronto : and yet I ought to put it more correctly 
thus — for to fare well is, of course, always your 
wish — : O ye kind Gods, that are everywhere, grant, 
I beseech you, health to my Fronto, dearest to me 
and most delightful : let him ever be well with a 
hardy, hale, healthy body : let him be well and able 
to be with me. Most charming of men, farewell. 

143 A.D. 

Fronto to his own Caesar. 

1. So without end, Caesar, is your love for this 
Fronto of yours, that for all your eloquence words 

' Klussm. for Cod. dispositus, Heind. preferred dis 


o 2 


Ambr. 99 

Ambr. 100 

ad expromendum amorem tuum et benivolentiam 
declarandam. Quid^ oro te^ | fortunatius^ quid me 
uno beatius esse potest^ ad quern tu tarn flagrantes ^ 
litteras mittis? Quin etiam^ quod est amatorum 
proprium, currere ad me vis et volare. 

2. Solet mea Domina parens tua interdum ioco^ 
dieere^ se mihi quod a te tanto opere diligar invidere. 
Quid^ si istas litteras tuas legerity quibus tu deos 
etiam pro salute mea votis advoeas et precaris ? O 
me beatum ! ore tuo me dis commendatum ! Putasne 
ullus dolor penetrare sciat corpus aut animum meum 
prae tanto gaudio ? Proced . . . . ^ babae ! Neque 
doleo iam quicquam nee aegre fero : vigeo, valeo, 
exulto : quo vis, veniam ; quo vis, curram. Crede 
istud mihi, tanta me laetitia perfusum, ut rescribere 
tibi ilico non potuerim ; sed eas quidem litteras, quas 
ad priorem epistulam tuam iam rescripseram, dimisi 
ad te : sequentem autem tabellarium retinui, quo ex 
gaudio resipiseerem. Ecce nox praeteriit, dies hie 
est alter, qui <iam>* prope exactus est, necdum quid 
aut quemadmodum tibi rescribam reperio. Quid enim 
ego possim iucundius, quid blandius, quid amantius, 
quam tu scripsisti mihi pro<ponere ? Unde>^ gaudeo 
quod ingratum me | et referundae gratiae imparem 
facias, quoniam, ut res est, ita me diligis ut ego te 
magis amare vix possim. 

3. Igitur ut argumentum aliquod prolixiori epist- 
ulae reperiam, quod, oro te, ob meritum sic me 

^ Cod. fraglarUes, as almost always (not = fragranies). 
2 Naber iocose for Cod. loci (m* loco) dis.cere. 
' Naber prosiluerim for Cod. proced . . . 
* Hauler. ' Brakman. 



are scarcely forthcoming fully to express your love 
and set forth your goodwill. What, I ask you, can 
be more fortunate, what more happy than I alone 
am, to whom you send such glowing letters ? Nay, 
more, and this is peculiar to lovers, you wish to run, 
aye, to fly, to me. 

2. My Lady, your mother, is wont at times to say 
in fun that she envies me for being loved so much 
by you. What if she read this letter of yours, in 
which you even beseech the gods and invoke them 
with vows for my health ? O, happy that I am ! 
commended by your lips to the gods ! Can any pain, 
think you, find its way into body or mind of mine to 
count against delight so great ? . . . . hurrah ! No 
longer do I feel any pain, nor any distress : I am 
whole, I am well, I leap for joy ; whither you wish, 
I will come ; whither you wish, I will run. Believe 
me when I say that I was so steeped in delight as 
not to be able to answer your letter at once ; but the 
letter, indeed, which I had already written in answer 
to your previous one, 1 have sent off to you. How- 
ever, I have kept back the second messenger that I 
might recover from my joy. And lo, the night has 
passed, a second day is already here which is already 
almost spent, and still what and how to write back 
to you I find not. For what professions of mine 
could be more sweetly, what more winningly, what 
more lovingly expressed than yours for me ? And so 
I rejoice that you make me ungrateful and put a due 
requital beyond my powers, since, as the matter 
stands, your affection for me is so great that I can 
scarcely exceed your love. 

3. Therefore, to provide some matter for a longer 
letter, let me ask you for what desert of mine 



amas ? Quid iste Fronto tantum boni fecit ut eum 
tanto opere tu diligas ? Caput suum pro te aut 
parentibus tuis devovit ? Succidaneum se pro vestris 
periculis subdidit ? Provinciam aliquam fideliter ad- 
ministravit ? Exercitum duxit? Nihil eorum. Ne 
cotidianis quidem istis officiis circa te praeter ceteros 
fuiigitur; est^ immo, s<i> verum velis, satis infre- 
quens. Nam neque domum vestram diluculo ventitat, 
neque cotidie <te> salutat, neque ubique comitatur, 
nee semper spectat. Vide igitur ut, si quis inter- 
roget cur Frontonem ames, habeas in promptu quod 
facile respondeas. 

4. At ego nihil quidem malo quam amoris erga me 
tui nullam extare rationem. Nee omnino mihi amor 
videtur qui ratione oritur ^ et iustis certisque de causis 
copulatur : amorem ego ilium intellego fortuitum et 
liberum et nuUis causis servientem, impetu potius 
quam ratione conceptum, qui non officiis, uti lignis,' 

Ambr. 76 scd spontc ortis vaporibus caleat. Baiarum ego | calid- 
os specus malo quam istas fornaculas balnearum, 
in quibus ignis cum sumptu atque fumo accenditur 
brevique extinguitur. At illi ingenui vapores puri 
perpetuique sunt, grati pariter et gratuiti. Ad eun- 
dem prorsus modum amicitiae istae officiis calentes ^ 
fumum interdum et lacrimas habent : ubi primum 
cessaveris extinguuntur : amor autem fortuitus* et 
iugis est et iucundus.^ 

5. Quid, quod neque adolescit proinde nee corrob- 
oratur amicitia meritis parta ut ille amor subitus et 

* Hauler for Cod. eit» He haa given his revision of this 
letter in Zei'sch. /. d, ost. Oymn. 64 (1907), pp. 32-37. 

* m* of Cod. has munihir. 

' Query ligni^ <: ignis >, * m^ of Cod. gives calent. 

^ m* of Cod. gives iuyis e&t fortuitus amor et iucundiis, 



you love me so. What benefit has your Fronto 
bestowed upon you so great that you should shew 
him such affection ? Has he given up his life for you 
and your parents ? Has he braved perils vicariously 
in your stead? Has he been the faithful governor 
of some province ? Has he commanded an army ? 
Nothing of the kind. Not even those everyday 
duties about your person does he discharge more 
than others ; nay, he is, if you wish the truth, remiss 
enough. For neither does he haunt your house at 
daybreak, nor pay his respects to you daily, nor 
attend you everywhere, nor keep you always in 
sight. See to it then that, if anyone ask you why 
you love Fronto, you have an easy answer ready. 

4. And yet there is nothing I like better than 
that there should be no reason for your love of me. 
For that seems to me no love at all which springs 
from reason and depends on actual and definite 
causes : by love I understand such as is fortuitous 
and free and subject to no cause, conceived by im- 
pulse rather than by reason, that needs no services, 
as a fire logs, for its kindling, but glows with self- 
engendered heat. To me the steaming grottoes of 
Baiae are better than your bath-fiimaces, in which 
the fire is kindled with cost and smoke, and anon 
goes out. But the natural heat of the former is at 
once pure and perpetual, as grateful as it is gratuit- 
ous. Just in the same way your rational friendship, 
kept alight with services, not unfrequently means 
smoke and watery eyes : relax your efforts for an 
instant and out they go : but love fortuitous is 
eternal and enchanting. 

5. Again, friendship that is won by desert has no 
such growth or firm texture as the love that is 



repentinus? Ut non aeque adolescunt in pomariis 
hortulisque arbusculae manu cultae rigataeque ut ille 
in montibus aesculus et abies et alniis et cedrus et 
piceae, quae sponte natae, sine ratione ac sine ordine 
sitae^ nuUis cultorum laboribus neque ofiiciis sad 
ventis atque imbribus educantur.^ 

6. Tuus igitur iste amor incultus et sine ratione 
exortus, spero, cum cedris porro adolescet et aesculis : 
qui si officiorum ratione coleretur, non ultra myrtos 
laurusque procresceret, quibus satis odoris, parum 
roboris. Et omnino quantum fortuna rationi, tantum 
amor fortuitus officioso amori antistat. 
Ambr. 75 7. Quis autem ignorat rationem humani consilii | 

vocabulum esse^ Fortunam autem deam dearumque 
praecipuam? templa fana delubra passim Fortunae 
dicata^ Rationi nee simulacrum neque aram usquam 
consecratam ? Non fallor igitur quin^ malim amorem 
erga me tuum fortuna potius quam ratione genitum. 
8. Neque vero umquam ratio fortunam aequiparat 
neque maiestate neque usu neque dignitate. Nam 
neque aggeres manu ac ratione constructos montibus 
comparabis neque aquaeductus amnibus neque recep- 
tacula fontibus. Tum ratio consiliorum prudentia 
appellatur, vatum impetus divinatio nuncupatur. Nee 
quisquam prudentissimae feminae consiliis potius 

^ The margin of Cod. has evocarUur as a variant. 
2 So Cod. 

' The alder seems out of place among upland and forest 




sudden and at first sight. So in orchards and gar- 
dens the growth of shrubs^ reared and watered by 
hand^ is not like that of the oak and the fir and the 
alder ^ and the cedar and the pine on their native 
hills which, springing up self-sown and set without 
plan and without order, owe nothing to the toil or 
services of a planter, but are fostered by the wind 
and the rain. 

6. That love of yours, therefore, unplanted and 
sprung up without reason, will, I trust, grow steadily 
on with the cedars and the oaks ; whereas if it were 
cherished by reason of services done, it would not 
outgrow the myrtles and the bays, which have scent 
enough but too little strength. In a word, love 
spontaneous is as superior to love earned by service 
as fortune is to reason. 

7. But who is there knows not that reason is a 
term for human judgment, while Fortuna is a god- 
dess and the chief of goddesses ? that temples, fanes, 
and shrines have been dedicated to Fortuna ^ all the 
world over, while to Reason has been consecrated 
neither image nor altar anywhere .f^ I cannot be 
wrong then in preferring that your love for me 
should be born rather of fortune than of reason. 

8. Indeed reason can never compare with fortune 
either in grandeur or utility or worth. For neither 
can you match your pyramids, raised by hand and 
reason, against the hills, nor your aqueducts against 
the rivers, nor your cisterns against the fountains. 
Again, reason that guides our actions is called wis- 
dom, the intuition of the seer is named divination. 
Nor is there anyone who would rather put faith in 

' See Plutarch, On the Fortune of the Itomans, ch. x. ; and 
for the various Fortunes cp, De Orat,^ ad init, 



accrederet^ qaam vaticinationibus Sibyllae. Quae 
omnia quorsum tendunt? Ut ego recte malim im- 
petu et forte potius quam ratione ac merito meo 
diligL Quam ob rem etiam si qua iusta ratio est 
amoris erga me tui^ quaeso^ Caesar^ sedulo demus 
operam ut ignoretur et lateat. Sine homines am- 
bigant disserant disputent coniectent rcquirant, ut 
Nili caputs ita nostri amoris originem. 
Ambr. 87 9, gcd iam hora decimum tangit, et tabellarius ] 

tuus mussat. Finis igitur sit epistulae. Valeo^ 
re vera multo quam opinabar commodius. De aquis 
nihildum cogito. Te, Dominum meum, decus mo- 
rum^ solacium <maximu>m, multum amo. Dices 
num ampUus quam ega te ? Non sum tam ingratus ut 
hoc audeam dicere. Vale, Caesar, cum tuis parenti- 
bus, et ingenium tuum excole. 

Ad M. Caes. i. 4 (Naber, p. 9). 

M. Caesar Frontoni magistro salutem. 

1. Accipe nunc perpaucula contra somnum pro 
insomnia : quamquam, puto, praevaricor, qui adsidue 
diei ac noctis somno adsum, neque eum desero neque 
is^ me deserat, adeo sumus familiares. Sed cupio 
hac sua accusatione offensus paulisper a me abscedat 
et lucubratiunculae aliquam tandem facultatem trib 
uat. Igitur Itnx^iprifjLara <7roi>KA.a*: e quibus illo 

^. Ehrenthal for Cod. accederet. 

* Added by m' in the Codex over the line. Du Rieu and 
Brakman read ego in the Codex after inleo. 

^ Mai has iHe^ for which there is not enough space in the 
Codex. Klussm. would read sino, 

* Hauler reads the Codex . . . CKiXa eiiLsdem ; Mai has el 
quidem for e quibus. 



the wisest of women than in the oracles of the Sibyl. 
What is the drift of all this? To shew that I do 
right in preferring to be loved by intuition and 
chance rather than by reason and my desert. Where- 
fore, even if there is any adequate reason for your 
love for me, I beseech you, Caesar, let us take dili- 
gent pains to conceal and ignore it. Let men doubt, 
discuss, dispute, guess, puzzle over the origin of our 
love as over the fountains of the Nile. 

9. It is now close on four o'clock and your mes- 
senger is muttering. So my letter must end. I am 
really much better than 1 expected ; I have given 
up all idea of waters. Dearly do I love you, my 
Lord, the glory of our age, my chiefest solace. You 
will say. Not surely more than I love you ? I am not so 
ungrateful as to dare say that. Farewell, Caesar, and 
your parents too, and cultivate your abilities to the 

Baiae, 143 a.d. 

M. Caesar to his master Fronto, greeting. 

1. Hear now a very few points in favour of wake- 
fulness against sleep ^ : and yet methinks I am 
guilty of collusion, in that I side with sleep night 
and day without ceasing : I desert him not, nor is lie 
likely to desert me, such cronies are we. But my 
hope is that he may be huffed at my indictment of 
him and leave me for a little space, and give me a 
chance at last of burning some midnight oil. Now 
for subtle arguments : of which ^ my first, indeed, 

* This letter is evidently an answer to a Pro Somno of 
Fronto's. By "collusion" he means being really in favour 
of sleep while pretending to plead against it. 

• If we keep Hauler's reaaing of the Codex eitcsderriy the 
pronoun would seem to refer to Theodoras (see p. 38), for we 
can hardly assent to Hauler's view that <r/ciAa refers to Squilla 
Gallicanus, to whom there is a letter below, Ad Am. i. 25. 



primo utar epichiremate, quod,^ si tu dices faciliorem 
me materiam mihi adsumpsisse accusandi somni^ 
quam te qui laudaveris somnum — quis enim, inquis, 
non facile somnum accusaverit? — ego t<ibi2: cui>us 
facilis accusatio^ <eius>dem difiicilis laudatio ; cuius 
Ambr. 88 difficilis laudatio, eius non utilis usurjpatio. 

2. Sed hoc transeo. Nunc^ quando apud Baias 
agimus in hoc diutumo Ulixi labyrintho, ab Ulixe 
mihi paucula quae ad hanc rem adtinent sumam. Non 
enim ille profecto cikootw demum Irct venisset ft? 
irarplha yalav, neque in isto lacu tam diu oberasset, 
neque alia omnia quae 'OSucro-ctav faciunt perpessus 
esset, nisi tum yXvKvs vttvos CTriyXu^c KCKfjLrj&ra. Quam- 
quam ry SeKdrrj av€<f}cuv€TO Trar/ots apovpa — sed quid 
somnus fecit ? 

povXrj 8c KaKTf VLKrjcrev iTcupwv' 
dcTKov fi€V Xvarav, ai/€/xot 8' €k Travrcs opovtrav^ 
T0V9 8 ahp apird^acra KJyepev irovrovBe Ov€Wa 
K\aLOvras yacrj^ arro TrarptSos. 

Quid rursum apud insulam Trinacriam ? 

ovS avefioi ^ ykvKvv vttvov iirl /SketjidpoLcrLV €)(€vav» 
^vpTjXoxo^ 8 eTopOLCTL Kaicrj^ i^p\€TO /SovXrjS' 

Postea, ubi 'HcXtoto poas kol r<^ta txrj\a. — €0-<^a^av 
Kttt c8eipav — KoX p/qp Ikoltj koX cnrXa.y)(y iirdo'avTOf quid 
tum expergitus Ulixes ? 

otfX(a(as 86 O^olo'i p.€T dOavdroKTi ycywvcw* 
ri fi€ fwX* €ts drrjv KOt/AiJo-arc vrfXit vttvw. 

^ Buttmaim quo. ^ Cod. igit<ur cui>us, 

• So Cod. for oi 8' &pa fiot. 

^ Marcus seems to refer to Ulysses being driven back- 
wards and forwards along the coast (Odyss. xii.). 



shall be this^ in regard to which^ if you say that I have 
taken up an easier theme in accusing sleep than you 
who have praised it — for who, say you, cannot easily 
bring an indictment against sleep? — I will counter 
thus : what is easy to indict is hard to praise ; what 
is hard to praise can serve no useful purpose. 

2. But I let that pass. For the nonce, as we are 
staying at Baiae in this interminable labyrinth ^ of 
Ulysses, I will take from Ulysses a few things 
which bear on my subject. For he surely would 
not have taken twenty years his fatherUmd to reach,^ 
nor have wandered so long about that pool, nor 
gone through all the other adventures which make up 
the Odyssey, had not then sweet sleep seized his weary 
limbs.^ Yet on the^ tenth day his native soil appeared* — 
but what did sleep do ? 

The evil counsel of my crew prevailed : 
The bag they opened, and forth rushed the winds ; 
The fierce gale caught and swept them to the sea, 
Weeping with sorrow, from their native shore J'* 

What again took place at the island of Trinacria ? '^ 

Nor winds sweet sleep upon mine eyelids shed : 
Eurylochus his crew ill counsel gave J 

Afterwards, when the Sungod's oxen and fat flocks 
. . they slew and flayed . . and burnt the thighs and ate 
the flesh,* what then Ulysses when awaked } 

Wailing I cried to all the Gods on high. 
Who ruthless to my ruin made me sleep,^ 

2 Odyss. iii. 117. • Ibid. x. 31. * Ilnd. 29. 

6 Ibid. 46. • Sicily. ' Odyss. xii. 338. 

• Ibid. xi. 108 ; xii. 359, 364. » Ibid. xii. 370, 372. 



Somnus autem Ulixen ne patriam quidem suam 
Ambr. 97 ^{^ agnosceret sivit, cuius xat Kawvov \ airoOpwrKovra 
vomeral* lfi€Cp€TO. 

3. Nunc a Laertio ad Atridam transeo. Nam illud 
iraau-vSirj, quod eum decepit^ cuius causa tot legiones 
funduntur fugantur^ ex somno at ex somnio profecto 

Quod^^ quom 6 Trotrirrj': Agamemnona laudato quid 

I[vff ovK av Ppl^ovra tSoig *Ayafi€fivova STov 
quid cum reprehendit ? — 

quos quidem versus orator egregius mire quondam 

4. Transeo nunc ad Q. Ennium nostrum^ quem tu 
ais ex somno et somnio initium sibi <scribendi>^ 
fecisse. Sed profecto nisi ex somno suscitatus esset^ 
numquam somnium suum narrasset. 

5. Hinc ad Hesiodum pastorem^ quem dormientem 
poetam ais factum. At enim ego meminisse olim 
apud magistrum me legere : 

iroificvi ^rjXa V€fiovTi trap lyyiov o^io^ linrov 
Ho'id&u Movo'CQiv €<rfi6^ or' ^vruxcrcv* 

TO *' or rprruuTw " vides quale sit^ scilicet ambulanti 
obviam venisse Musas. 

' m* of the Codex adds ^i yahis BavUiv, 
^ Naber quid, ■ Schopen. 

» Odyss. i. 68. « Iliad, iv. 22, 23. • Ihid. ii. 24. 


Sleep, however, did not allow Ulysses a long 
recognition of his native land, from which he 
yearned to see even the smoke leap upwards,^ 

3. Now I leave the son of Laertes for the son of 
Atreus. For that with all haste , which beguiled the 
latter, and led to the defeat and rout of so many 
legions, surely sprang from sleep and a dream. 

Again, when the poet would praise Agamemnon, 
what says he ? — 

Then none might see the godlike Agamemnon sleeping — ^ 

what, when he is finding fault ? — 

No councillor should sleep the whole night long,^ 

verses indeed, which an illustrious orator* once 
wrested in a strange fashion. 

4. I now pass on to our friend Q. Ennius, who, 
you say, drew from sleep and a dream ^ his first 
inspiration to write. But, marry, had he never 
waked from sleep, he had never told his dream. 

5. From him let us to Hesiod the shepherd, who 
became a poet, you say, in slumber. But, indeed, I 
remember reading once upon a time at school : 

When on the swift steed* s track he was leading his 

sheep to the pasture, 
Hesiod once was met in the way by a bevy of Muses, ^ 

That was met, you see what it implies ? Why, that 
he was walking when the Muses met him. 

* Fronto. Jerome calls certain translations of the Scrip- 
tures non versiones sed eversiones. 

» Cicero (Acad. ii. 16) quotes the beginning of Ennius's 
own account of the dream : VisiLS Homerus adesse poeta. 

• cp. Hesiod, Theog, 22 f. 



Quid autem tu de eo existimas, quern qui pulch- 
errime laudato quid ait ? — 

Arabr. 98 VT^Bvfio^ rjSuTTO^ OavoTia | ay^urra eouccus. 

6. Haec satis tui amore <potius> quam meae 
fiduciae ^ luserim. Nunc bene accusato somno dorm- 
itum eo : nam vespera haec ad te detexui. Opto 
ne mihi somnus gratiam referat. 

Am^fr, Hb 

Ad M. Goes. i. 5 (Naber, p. 11). 

M. Caesari Domino suo Fronto. 

1. Domum re verso mihi epistula reddita est> 
quam tu videlicet Romam mihi scripseras^ et erat lata 
Romam ; deinde hodie relata et paulo ante mihi est 
reddita ; in qua pauca quae ego pro somno dixeram 
tu multis et elegantibus argumentis refutasti ita 
scite^ ita subtiliter et apte^ ut si vigilia tibi hoc 
acuminis et leporis adfert^ ego prorsus vigilare te mal- 
lem. Sed enim vespera scripsisse te ais^ quom paulo 
post dormiturus esses. Igitur adpropinquans et im- 
minens tibi somnus tam elegantem banc epistulam 
fecit. Namque ut crocus^ ita somnus^ priusquam 
prope adsit^ longe praeolet, longeque delectat. 

2. Ut a principio igitur epistulae tuae incipiam^ 
elegantissime praevaricari te ais, quod ^ , . . . <ver- 
bum ' adeo proprium> | est ut eo sublato aliud subdi 

^ This word has no proper construction. 
causcLc, * Two pages are lost here. 

> Possibly the word laJbyrintho is meant. 

Query meae fide 

* Odyss. xiii. 80. 



What, again, do you think of that, of whicli its 
most eloquent advocate says what ? 

Sweet dreamless sleep y death's counterfeit?- 

6. Enough of this trifling which I hav^ indulged in 
more from love of you than from my own faith in it. 
Now after soundly abusing sleep, I am off to sleep : 
for I have spun all this out for you in the evening. 
I hope sleep will not pay me out. 

143 A.D. 

Fronto to his Lord Marcus Caesar. 

L On my return home I received your letter 
which you had, of course, written to me at Rome, 
and to Rome it had gone ; then it was brought 
back to-day and delivered to me a little while ago. 
In it, with many happy arguments, you confute the 
little I had said for sleep so cleverly, so subtly and 
aptly, that if wakefulness brings you such sharpness 
and wit,2 I would absolutely prefer you to keep 
awake. But, indeed, you confess that you wrote in 
the evening just before going to sleep. It was the 
near approach, therefore, and overshadowing of sleep 
that produced so felicitous a letter. For, like the 
saffron, sleep, ere it comes close, sheds its fragrance 
from afar and delights at a distance. 

2. To begin, then, with the opening of your letter, 
collusion with sleep, as you term it, is most happy 
.... the word ^ is so apt that, were it withdrawn, 

^ In a fragment of a letter to Marcus as emperor, Charisius, 
Ars Orammatica^ ii. 223, 8, quotes from Fronto adcst etiam 
usque quMque tihi tiat-ura situs lepos ct venustas. 

' This must refer to some word in the lost pages, not to 
praevaricor, which characterizes Marcus' treatment of the 
theme in general. 


VOL. I. H 


eiusdem usus et ponderis non possit. Illud vero 
dictum^ elegans .... aut a via tua quae ais^' 
neque alia omnia quae 'OSvcraetav Jaciunt. 

3. Enimvero omnia istaec inter Graecos versus 
Latina ita scite alternata sunt a te et interposita^ ut 
est ille in pyrrica versieolorum discursus^ quom amicti 
cocco alii, alii luteo et ostro et purpura, alii aliisque * 
cohaerentes concursant. 

4. lam a Laertio ad Atridam eleganter transisti. 
Ecce autem circa Q. Ennium malitiosam pilam de- 
disti, quom ais, nisi ex somno exsuscUatus esset, num- 
quam somnium suum narrasset. <Eruat>^ aliquid 
Marcus meus Caesar, si pote, argutius. Praestigiae 
nullae tam versutae, nulla, ut ait Laevius, decipula 
tarn insidiosa, Qui<d>, si ego id postulo, ne exper- 
giscare? Quin postulo ut dormias. Aliud^ scur- 
rarum proverbium : en cum quo in tenebris mices, Sed 
sumne ego beatus qui haec intellego et perspicio et 
insuper agnomine^ magister appellor? Quo pacto 
ego magister ? qui unum hoc quod te docere cupio, 
ut dormias, non impetro. Perge liti libet, dummodo 

Ambr. 86 di te mihi, sive prodormias sive pervigiles,'' | pro- 
tegant. Vale, meum gaudium, vale. 

^ Fronto may be referring to the word locus, A page is 
lost here. A marginal note in the Codex gives Baiae^ 
Lucrinus, and Avfirnus, as mentioned in the lost part. 

^ The six preceding words are very uncertain. 

' Nov4k for Cod. aliique. 

* Studemund reads the Codex, doubtfully, as Oderit me. 

* Query audi id. 

* Cod. has acnomine above maginter; Naber reads rnagno 



nothing of equal value and force could be put in 
its place. That, again, is a happy expression .... 
or that turn of yours beside the mark where you say 
nor all the other things which make up the Odysiey, 

3. Indeed all that Latin context is interwoven by 
you and alternates as skilfully with the Greek verses 
as the movements of the gaily -drest performers in 
the Pyrrhic reel when they run together, coalescing 
now with these, now with thoi^, dressed some in 
scarlet, others in damask,^ and crimson, and purple. 

4. Again, your transition from Laertius to Atrides 
was neatly done. But come, that was a nasty return 
you gave Q. Ennius when you said that, hcH he not 
awaked from sleep he could not have recounted his 
dream. See if my Marcus Caesar can evolve any- 
thing more dexterous than that. No sleight of word 
so clever, no snare, as Laevius says, so cunningly set. 
What if I beseech you never to wake up? Nay, I 
beseech you to sleep. Another jester's ^ proverb : 
Marry, one with whom you can play odd and even in 
the dark ! But am I not blest in seeing and realizing 
this, and above all in being called by the title 
master .'* How I master ? who cannot get my way 
in this one thing I would have you learn — to sleep. 
Go your own way, provided that, whether you wake 
early or sleep long, the Gods keep you for me. 
Farewell, my joy, farewell. 

' For the meaning of lutens see Fronto apiid Gell. ii. 26, § 8. 

^ Cicero, Ve Off. lii. 19, calls it nisticorum proverhium. To 
** flash with the fingers" was to raise some of them sharply 
for another to rap out the number, a game still played in 
Italy and called mora. 

"^ Naber says there is a gap of one line <incolumem te 
servient et Mahly > , which Studemund denies. 

H 2 


Ad M. Caes. iii. 14 (^aber, p. 52). 

Vat. 241 ad I MaGISTRO mCO. 

fin* * 

Epistula Ciceronis mirifice adfecit animum 
meum. Miserat Brutus Ciceroni librum suum corri- 
gendum . . . .^ 

Ad M. Caes. iii. 15 (Naber, p. 52). 

<DoMiNo meo>. 

Vat. 190 1 I molHantur atque ita efficacius sine 

ulla ad animos ofTensione audientium penetrent. 
Haec sunt profecto quae tu putes obUqua ei insincera 
et anxia et verae amidtiae nunirne accommodata. At ego 
sine istis omnem orationem absurdam et agrestem et 
inconditam,'^ denique inerteni atque inutilem puto. 
Neque magis oratoribus arbitror necessaria eiusmodi 
artificia quam philosophis. In ea re non oratoruni 
domesticis, quod dicitur, testimoniis utar, sed philo- 
sophorum eminentissimis, poetarum vetustissimis ex- 
cellentissimisque^ vitae denique cotidiano usu atque 
cultu artiuinque omnium experimentis. 

2. Quidnam igitur tibi videtur princeps ille sapi- 
entiae simul atque eloquentiae Socrates ? Huic enim 
primo ac potissimo testimonium apud te denuntiavi : 
eone usus genere dicendi, in quo nihil est obliquum, 

^ Two pages are lost, to moUiantur, 

2 Mai for Cod. incognitam. Fronto seems here to have in 
mind Quintil. vi. 3. 107 : ilia est urbanitaSy in qua nihil 
absonum, nihil agrestCf nihil inconditum. 

* Possibly the book De Firtute; see Cicero, Tttsc. v. 1. 
For his other philosophical works see Cicero, Acad, Part. i. 12. 


M. AuRELius AS Caesar to Fronto 


To my master. 
Cicero's letter interested me wonderfully. Brutus 
had sent his book^ to Cicero for corrections .... 

Fronto to M. Aurelius as Caesar 

To ray Lord. 1*^ *''• 

1 be softened and so more effectually 

without any friction enter into the minds of hearers. 
And these are actually the things which you think 
crooked and insincere and laboured ^ and hy no means 
reconcilable with true friendship/ But / think all 
speech without these conventions rude and rustic 
and incongruous^ in a word, inartistic and inept.^ 
Nor, in my opinion, can philosophers dispense with 
such artifices any more than orators. In support of 
my contention I will adduce not "family" evidence, 
as the phrase is, from oratory, but I will call upon 
the most outstanding philosophers, the most ancient 
and excellent poets, in fact, the everyday practice 
and usage of life and the experience of all the arts. 

2. What, then, have you to say about that master 
of eloquence no less than of wisdom, Socrates ? — for 
him, first and foremost, I have subpoenaed as witness 
before you — did he cultivate a style of speech in 
which there was nothing crooked, nothing at times 

^ As in Aul. Gell. xv. 7 and Tac. Ann. i. 8 ; Hildebrand 
on Apnl. Met. iv. 27) takes it as = amhigua. 

^ Fronto is nettled at something Marcus had said against 
conventional insincerities of language. It was not for nothing 
that he was called Verisaimus, 



nihil interdum dissimulatum ? Quibus ille modis 
Protagoram et Polum et Thrasymachum et sophistas 
ceteros versare et inretire solitus? Quando autem 
aperta arte congressus est ? Quando non ex insidiis 
adortus? Quo ex homine nata inversa oratio vid- 
Vat. 189 etur, quam Graeci elpiaveiav \ appellant ? Alcibiaden 
vero ceterosque adulescentes genere aut forma aut 
opibus feroces quo pacto appellare atque adfari sol- 
ebat? Per iurgium an per TroXmav? Exprdbrando 
aeriter quae delinquerent an leniter arguendo ? Ne- 
que deerat Socrati profecto gravitas aut vis, quan- 
tum^ cynicus Diogenes vulgo saeviebat; sed vidit 
profecto ingenia partim hominum ac praeeipue adul- 
escentium facilius comi atque adfabili oratione leniri 
quam aeri violentaque superari. Itaque non vineis 
neque arietibus errores adulescentium expugnabat, 
sed cuniculis subruebat, neque umquam ab eo audit- 
ores discessere lacerati sed nonnumquam lacessiti. 
Est enim genus hominum natura insectantibus in- 
domitum, blandientibus conciliatum. Quam ob rem 
facilius precariis decedimus quam violentis deterr- 
emur, plusque ad corrigendum promovent consilia 
quam iurgia. Ita comitati monentium obsequimur, 
inclementiae obiurgantium obnitimur. 

^ The margin of the Codex gives quantam from another MS. 

^ As when he pretended ignorance [disahmdatio) to elicit 
a definition from others. 



dissembled ? By what methods was he wont to dis- 
concert and entrap Protagoras and Polus and Thrasy- 
machus and the other Sophists ? When did he meet 
them without masking his batteries ? When not 
attack them from an ambush ? From whom^ if not 
from him, can we say that the inverted^ form of 
speech, which the Greeks call ctpcovcia, took its rise ? 
In what fashion, again, used he to accost and ad- 
dress Alcibiades and the other young men who 
prided themselves on birth or beauty or riches ? In 
terms of censure or in terms of suavity ? ^ With 
bitter reproof when they went wrong, or with gentle 
persuasion? And yet Socrates assuredly had as 
much seriousness or force as the cynic Diogenes 
shewed in his habitual brutality. But he saw, 
in fact, that the dispositions of men in a measure, 
and of young men in particular, are more easily 
won over by courteous and sympathetic than by 
bitter and unrestrained language. And so he did 
not attack the errors of youths with mantlets and 
battering rams, but sapped them with mines, and 
his hearers never parted from him torn, though 
sometimes teased. For the race of mankind is by 
nature stiff-necked against the high-handed, but 
responds readily to coaxing. Therefore we give way 
more willingly to entreaties than are frightened into 
submission by violence, and advice rather than de- 
nunciation leads us to improve. So we listen to 
admonition courteously conveyed, but severity of 
correction makes us contumacious.^ 

* The Greek word = civiliter. cp. urbanitas in the quota- 
tion from Quintilian in note on p. 100. 

' Fronto imitates Sallust in the conclusion of this letter. 
The last words are a good specimen of a Frontonian sententia 
or yv<&iJL7i, 



Ad M, Goes. iii. 16 (Naber, p. 53). 

Domino meo. 

1. Quod tu me putes somnum cepisse^ totam 
paene noctem pervigilavi, mecum ipse reputans num 
Vat 148 forte nimio | amore tui remissius et clementius de- 
lictum aliquod tuum aestimarem ; num tu ordinatior 
perfectior iam in eloquentia esse debueris, sed in- 
genium tuum vel desidia vel indiligentia claudat.^ 
Haec mecum anxie volutans inveniebam te multum 
supra aetatem quanta^ est^ multum supra tempus 
quo operam his studiis dedisti^ multum etiam supra 
opinionem meam^ quamquam de te sperem immodica^ 
in eloquentia promovisse. Sed, quo<d> mihi tum 
venit nocte media in mentem, qualem hypothesim 
scribis ! nimirum iiri^eiKTiKT^v, qua nihil est diflicilius. 
Cur? Quia, quom sint tria ferme genera wroOicriuiv 
<€irt8€iKTt#ca)v crv/xj8ovA€vrtKa>v> SiKaviKwv, cetera ilia 
multo sunt proniora, multifaria<m> procliva vel 
campestria, to cTriSct/cTiKov in arduo situm. Denique 
quom aeque tres quasi formulae sint orationis, ia-xyov 
fiia-ov aBpov, prope nuUus in epidicticis rw la^^ 
locus, qui est in di<canic>is' multum necessarius. 

^ For the more usual clavdico, as elsewhere in Fronto. 
The Codex for ingenium tuum has ingenio tuo, which would 
require some such word as cibstct. 

'^ For Cod. quantus (m*) or quantam (m*). 

' For Cod. dicia : Crosslcy suggests dids = hinais. 

^ The epideictic kind {genus demonstrativum of Quintilian 
was for show speech, such as panegyrics, speeches of thanks 


Fronto to Marcus Aurelius as Caesar 

rr« T Ji 143 A.D. 

1 o my Lord. 

1. As for your thinking that I slept soundly, I 
lay awake nearly all night considering with myself 
whether, maybe from too great partiality for you, I 
did not think too lightly and indulgently of some 
shortcoming of yours ; whether you should not by 
now be more trained, more advanced in eloquence, 
were not your abilities hampered either by sloth or 
carelessness. Turning these things over anxiously 
in my mind, I found that you had made much greater 
progress in eloquence than could be expected from 
your age, youthful as it is ; much greater than the 
time that you have devoted to these studies would 
warrant, much greater than the hopes, and those no 
mean ones, which I had formed of you. But as it 
came to me only in the dead of night, what a subject 
you are writing on ! actually one of the epideictic 
kind,^ the most difficult of all. Why ? Because of 
all the three generally received kinds of subject, the 
epideictic, the deliberative, the forensic, the first is 
set on a steep hill, the others are much less of a 
climb, being in many respects on sloping or level 
ground. In short, while there are similarly three 
types, as it were, of oratory, the plain, the medium, 
the luxuriant, in epideictic speeches there is practi- 
cally no place for the plain style, which in forensic 

to the Emperor, and fi€\4rai, like the set declamations of the 
Greek rhetoricians. Quintilian (xii. 58) distinguishes three 
styles in oratory as (1) subtile, {2)jioridum{namque id i^vBrjphv 
appellant) or medium, (3) grande ac rohustum ; but Gellius 
(vii. 14) as gracilis, mcdiocris, uber. The subject here re- 
ferred to as occupying Marcus, may be the speech mentioned 
in the next letter. 



Omnia cv t^ cxtiSciictcx^ aBpwq dicenda^ ubique or- 
nandum^ ubique phaleris utendum; pauea tw ftcVo) 

2. Meministi autem tu plurimas lectiones^ quibus 
Vat 147 usque adhuc versatus | es, comoedias^ atellanas, orat- 
ores veteres, quorum aut pauci aut praeter Catonem 
et Gracchum nemo tubam inflat ; omnes autem mu- 
giuut vel stridunt potius. Quid igitur Ennius egit 
quern legisti? Quid tragoediae ad versum sublim- 
iter faciendum te iuverunt? Plerumque enim ad 
orationem faciendam versus^ ad versificandum oratio 
magis adiuvat. Nunc nuper coepisti legere ornatas 
et pompatioas orationes. Noli postulare statim eas 
imitari posse. Verum, ut dixi, incumbamus^ conit- 
amur. Me vade me praede me sponsore celeriter 
te in cacumine eloquentiae sistam. Di facient, 
di favebunt. Vale, Domine, Koi cXTrt^c kol €vOvfi€L 
Koi XP^^V '^^^ ifjLireipLa ireCOov, Matrem Dominam 

Quom Persarum disciplinam memorares, bene 
battuni^ ais. 

Ad M. Cass, iii. 17 (Naber, p. 55). 

Have mi Fronto merito carissime. 

Intellego istam tuam argutissimam strofam, 
quam tu quidem benignissime repperisti; ut, quia 
* Query battuunt, of fencing. See Suet. CaL 32 ; 64. 

^ Fronto, according to 01. Mamertus, excelled in pompa 
(theepideictic speech) ; according to Macrobius, in the siccum 
'genus (forensic). 



ones is quite essential. In the epideictic speech every- 
thing must be said in luxuriant style, everywhere 
there must be ornament, everywhere trappings must 
be used. The medium style admits but sparingly of 

2. But you remember the numbers of books, of 
which you have up to the present made the acquaint- 
ance, comedies, farces, old-time orators, few of whom, 
perhaps none save Cato and Gracchus, blow a trum- 
pet, but all bellow or, rather, shriek. What, then, 
has Ennius done for you now you have read him? 
What help have tragedies been to you in composing 
verse in the grand style ? For generally it is verse 
that gives the best assistance to composing speeches 
and speeches to writing verse. You have but lately 
begun to read florid and showy ^ speeches. Do not 
expect to be able to imitate them all at once. But, 
as I said, Ibt us bend to the oars, let us make a great 
effort. Quickly shall I set you upon the very pin- 
nacle of eloquence : I will be your surety for it, your 
bondsman, your bail. The gods will assist in it, the 
gods will accomplish it. Farewell, my Lord, be san- 
guine and stout-hearted and trust to time and prac- 
tice. Greet your Lady mother. 

When you spoke of ^ the Persian training, battunt 
was a happy word of yours. 


Hail, my deservedly dear Fronto. 

I see through that most subtle ruse of yours, 
which you indeed hit upon in pure kindness of heart. 

' Either in a letter or perhaps in the speech. If the former, 
it may have been in connexion with their being taught to 
speak the trath. 



laudando me fidem propter egregium erga me 
amorem tuum non habebas^ vituperando laudi fidem 
Vat. 164 quaereres. | Sed o me beatum, qui a Marco Cornelio 
meo^ oratore maximo^ homine Optimo^ et laudari et 
reprehend! dignus esse videor! Quid ego de tuis 
litteris dicam benignissimis verissimis amicissimis? 
verissimis tamen usque ad primam partem libelli tui^ 
nam cetera^ ubi me comprobas^ ut ait nescio quis 
GraecuSj puto Theophrastus/ ru^Xovrai yap to ^iXoOv 
Trepl TO ifiiKovfjitvov, item tu partim meorum prope 
caeco araore interpretatus es. Sed — tanti est me 
non recte scribere et te nuUo meo merito sed solo 
tuo erga me amore laudare^ de quo tu plurima et 
elegantissima ad me proxime scripsisti — ego, si tu 
volueris, ero aliquid. Ceterum litterae tuae id efFec- 
erunt, ut quam vehementer me amares sentirem. 
Sed quod ad aOv/jLiay meam adtinet, nihilo minus 
adhuc animus meus pavet et tristiculus est, ne quid 
hodie in senatu dixerim, propter quod te magistrum 
habere non merear. Vale mi Fronto — quid dicam 
nisi — ^amice optime. 

Ad M. Cass, ii. 1 (Naber, p. 25). 

<DoMiNo meo.>2 
Vat. 160 1. I Posterioribus litteris tuis, cur orationem in 

senatu non recitaverim, requisisti. At ego et edicto 

* For Cod. Thucydides. Jerome quotes the words as from 
Theoph., but they occur also in Plato, Legg. y. 731 E. 

^ The title is left blank. This letter follows in the Codex 
the first Greek letter {EpisL Oraec, 1) which is contained in 
Vat. 166, 165, and again in Ambr. 157 among the Greek letters. 



For not being able to win credit for your praise of 
me by reason of your signal partiality in my case 
you sought to make it credible by throwing in some 
abuse.^ But happy am I that I am thought worthy 
of blame no less than of praise by my Marcus Cor- 
nelius, greatest of orators and best of men ! What 
shall I say of your letter so kind, so true, so loving ? — 
true, that is, as far as the first part of its contents goes, 
but for the rest, where you express approval of me, 
as some Greek, Theophrastus I think, says, the lover 
is blind to the faults of his loved one, so have you been 
almost blinded by love in your judgment of some of 
my work. But so greatly do I value the fact that, 
though I do not write well, I should yet be praised 
by you for no desert of mine, but only because of 
your love for me, of which you have lately sent me 
such numerous and such happily- worded assurances 
that, since you wish it, I rvill be something. At all 
events, your letter had the effect of making me feel 
how much you loved me. But as to my despondency, 
nevertheless, I am still nervous in mind and a little 
depressed, lest I shall have said something in the 
Senate to-day, such that I should not deserve to 
have you as my master. Farewell, my Fronto, my — 
what shall I say but — best of friends. 

Fronto to Marcus Aurelius as Caesar 

rr T J July. 143 A.D. 

To my Lord. ^' 

\. In your last letter you ask me why I have 

not delivered my speech in the Senate. Well, I 

^ Droz {De Frontonis InstiL Orat. p. 47) thinks Fronto had 
been reading an epideictic speech of Marcus's and been 
disappointed by it. 



gratias agere Domino meo patri tuo debeo^ sed 
edictum quidem circensibus nostris proponam^ cuius 
principium id ipsum erit : Quo die primum heneficio 
maximi Prindpis ederem spectacuLum gratissimum populo 
maximeque populare, tempestivom <me>^ duxisse gratias 
agere, ut idem dies — hie aliqua sequatur tulliana con- 
clusio. Orationem autem in senatu recitabo Augustis 
idibus. Quaeras fortasse cur <tam>^ tarde ? Quoniam 
ego numquam <quam>^ primum officio sollenni quo- 
quo modo fungi propero. Sed ut tecum agere debeo 
sine fuco et sine ambagibus^ dicam quid cum animo 
meo reputem. Divum Hadrianum avum tuum laud- 
avi in senatu saepenumero studio impenso et pro- 
penso quoque ; et sunt orationes istae frequenter in 
omnium manibus. Hadrianum autem ego^ quod bona 
venia pietatis tuae dictum sit, ut Martem Gradivom, 
ut Ditem Patrem, propitium et placatum magis volui 
Vat. 159 quam amavi. Quare ? Quia ad amanjdum fiducia 
aliqua opus est et familiaritate : quia fiducia mihi 
defuit, eo quem tanto opere venerabar non sum ausus 
diligere. Antoninum vero ut solem ut diem ut vitam 
ut spiritum amo, diligo, amari me ab eo sentio. 
Hunc nisi ita laudo, ut laudatio mea non in Actis 
Senatus abstrusa lateat, sed in manibus hominum 
oculisque versetur, ingratus sum etiam adversus te. 
Tum, quod cursorem fugitivom ferunt dixisse, domino 
sexagena curreham, mihi centena, utfu^am, curram,^ ego 

^ Or query duxi me. ^ Orelli. ^ Haupt. 

* The margin of Cod. has cur non before curram» 



have to return thanks to my Lord your Father by 
proclamation also^ and that I shall issue at my Games 
in the Circus ; it will begin with these very words : 
On the day on rvhich^ hy the kindness of our great 
Emperor, I am exhibiting a spectacle most attractive to 
the people and popular in the highest degree, I have 
thought it a good opportunity to return thanks to him, that 
the same day — to be followed by some Ciceronian con- 
clusion. My speech I shall deliver on August 13th. 
You will ask, perhaps. Why so late ? Because I am 
never in a hurry to discharge a solemn duty at the 
first possible moment, and anyhow. But, as I ought 
to deal with you without disguise and without circum- 
locution, I will tell you what is in my mind. I often 
praised your grandfather, the deified Hadrian, in the 
Senate, with a steady zeal, aye, and a ready, and those 
speeches are constantly in everyone's hands. Yet, if 
your filial feeling towards him will allow me to say 
so, I wished to appease and propitiate Hadrian, as 
I might Mars Gradivus or Father Dis, rather than 
loved him. Why ? Because love requires some con- 
fidence and intimacy. Since, in my case, confidence 
was lacking, therefore I dare not love one whom I 
so greatly revered. Antoninus, however, I love, I 
cherish like the light, like day, like life, like breath, 
and feel that I am loved by him. Him I must so 
praise that my praise be not hidden away in the 
Journals of the Senate,^ but come into the hands and 
under the* eyes of men, else am 1 ungrateful also 
towards you. Again, as the runaway syce is reported 
to have said, / have run sixty miles for my m^Lster, I 
will run a hundred for myself, to escape ; so I, too, 

^ The official record, like our " Hansard." Julius Caesar 
introduced the castom of keeping this record. 



quoque quom Hadrianum laudabam^ domino curre- 
bam ; hodie autem mihi curro^ mihi inquam^ meoque 
ingenio banc orationem conscribo. Ad meum igitur 
commodum faciam lente otiose clementer. 

2. Tu si et valde properas, aliter te interim ob- 
lecta ; basia patrem tuum^ amplectere, postremo ipse 
eum lauda. Ceterum quidem in id us Augustas tibi 
expectandum est ut quod vis^ quale vis audias. Vale, 
Caesar, et patrem promerere ; et si quid scribere vis, 
lente scribe. 

Jd M. Cass. ii. 2 (Naber, p. 26). 

Vat. 174 I Ml Fronto consul amplissime.^ 

1. Manus do, vicisti : tu plane omnes, qui um- 
quam amatores fuerunt, vicisti amando. Cape coro- 
nam : atque etiam praeco pronuntiet palam pro tuo 
tribunali victoriam istam tuam — M. KopvrjXio^ ^povroyv 
wraros vikoi, orc^avovrat tov aycova T(ov fieydXtov ^tXo- 
TYja-i<s}v. At ego, quamquam superatus, tamen nihil 
de mea prothymia decessero aut defecero. Igitur tu 
quidem me, <mi> magister,^ magis amabis quam 
ullus hominum ullum hominem amat; ego vero te, 
qui minorem vim in amando possideo, magis amabo 
quam ullus hominum te amat, magis denique, quam 
tu temet ipsum amas. lam mihi cum Gratia certa- 
men erit, quam timeo ut superare possim. Nam 
illius quidem, ut Plautus ait, "amoris imber grandi- 
bus guttis non vestem modo permanavit, sed in 
medullam ultro pluit." * 

* Orelli for Cod. quidvis. 

^ Mi is added by m* of the Codex, and consul is Naber's 
reading. * Added by m* over magis. 

^ From the n^rgin of Cod. for fluU in the text. 



when I praised Hadrian, ran for my master, but to- 
day 1 run for myself; for myself, I say, and write 
this speech to please myself. I shall compose it, 
therefore, at my ease, slowly, leisurely, plapidly. 

2. If you are very impatient for it, amuse yourself 
the while in other ways ; kiss your father, embrace 
him, lastly, praise him yourself. But you may cer- 
tainly look forward to hearing on August 13th what 
you would wish and such as you would wish. Fare- 
well, Caesar, and prove worthy of your father, and 
if you wish to write anything, write slowly. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

My most honourable consul, Fronto. ^^^ ^'^' 
1. I give in, you have won : beyond question 
you have conquered in loving all lovers that have 
ever lived. Take the wreath and let the herald, too, 
proclaim in the ears of all before your tribunal 
this your victory — M. Cornelius Fronto^ consul, is the 
winner. He is crowned in the contest of the Great 
Friendship-Games, Yet, though vanquished, will I 
not falter or fail in my devotion. Therefore shall you 
indeed, my master, love me more than any of men 
loves any man, while I, who have less energy in 
loving, will love you more than anyone else loves 
you, more, in fact, than you love yourself. I see I 
shall have a competitor in Gratia,^ and I fear that I 
may not be able to surpass her. For, as Plautus 
says, in her case, ^'not only has the rain of love 
drenched her dress with its thunder-drops, but 
soaked into her very marrow." ^ 

* Fronto's wife. 

^ The nearest passage to this in our extant PI. is Most, i. 
ii. 62 : pro imbre amor advenit in cor meum. Is tuque in 
pectus permanavit, j ^ 

VOL. J. I 


2. Quas tu litteras te ad me existimas scripsisse ! 
Ausim dicere^ quae me genuit atque aluit^ nihil um- 
quam tarn iucundum tamque mellitum eam ad me 
scripsisse. , Nee hoc fit facundia aut eloquentia tua : 

Vat. 173 alioqui non modo mater mea sed omnes qui | spirant^ 
quod faciunt^ confestim tibi cesserint : sed istae 
litterae ad me tuae neque disertae neque doctae^ 
<at> tanta benignitate scatentes^ tanta adfectione 
abundanteSj tanto amore lucentes^ non satis proloqui 
possum ut animum meum gaudio in altum sustu- 
lerint, desiderio flagrantissimo ^ incitaverint,^ post- 
remo, quod ait Naevius, animum amore capitali com- 

3. Ilia alia epistula tua^ qua indicabas cur tardius 
orationem^ qua laudaturus es Dominum meum^ in 
senatu prolaturus esses^ tanta <me> voluptate ad- 
fecit, ut temperare non potuerim — et videris tu an 
temere fecerim — quin eam ipsi patri meo recitarem. 
Quanto opere autem eum iuverit, nihil me oportet 
persequi, quom tu et iliius summam benivolentiam et 
tuarum litterarum egregiam elegantiam noris. Sed 
ex ea re longus sermo nobis super te exortus est, 
multo multoque longior quam tibi et quaestori tuo 
de me. Itaque nee tibi dubito ibidem in foro diu 
tinnisse auriculas. Comprobat igitur Dominus et 
amat causas propter quas recitationem tuam in longi- 
orem diem protulisti . . . . ^ 

^ For Cod. fraglantissitno. 

^ The margin of Cod. gives irieenderi/U as the reading of 
another copy. ' Four pages are lost here. 



2. If you only knew what a letter you have written 
me ! ^ I could venture to say that she who bore me 
and nursed me, even she never wrote me anything 
so delightful, so honeyed. Nor is this due to your 
word^mastery or eloquence, for apply that test and 
not my mother only but all that breathe would, as 
they do, yield the palm at once to you. But I can- 
not express in words how that letter of yours to me, 
not for its eloquence or learning, but bubbling up as 
it does with so much kindness, brimful of such 
affection, sparkling with so much love, has lifted my 
heart up to the heavens, inspired it with the most 
glowing fondness, in a word, as Naevius says, filled 
it mih a love transcendent. 

3. That other letter of yours, in which you pointed 
out why you were going to put off the delivery of 
the speech in the Senate in which you intend to 
eulogize my Lord, delighted me so much that — 
forgive me if I was too hasty — I could not refrain 
from reading it aloud to my father himself. I need 
not dwell on the pleasure it gave him, for you know 
his entire good-will towards you and the matchless 
felicity of your letter. But from this occasion arose 
a long talk between us about you, much, much longer 
than yours and your quaestor's ^ about me. So your 
ears too must have been tingling about that time in 
the forum. My Lord, then, quite approves and 
S3niipathizes with your reasons for putting off the 
delivery of your speech till later .... 

^ Not the letter {Ad M, Caes. i. 3) given on p. 83, as 
Brakman thinks. 
^ Possibly Victorinus, or Fronto's brother Quadratus. 

1 2 


Ad M. Qaes. ii. 4 (Naber, p. 29). 

Vat. 167, I Maoistro meo. 

Ego ab hora quarta et dimidia in banc boram 
scrips! et Catonis multa legi et baee ad te eodem 
ealamo scribo et te saluto et quam commode agas 

^nd ** *^" sciscitor. O quam diu te non vidi [ . . . . 


Ad M, Caes. ii. 5 (Naber, p. 29). 

<M. Caesar consuli amplissimo magistro suo.> 
Ambr. no . . .|deatur. Polemona ante boc triduum 

declamantem audivimus^ ivu tl koi ircpl avOpd^ntav 
Xak-qa-iofAev. Si quaeris quid visus sit mibi^ accipe. 
Videtur mibi agricola strenuus^ summa sollertia prae- 
ditus, latum fundum in sola segete frumenti et vit- 
ibus occupasse^ ubi sane et fructus pulcberrimus et 
reditus uberrimus. Sed enim nusquam in eo rure ficus 
Pompeiana vel bolus Aricinum vel rosa Tarentina 
vel nemus amoenum vel densus lucus vel platanus 
umbrosa : omnia ad usum magis quam ad voluptatem^ 
quaeque [magisj laudare oporteat^ amare non libeat. 
Satisne ego audaci consilio et iudicio temerario^ 
videar^ quom de tantae gloriae viro existimo ? Sed 
quom me recordor tibi scribere^ minus me audere 

^ Six pages are lost from vidi in Ad Caes. ii. 4 above. 
' Orelli adds <ui%>. 

1 See Pliny, N.H. xv. 19. 

' i}>id. xix. 41. The cabbage of Aricia {hrasnca olercicea) is 
said by Pliny to be the most useful of all, but the argument 
requires that it should be only for pleasure. 



Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

To my Master. ^^^ '^•^• 

From half-past ten till now I have been writing 
and have also read a good deal of Cato^ and I am 
writing this to you with the same pen, and I greet 
you and ask you how well you are. Oh, how long 
it is since I saw you ! . . . . 

August, 143 A.D. 

M. Caesar to the most honourable consul his 

.... Three days ago we heard Polemo de- 
claim — that we may have some talk about men also. 
If you would like to know what I think of him, 
listen. He seems to me like a hard-working 
farmer endowed with the utmost shrewdness, who 
has laid out a large holding with corn-crops only 
and vines, wherein beyond question the yield is the 
fairest and the return the richest. But, indeed, 
nowhere in all that estate is there a fig tree ot 
Pompeii,^ or a vegetable of Aricia,^ or a rose or 
Tarentum, nowhere a pleasant coppice or a thick-set 
grove, or a shady plane-tree ; all for profit rather than 
for pleasure, such as one would be bound to praise 
but not disposed to love. In judging a man of such 
reputation,^ am I, think you, bold enough in my pur- 
pose and rash enough in my judgment ? But when I 
remember that I am writing to you, I feel that I 

* From an interesting . anecdote in Philost. ( Vif: Soph. 
p. 231, Kays.) we find that Marcus formed a higher esti- 
mate of Polemo in later life. 



quam tu velis arbitror. Nos istic vehementer aestu- 
amus — habes et hendecasyllabum ingenuum. Igitur 
priusquam poetari incipio, pausam tecum facio. 
<Vale>, desiderantissime homo et tuo Vero caris- 
sime^ consul amplissime, magister dulcissime. Vale 
mi semper anima dulcissima. 

Ad M. Goes. i. 8 [should be ii. IJ (Naber, p. 20). 

Ambr. 60 | Caesari Aurelio Domino meo consul tuus Fronto.^ 

1. Quae sunt 2 aures hominum hoc tempore! 
Quanta in spectandis orationibus elegantia! Ex 
Aufidio nostro scire poteris quantos in oratione mea 
clamores concitarit, quantoque concentu laudantium 
sit exceptum omnis tunc imago patriciis pingehatur in- 
signibus. At ubi genus nobile cum ignobili comparans 
dixi ut si quis ignem de rogo et ara accensum similem 
putet, quod aeque luceat, ad hoc pauci ^ admurmurati 

2. Quorsum hoc retuli ? Uti te, Domine, ita com- 
pareS; ubi quid in coetu hominum recitabis^ ut scias 
auribus serviendum: plane nee ubique nee omni 
modo, attamen nonnumquam et aliquantum.^ Quod 
ubi facies, simile facere te reputato atque illud facitis 
ubi eos, qui bestias strenue interfecerunt, populo 
postulante ornatis aut manumittitis, nocentes etiam 

^ This letter is preceded in the Codex by the mutilated 
letter to Herodes (Ambr. 59), which is also given again 
among the Epist. Oraecae. 

■ Schopen for Cod. sint. • m^ in Cod. pauculi, 

* Schopen for Cod. (diquando, 



am not bold enough for your taste. On that point 
I am desperately doubtful — there's a home-grown 
hendeeasyllable for you ! So I must call a halt with 
you before I fall into the poetic vein. Farewell, 
most missed of men and dearest to your Verus,^ 
most honourable consul, master most sweet. Fare- 
well, my sweetest soul. 

After August 13, 143 a.d. 

To my Lord Aurelius Caesar your consul Fronto. 
1. What nice ears men have nowadays! What 
taste in judging of speeches ! You can learn from 
our Aufidius ^ what shouts of applause were evoked 
in my speech, and with what a chorus of approval 
were greeted the words in those days every bust was 
decorated with patrician insignia; but when, comparing 
a noble with a plebeian race, I said. As if one were to 
think the flame kindled on a pyre and on an altar to he 
the same because both alike give light, at this a few 
murmurs were heard. 

2. Why have I told you this? That you, my 
Lord, may be prepared, when you speak before an 
assembly of men, to study their taste, not, of course, 
everywhere and by every means, yet occasionally 
and to some extent. And when you do so, remind 
yourself that you are but doing the same as you do 
when, at the people's request, you honour or enfran- 
chise those who have slain beasts manfully in the 

^ His name at this time was Marcus Aurelius Verus. 

^ i,e. Victorinus, afterwards the son-in-law of Fronto. 
He was one of Marcus's school friends. Lucian, writing a 
little later, speaks similarly of the critical audiences (Qttnm. 
ffisL Serib. 10). The passage here quoted may have appealed 
to patrician pride ; or its cadence with its repetitioa of the 
etter t may have pleased the hearers. 



homines aut scelere damnatos^ sed populo postul- 
Ambr. 64 ante | conceditis. Ubique igitur populus dominatur 
et praepollet. Igitur ut populo gratum erit^ ita facies 
atque ita dices. 

3. Hie summa ilia virtus oratoris atque ardua est^ 
ut non magno detrimento rectae eloquentiae ^ aud- 
itores oblectet ; eaque delenimenta^ quae mulcendis 
volgi auribus comparat^ ne cum^ multo ac magno 
dedecore fucata sint: potius ut in compositionis 
structuraeque mollitia sit delictum quam in sententia 
impudenti.^ Vestem quoque lanarum <malo> mol- 
litia delicatam esse quam colore muliebri^ filo tenui 
aut serico^ purpuream ipsam^ non luteam nee croc- 
atam. Vobis praeterea, quibus purpura et cocco uti 
necessarium est^ eodem cultu nonnumquam oratio 
quoque est amicienda. Facies istud^ et temperabis 
et moderaberis modo temperamentoque optimo. Sic 
enim auguror : quicquid umquam in eloquentia fac- 
tum sit^ te id perfecturum^ tanto ingenio es praeditus 
tantoque te studio exerces et labore^ quom in aliis 
vel sine ingenio studium vel sine studio solum ingen- 
ium egregiam gloriam pepererit. Certum habeo te, 
Ambr. 6S Dominc, aliquantum temporis etiam prosae orationi | 
conscribendae * impendere. Nam etsi aeque pemic- 

^ Heindorf for Cod. rerta eloquentia. 

^ m' iD the Codex strikes out these two words. 

' m* has iinpucUniia. * For Cod. inscribendae. 

^ Marcus himself refused to do this ; see Dio, Ixzi. 29. 
It was subsequently forbidden by law (Cod. ix. xlvii. 12). 

■ For luteus see Aul. Goll. ii. 26, '§ 8, = " flame-coloured," 
used of a bride's veil. For Fronto's thought cp. Seneca, 
£p. 114 and 100 §§ 5 ff., qtco/^nda^n non est composition 



arena ;^ criminals even they may be or felons, yet you 
release them at the people's request. Everywhere, 
then, the people prevail and get their way. There- 
fore must you so act and so speak as shall please 
the people. 

3. H erein lies that supreme excellence of an orator, 
and one not easily attainable, that he should please 
his hearers without any great sacrifice of right elo- 
quence, and should let his blandishments, meant to 
tickle the ears of the people, be coloured indeed, but 
not along with any great or wholesale sacrifice of 
dignity: rather that in its composition and fabric 
there should be a lapse into a certain softness but 
no wantonness of thought. So, too, in a garment, 
I should prefer it to be of the softness that belongs 
to wool rather than to an effeminate colour ; it should 
be of finely woven or silken thread, and itself purple 
not flame-red 2 or saffron. You and your father, 
moreover, who are bound to wear purple and crimson, 
must on occasion clothe your words, too, in the same 
dress. You will do this and be restrained and 
moderate with the best moderation and restraint. 
For this is what I prophesy, that what has ever been 
done in eloquence will be done to the full by you, so 
great is your natural capacity, and with such zeal 
and application do you devote yourself to learning ; ^ 
although, in others, either applieation without 
capacity, or capacity alone without application, has 
won outstanding glory. I feel sure, my Lord, that 
you spend no little time in writing prose also. For 

modulatio est; adeo blanditur et mollUer labitur; and lege 
Ciceronem; composUio una est; pedem servat lenia et sine 
infamia mollis, 

' Gapit. Vit. Mar. iii. 7, says of Marcus : tantum operis et 
lahoris studiis impendit, lU corpus adficeret. 



itas equorum exercetur sive quadrupedo <cursu>^ 
currant atque exerceantur seu tolutim, attamen ea 
quae magis necessaria^ frequentius sunt experiunda. 

4. lam enim non ita tecum ago ut te duos et 
viginti annos natum cogitem. Qua aetate vixdum 
quicquam veterum lectionum adtigeram ^ deorum et 
tua virtute profectum tantum in eloquentia adsecutus 
es^ quantum senioribus ad gloriam sufficiat et^ quod 
est difficillimum^ in omni genere dicendi. Nam 
epistulae tuae, quas adsidue scripsisti^ mihi satis 
ostendunt quid etiam in remissioribus et tullianis 
facere possis. 

5. Pro Polemone rhetore, quem mihi tu in epistula 
tua proxime exhibuisti tullianum, ego in oratione, 
quam in senatu recitavi,^ philosophum reddidi, nisi 
me opinio fallit, perantiquom.^ An quid tu dicas,^ 
Marce, quemadmodum tibi videtur fabula Polemonis 
a me descripta ? Plane multum mihi facetiarum con- 
tulit istic Horatius Flaccus, memorabilis poeta mihi- 
que propter Maecenatem ac Maecenatianos hortos 

Ambr. 55 meos non I alienus. Is namque Horatius sermonum 
libro secundo^ fabulam istam Polemonis inseruit, si 
recte memini, hisce versibus : — 

Mutatus Polemon ponas insignia morhiy 
Fasciolas, cubital, focaUa, potus ut ille 
Dicitur ex collofurtim carpsisse coronas, 
Postquam et impransi correptus voce magistri, 

^ Niebuhr. * Heind. for Cod. adegeram, 

3 On Aug. 13, 143. * Cod. perdticum, 

^ Buttmann would read iudicaa. • Satires, ii. 3, 254. 

* Marcus was bom April 26, 121 a.d. 

^ Polemo, a tipsy gallant, bursting into the lecture room 
of Xenocrates, was converted by what he heard to better 
ways, and succeeded him as head of the Academy. 

^ Augustus gave the site of the cemetery on the Esquiline 



though the swiftness of steeds is equally well exer- 
cised whether they run and practise at a gallop or a 
trot, yet the more serviceable qualities must be the 
more frequently put into requisition. 

4. For by now I do not treat you as if I thought you 
were twenty-two ^ years old. At an age when I had 
scarcely touched any of the ancient authors you, by 
the grace of the gods and your own merit, have made 
such progress in eloquence as would bring fame to 
greybeards, and that, too — a far from easy task — in 
every branch of the art. For your letters, which you 
write so regularly, are enough to shew me what you can 
further do in that more familiar and Ciceronian vein. 

5. Instead of Polemo the rhetorician, whom you 
lately presented to me in your letter as a Ciceronian, 
I have given back to you in my speech, which I 
delivered in the Senate, a j)hilosopher,2 if I am not. 
mistaken, of the hoariest antiquity. Come, what say 
you, Marcus, how does my version of the story of 
Polemo strike you ? Of course, Horatius Flaccus, a 
famous poet, and one with whom I have a connexion 
through Maecenas and my "gardens of Maecenas,"^ 
supplied me with plenty of smart things on that 
subject. For this Horatius, in his second book of 
Satires, brings in the story of Polemo, if I remember 
rightly, in the following lines : — 

Would you the marks of mental ill forswear, 
The scarf, spats, lappet, that the rake declare ? 
Be changed, like JPolemo, who, in drunken rage. 
Scoffed at the teaching of the sober sage ; 
But cvi to the heart hy what he heard, His said. 
Plucked off' hy stealth the garlands from his head. 

to Maecenas, who covered it with 26 feet of earth and there 
laid out his ** gardens," of which Fronto was now the 
owner. See Lanciani, Ancient Home, p. 67 (1889). 



6. Versus, quos mihi miseras, remisi tibi per Vict- 
orinum nostrum atque ita remisi : chartam diligenter 
lino transui, et ita linum obsignavi ne musculus iste 
aliquid aliqua rimari possit. Nam mihi ipse de tuis 
hexametris numquam quicquam impertivit, ita est 
malus ac malitiosus. Sed ait te de industria cito et 
cursim hexametros tuos recitare : eo se memoriae 
mandare non posse. Remuneratus est igitur a me 
mutuo. Paria habet, ne ullum hinc versum audiret. 
Memini etiam te frequenter, ne cuiquam versus tuos 
ostenderem, admonuisse. 

7. Quid est, Domine ? Certe hilaris es, certe bene 
vales, omnium rerum certe sanus es. Male dum 
similiter ne umquam nos perturbes ut natali tuo per- 

Ambr. 56 turbasti, cetera | minus laboro. Et rt crot Kaxov, cts 
HvppaLtav /cc^aX^v. Vale meum gaudium, mea secur- 
itas, hilaritas, gloria. Vale et me, obsecro, omni 
modo ames qua ioco qua serio. 

Epistulam matri tuae scripsi, quae mea impudentia 
est, Graece, eamque epistulae ad te scriptae implicui. 
Tu prior lege et, si quis inerit barbarismus, tu qui a 
Graecis litteris recentior es corrige, atque ita matri 
redde. Nolo enim me mater tua ut opicum contem- 
nat. Vale, Domine, et matri savium da, quom epis- 
tulam dabis, quo libentius legat. 



6. The verses which you sent me I have sent you 
back by our Victormus^ and this is how I have sent 
them. I have carefully sewn the paper across with 
thready and so sealed the thread that that little 
mouse should poke his nose in anywhere. For 
he himself has never given me any information 
about your hexameters^ so naughty is he and 
knavish. But he says that you purposely recite 
your hexameters so glibly and so fast that he cannot 
commit them to memory. So I have paid him back 
in his own coin : tit for tat — not to hear a line out of 
the packet. I remember, too, that you have often 
impressed upon me not to let anyone see your verses. 

7. How is it with you, my Lord ? Surely you are 
cheerful, surely you are well, surely sound in all 
respects. Other things are of little consequence, so 
you never give us the bad fright you did on your 
birthday. 1 If any evil threatens you, " may it fall on 
the Pyrrhaeans* heads." ^ Farewell, my joy, my 
refuge, happiness, glory. Farewell, and love me, I 
beseech you, every way in jest as in earnest. 

I have written your mother a letter, such is my 
assurance, in Greek, and enclose it in my letter to 
you. Please read it first, and if you detect any bar- 
barism in it, for you are fresher from your Greek 
than I am, correct it and so hand it over to your 
mother. I should not like her to look down on me 
as a goth. Farewell, my Lord, kiss your mother 
when you give her my letter, that she may read it 
the more gladly. 

1 April 26. 

' See Zenob. Prov, Cent. iv. 2. Nothing is known of the 



Ambr. S42, 
ad inii. 

Ad AjUoninum Piumy 1 (Naber, p. 163). 

Imperatori Antonino Pio Augusto Fronto.^ 

I Ut meministi^ Caesar, quom tibi in senatu 
gratias agerem, desiderio quodam <dicendi> .... 
quae distuler<am> .... senatu frequentior .... 
sum. Nam litteras, quae <eo> die recitabantur 
.... librum .... Dominus .... Bene vale.^ 

Ad Antoninum Pium, 2 (Naber, p. 163). 

M. Frontoni Antoninus Caesar. 

Quanta <8it erga> me tua <benivolentia iam 
pridem> hercule <satis scio, sed hoc plane admiror, 
ista nova et ingenio tuo digna .... orator>3 op- 
Ambr. 841 time | in tam trita et adsidua tibi materia invenire 
te^ posse. Sed videlicet valde potens est, quod sum- 
me efficere possis, etiam velle. Nihil istis sensibus 
validius, nihil elocutione, salva sanitate tamen, civ- 
ilius. Neque enim hoc <c>omittam/ ut te iustissima 
laude fraudem, dum metuo ne insolenter laudes meas 
laudem. Bene igitur accepisti et rectissimo opere, 
cui plane seposita materia omnis honor debetur. 
Ceterum ad ostentandum mihi animum tuum non 
multum egit ; nam esse te benignissimum omnium 
factorum et dictorum meorum conciliatorem bene 
noveram. Vale mi Fronto carissime mihi. 

^ The title may have been added by Mai. 

2 The letter covered about twenty -five lines, or one column 
of the Codex. 

' The mutilated passage covers about eight lines : so I 
understand Mai, but possibly he means that eight lines are 
lost between Quanta and me, 

* Ehrenthal for Cod. eL « Mai. 



143 A.D. 

Fronto to the Emperor Antoninus Pius Augustus. 

As you remember, Caesar, when I returned 

thanks ^ to you in the Senate 



143 A.D. 

Antoninus Caesar to Marcus Fronto. 

How great is your good- will towards myself I 
have long known well enough, by Hercules, but what 
astonishes me .... best of orators, is that in such 
a hackneyed and thread-bare subject you can find 
anything to say that is new and worthy of your 
abilities. But no doubt the mere wish is an immense 
help towards what you can do so well. Nothing 
could be more effective than your thoughts, nothing 
more complimentary, yet without any sacrifice of 
good sense, than your expression of them. For I 
will not be guilty of defrauding you of your legiti- 
mate praise for fear of arrogantly praising the praise 
of myself. You have done your duty pleasingly and 
in unexceptionable fashion, for which, apart from all 
question of the subject, you deserve every credit. 
But as for shewing me your mind, it has not done 
much in that way, for I knew well enough that you 
always would put the most favourable construction on 
every word and act of mine. Farewell, my Fronto, 
my very dear friend. 

^ Whether thie and the following letter refer to the thanks 
for Fronto's consulship is not clear. If so, we should have ex- 
pected Pius to give Fronto his title of consul. 



Ilia pars orationis tuae circa Faustinae meae hon- 
orem gratissime a te adsumpta verior mihi quam 
disertior visa est. Nam ita se res habet : mallem 
mehercule Gyaris cum ilia quam sine ilia in Palatio 

Ad M, Caes, ii. 3 (Naber, p. 28). 

<Marcus Caesar Consul! suo et magistro.> 
Vat 168 1. I Sane, si quid Graeci veteres tale scripserunt, 

viderint qui sciunt; ego, si fas est dicere, nee M. 
Porcium tarn bene vituperantem quam tu laudasti 
usquam adverti. O si Dominus meus satis laudari 
posset, profecto a te satis laudatus esset ! ToOro to 
€pyov ov yiVerai vvv. Facilius quis Phidian, facilius 
Apellen, facilius denique ipsum Demosthenem imi- 
tatus fuerit aut ipsum Catonem, quam hoc tam effec- 
turn et elaboratum opus. Nihil ego umquam cultius 
nihil antiquius nihil conditius nihil Latinius legi. O 
te hominem beatum hac eloquentia praeditum ! O 
me hominem beatum huic magistro traditum. O ctti- 
X^iprjfMLTa ! O Tctf IS 1 O elegantia ! O lepos ! O venus- 
tas ! O verba ! O nitor ! O argutiae ! O kharites ! 
O ao-Ki/o-ts ! O omnia ! Ne valeam nisi aliqua ^ die 
virga in manus tibi tradenda erat,^ diadema circum- 
ponendum, tribunal ponendum : tum praeco omnes 
nos citaret — quid nos dico? omnes, inquam, philo- 
logos et disertos istos — eos tu singulos virga perduc- 

^ m' of the Codex above the line. 

' Ehrenthal erit. For Cod. perhaps cp. Hor. Od. i. 36. 4. 
Possibly aliqua is wrong. 

^ Faustina the younger, daughter of Pius, seems to be 
meant, as Mommsen suggested. 



That part of your speech, which you most kindly 
devoted to honouring my Faustina/ seemed to me 
as true as it was eloquent. For this is the plain 
fact : By heaven, I would sooner live with her in 
Gyara^ than in the palace without her. 

143 A.D. 

Marcus Caesar to his own consul and master. 
1. Whether the Greeks of old ever wrote any- 
thing so good,^ verily let those see to it who know ; 
for myself, if I may say so, nowhere have I noticed 
in M. Porcius an invective so perfect as your praise. 
Oh, if my Lord could be praised enough, surely he 
had been enough praised by you. This work is not 
done in these days. Easier were it for one to rival 
Pheidias, easier Apelles, easier, in fine, Demosthenes 
himself or Cato himself, than this perfect and finished 
work. Never have I read anything so refined, so 
classical, so polished, so Latin. Oh, happy you to 
be gifted with such eloquence ! Oh, happy 1 to be 
in" the hands of such a master! What reasoned 
thoughts ! What orderly arrangement ! What eleg- 
ance ! What wit ! What beauty ! What diction ! 
What brilliance I What subtlety ! What charm ' 
What practised skill ! What everything ! My life 
on it, but some day you ought to have the wand * 
placed in your hand, the diadem round your brow, 
the tribunal under your feet : then the herald should 
summon all of us — why do I say us? I mean all 
your learned folk and your eloquent — one by one 
you should wave them along with your wand and 

^ An Aegean island to which banished persons were sent. 
^ Marcus is referring to Fronto's speech of thanks to Pius 
in the Senate. * As symbol of authority. 

VOL. I. K 


eres, verbis moneres. Mihi adhuc nullus metus 
Vat 1C7 huius monitionis erat ; { multa supersunt ut in ludum 
tuum pedem introferam. 

2. Haec cum summa festinatione ad te scribo^ nam 
quom Domini mei ad te epistulam^ mitterem tam 
benignam^ quid meis longioribus litteris opus erat ? 
Igitur vale, decus eloquentiae Romanae, amicorum 
gloria, fiiya Trpayfxa, homo iucundissime, consul am- 
plissime, magister dulcissime. 

3. Postea cavebis de me, praesertim in senatu, 
tam multa mentiri. Horribiliter scripsisti banc 
orationem. O si ad singula capita caput tuum 
basiare possem ! *l(r\vp(x}<s ttolvtudv Kara,* f <^p vrjKas ! 
Hac oratione lecta frustra nos studemus, frustra 
laboramus, frustra nervos contendimus. Vale 
semper, magister dulcissime. 

Bpist. Graecae 1 (Naber, p. 239). 

Ambr. 5G, | MrjTpl KatVapos ^ 

Arabr. ?57^ ^ ' ^^^ ^^ aTToXoyrjo-dfievo^ crvyyviafiv)^ irapa arov 


B^\ov OTL T7JV aXrjOrj rrj^ a<T\oXLa^ chroiv alrlav ; \6yov 
yap (TvvT^ayov nva irepl tov fieyaXov )8a(rtX€CDS. 17 8c 
Ttov FtofJLaitov TTapoLfiLa ** <^iA.ov rpoirov firj fiKrelv akX^ 
€LO€vaL <prjcri octv. oios oc ovfios rpowos <ppa.a'ni Kai 
OVK airoKpvil/o/Jiau vtto t^s ttoAX'^s dc^via? Koi ov^cvctots 

^ Probably the previous letter. 

'^ This letter is given twice iu the Cod., viz. Ambr. 56, Vat. 
155, 165, and Ambr. 157, 158, 163, 164. 

^ He knows his own weakness and never feared admonition, 
because he knows how much he needs it and such a teacher. 
* Demosth. 928, 6. 
^ Horribiliter' appears to be a slang use. 



admonish them with the words of your lips. For 
myself I never had any fear of these admonitions ; 
I have more reasons than enough for setting foot in 
your school.^ 

2. I am writing this to you in the utmost haste^ 
for what need of a longer letter from me when I 
send you so gracious a one of my Lord's ? Farewell, 
then, glory of Roman eloquence, pride of your 
friends, a man of mark,^ most delightful of men, 
most honourable consul, master most sweet. 

3. In future be chary of telling so many fibs, 
especially in the Senate, about me. This speech of 
yours is ^^awfully *' ^ well written. Oh, if I could 
only kiss your head for every heading of it ! You 
have absolutely put everyone else in the back- 
ground. With this speech before our eyes, vain is 
our study, vain our toil, vain our efforts. Fare ever 
well, sweetest of masters. 


To the mother of Caesar. * ' 

1. What excuse* of mine can win your pardon 
for my not having written to you all this time, if it 
be not by my stating the true cause of my want of 
leisure, that I had composed a speech about our 
great Emperor? Tlie Roman saw bids us ^^not 
hate a friend's ways but ken them." ^ What 
mine are I will tell you, and not conceal them. 
From my great natural incapacity and worthlessness 

^ A marginal note in the Codex says that this letter was 
to excuse Fronto's silence post integrilatem redditam. Fronto's 
health seems meant. 

^ ** Amici mores noveris rum oderis" See Trench, On PrO' 
verbs, p. 49, note. 


K 2 


ojjioiov TL Tra(T\ia t^ vtto rSiv 'Po)fiai<ov vatvrj KoXovfJievrj, 
^9 Tov rpd)(r)\ov /car' €vOv rcranrOai Xeyovo'tv, KdfnrT€cr6aL 
Vat. 166 §€ iirl Odrepa | twv TrXcvpoiv ft*^ Swao-^at. Kayw 8^ 
€7r€iSav Tt (nn^aTTO) TrpoOvfioTcpov, OLKa/JLTri^s tCs €t/xt Kat 
Twv aW<ji)V d7rdvT<i)v d^€/xevo9) ctt' ckcivo fjiovov i€/JLat 
fiV€7rt(rTp€7rT€t Kara tiJi' vaivav. koI ^ rovs o^cts Se 

<t>a(rLV TGL dKOVTLa ^ OVTW TTCOS aTT€LV Kar €vOv, TOL? Sc 

dAAo9 (TTpo^as ft^ a'Tp€<f>€cr6aL' Koi ra Sopara SI #cai tol 
To^a TOT€ /AoXtcTTa Tvy)(dv€i rov (tkottov, orav cv^ciav a^ 
firjre vtt' dvifiov Trapoxr^ei/ra, /u-iyrc vtto ;(€tpos 'A^iyvas 
ly 'AttoAAwvos affxiXevra, Sxrir^p to. viro TevKpov rj ra viro 
Tiav p.vYj(TTi^p(ov pkrjOivTa, 

2. Tavras fi^v Br) rpcts etKova? i/xavrQ irpoceiKacra, 
Tots /A€v 8vo dypia% Kai OrjpnaBei^f Tr)v rrj*: vaivrjs koI rr]v 
T(ov o^ccDV,^ rpirrjv 8c rrjv twv fieXtov kol avrrjv dirdv 

Ambr. 158 Opi^TTOv | oucrav Kat dfiovarov. €i Se 8^ /cat tcuv dvtfjuov 
<l>at7jv €TraLV€i(rOaL fidXiiTTa rov ovpioVy otl 8t; ctt' cu^v 
<f>€pOL rrjv vavVj dXXa firj €ts tol irXayia aTrovcveti/ cw, 17 
TfrdpTq av €Lr) avny cikwv Kat avrrj ptaid, ct St irpocr- 
6€Lr]v KOL TO T^s ypafifxrjs, on irpea-PvTdTrj twv ypafJLfxuiv 
17 cir^ctd 6(rTiv, TrifXTTTYjv av ctKova Xeyot/Ai, /a^ jjlovov 
d\pv\ov SxriTip TTjv tQ)v SopdroyVf dXXa Kat darMfiarov 
ravrrp^ ovarav. 

3. T/s tti' ovv ctKuiV €vp€0€i7j TnOavyj ; fJidXiarra pXv 
Vsit. 165 dvOpuyirivq, dfjifivov 8c et Kat /j.ovo'LKrj' ct | 8c av ffuXias 

KOI €p(t)TOS aVTy IJI.€T€L7Jf fJioiWoV ttV CTt TJ * tlKttiV COtKOl. 

Tov *Op<f>ia ^acTtv olfiut^aL 6;rt(ra) CTrwrrpat^crTa* ct 8c 

^ Before koI the Vat. Cod. ha.s i|, for which Naber sug- 
gests ^Tl. 

* Buttmann reads rohs uKovrtas. 

» Vat. Cod. oLKoprlccv. *'Vat. Cod. tU- 



I labour under much the same defect as the animal 
called by the Romans a hyena, whose neck, they 
say, can be stretched out straight forward but can- 
not be bent to either side.^ So I, when I am putting 
together anything with more than usual care, am, in 
a way, immovable, and, giving up all else, aim at 
that alone, like the hyena not turning to the right 
hand or to the left. Again, they say that the snakes 
called " darters '* ^ in much the same way project 
themselves straight forwards, but never move side- 
ways ; and spears and arrows are most likely to hit 
the mark when they are propelled straight, neither 
made to swerve by the wind, nor foiled by Athene's 
hand or Apollo's, as were the arrows shot by Teucer 
or the suitors. 

2. These three similes, then, have I apphed to 
myself, two of them fierce and savage, that of the 
hyena and that of the snake, and a third drawn from 
missiles, it, too, non-human and harsh. And if, in- 
deed, I were to say that of winds the one astern 
was especially to be commended because it takes a 
ship straight forward nor lets it make leeway, tliis 
would be a fourth simile, and that a forcible one. 
And if I added this also of the line, that the straight 
line is the chiefest of all lines, I should produce a 
fiftli simile, not only inanimate like that of the 
spears, but this one also incorporeal. 

3. What simile, then, can be found convincing? 
One above all that is human, better still if it be also 
cultured ; and if it partake, too, of friendship and 
love, the simile would be all the more a similitude. 
They say that Orpheus rued his turning to look 

1 Pliny, N.H. viii. 30. 

2 The arrow-snake, Isaiah, xxxiv. 15 : so iaculi serpentes, 
Lucan ix. 720, and cp. Hor. Odes^ iii. 27, 6. 


Kar €v6v €p\€ir€V t€ Ktti ifid&L^€Vf ovK av wfno^ev. aAts 
€Ik6vo}v. kol yap avrrj ns airtOavo^ rj rov 'Op<^e(09 
€tKit)V €g abov avLfiy/fi^vrj. 

4. ^Airokoy-qarofiaL 8c rovvrevOev rjSrj oOev av p^crra 
<rvyyv(afirjs rvxpifAL. ri 8^ tovto iariv ; otl G^vyypdt^iav 
TO Tou PafTiXiis)^ eyKWfilov lirpaTTOv <7rp(0T0i/>^ /' o 
/AoXiora o"ot t€ koX tw cw 7rai8l K€)(apL(rfX€vov ccrrtV* 
CTTCira 36 Kai vfiitiv ifxtfivi^iJLrjv kol u}v6fia^ov 6c vfias cv r(3 
(rvyypdjjifjLaTL, winrep ol ipaaral toi»9 <^t\TaTovs ovofid^- 
ov(TLV iirl Trd(rj[f kv\ikl. dAAa yap 17 Tcp^i^ciMrts * twv 
CLKOVttiv c-TTCMrpct Kttt CTTti^vcTai. ttUT*; yovv 7rap€<l>dvrj, 
rjv iiTL TTttcais Xcyw, ^Tt9 Kai Sifcaiorara cuo)!/ av wpocr- 

Ambr. 163 ayop€voLTo, ovaa €#c fajypa|<^ov rov IIpajToyci/i; rov 
J[<uiypdff>ov ifiOLiTLV lt/3cKa ^T€<nv tov *ldXv(rov ypai/rai, 
/xiyScv CTcpov €1/ Tots cvScKtt €Te(rLV ri tov ^Idkvcrov ypd- 
ijiovra. c/xol 8c ov;( ct^, 8vo 8c dfjLa 'laXvcrcu €ypa€l>€<r$rfv, 
ov 817 TOtv irpocrdyrroiv ovSc rati/ fji0p<f>aiv fiovaiv dWa Kal 
roLV rpoTToiv koX toIv dptraLV ov ixf.rpiiii 6vt€ dp<l>(j) ovBk 
ypd<f>€a'dai pa8ia), dW 6 /acv cctiv fieyas /3aori\€v^ dp^mv 

Vat. 165 vdayji TTJs yrjs Kal Oakdrrrj^f 6 8* crcpos vios fJL€yd\ov | 
fiaa-ikiiosy €K€ivov /xcv ovtco Trats SiO"irip *AOrfvd rov Atos^ 
(Tos oc (01/ vtos, 0)9 Tiy? Jtlpa9 o ri^atoros* aTrccTTW dc to 
T(t)v TToStov ravTTjs rrjs rov Ht^atcTTOu ctKovos. 17 /acv oi^i^ 
aTToAoyta auTT; av ctry Travi; Tts ciKao-TtK^ ycvo/xcvr; Kal 
ypa<f>iKrj cikovojv ckitXcws avrr; fidXa, 

5. "Eti fcaTGi Tovs ycw/xcTpas atTT^o-o/Aat — to ttoiov ; ct 
Tt Tuiv ovofidrwv cv Tats cTrto-ToAats Tavrats cm; oKvpov r^ 

* Vat. Cod. avttfifvri : Ambr. iiyrifi(ifi€vri. ^ Brakman. 
' Mai reads ircxvws t6, but Studemund says the Codex has 


* Brakman for Cod. fftavios, with correction vtbs by m*. 




back : had he looked and walked straight ahead he 
had not rued. Enough of similes. For this, too^ is 
somewhat unconvincing, this simile of Orpheus 
fetched up from Hades. 

4. But I will now for the rest plead in excuse 
what will most easily win me pardon. What, then, 
is this ? That in writing the Emperor's encomium 
I was doing, in the first place, what was especially 
gratifying to you and your son ; in the next 1 re- 
membered and mentioned both of you in the com- 
position, just as lovers name their darlings over every 
cup. But, indeed, the craftmanship of similes is an 
insinuating thing and grows on us. This one, at any 
rate, has occurred to me, which I add to all the others, 
and indeed it can most fairly be called a simile (or 
likeness), being taken from a painter. Protogenes the 
painter is said to have taken eleven ^ years to paint 
his lalysHS, painting nothing but the lalysus all those 
eleven years. But, as for me, I painted not one but 
two lalysuses at once, being no ordinary ones either 
of them, nor easy to depict, not only in respect of 
their faces and figures, but also of their characters 
and qualities, for the one is the great Imperator of 
all land and sea, and the other the great Imperator* s 
son, his child in the same way as Athene is of Zeus, 
but thy son as Hephaestus is of Hera. But let there 
be no "halting'*^ in this simile from Hephaestus. 
This defence of mine, then, would seem to be wholly 
verisimilous and picturesque, full as it is in itself of 
similes entirely. 

5. It remains that I should, after the fashion of 
geometers, ask — what ? If any word in this letter be 

* Phitarch {Demtfr. 22) says seven years, c/j. Pliny, N.Jf, 
XXXV. 36, §§ 10, 20. 
2 For the lame Hephaestus see Horn. //. i. cuJ fin. 


Pdp^apov rj aXkias aSoKifiov fj firj wdw aTTiKoVf ft<^ 
TOVT , dA.X>a ^ Tov ovo/iaros cc df iw rrjv Bidvotav o-kottciv 
avTTfv Kad* avnjv oTaOa yap on iv auTots ^ ovofiaaiv koi 
airy 8La\iKT<a Starptfiu).^ koll yap tov ^kvOtjv €K€ivov 
TOV ^Avd^aptriv ov 7raw_ ti aTTLKiarai <Pa<TLV, iTraiViOrjvai 
8c €K T^s 3iavo£a9 Kttt Twv ivOvp-rffxartDV. TrapapaXla 
Sr) €p.avTov ^ Ava)(apa'LBi ov fia Aia Kara rrjv a'o<f>Lav 
Aml>r. 104 dXAa Kara to Papfiapoi ofioCias cTvai. | *Hv yap 6 /acv 
^KvOrjs To>v vo/ia8<ov S'ci^^cov, cyo) Sk Aifiv^ t(ov Ai)Sv<ov 
Twv vofidj^iov. Koivov Brj to vc/xeo'^at €/uiot T€ icat *Ava- 
;(a|0O-tSf Koivov ovv IcTTat Kat to pX.rf)(iao'$at V€p.op.€uoLSf 
OTTiOs av Tts l3Xrj)(q<rrjTai. oirrws /licv 8^ Kat to fiap- 
papl^€LV T« p\ri')(a(T6ai Trpoo'cifcao'cu ovkoiJi/ 
firjhtv €T€pov ypd<f>ii)V dXX* 17 eiKova?. 

^rf iV. Cacb'. ii. 10 (Naber, p. 33). 

<Marcus Caesar Frontoni consuli amplissiino.> 

Ambr. 102 1 | adfinitate sociatum, neque tutelae 

subditum^ praeterea in ea fortiina constitutum^ in 
qua^ ut Q. Ennius ait^ 

Ofnnes dant consilium vanum alqne ad volupiateni omnia ; 

item quod Plautus egregie in Colore super eadeni 
re ait, 

Qui datajidejirmata Jidentem Jef'ellerunt, 

SubdoU subsentatoreSy regi qui sunt proxirni, 

Qui aliter regi dictis dicunt, aliter in animo habent. 

* Brakman. 

* Jacobs would read SXAoty, and iAAij for aur'ji, 
' Heindorf would insert oh. 



obsolete or barbarous^ or in any other way unauthor- 
ized, or not entirely Attic, look not at that, but only, 
I beseech you, at the intrinsic meaning of the 
word, for you know that I do spend time on mere 
words or mere idiom. And, indeed, it is said that the 
famous Sc3rthian Anacharsis was by no means perfect 
in his Attic, but was praised for his meaning and his 
conceptions. I will compare myself, then, with 
Anacharsis, not, by heaven, in wisdom, but as being 
like him a barbarian. For he was a Scythian of the 
nomad Scythians, and I am a Libyan of the Libyan 
nomads. I as well as Anacharsis may browse fresh 
pastures, bleat therefore as well as he while browsing, 
just as one wills to bleat. See, I have assimilated 
barbarism to bleating. So will I make an end of 
writing nothing but similes. 

143 A.I). 

M. Caesar to the most honourable consul Fronto. 
1 connected by marriage^ and not sub- 
ject to guardianshi[) and stationed besides in a social 
position in which, as Q. Ennius says. 

All give foolish counsel, and look in all to pleasing only ; 

and Plautus, too, in his Colax, says finely on the same 

Crajly cajolers, who with fast-pledged faith 
Take in the trustjul : these stand round a king. 
And what they speak is far from what they think. 

* Marcus appears to be speaking of himself. At the end 
of the preceding letter {Ad M, Cues. ii. 9, p. 146) and the 
beginning of this one several pages are lost. 



Haec enim olim incommoda regibus solis fieri sol- 
ebant, at enim nunc adfatim sunt, qui et regum filiis, 
ut Naevius ^ ait, 

Linguis Jttveant atque adnutent et suhserviant. 

Merito ergo,^ mi magister, ita flagro ; ^ merito unum 
meum (tkottov mihi constitui ; merito unum hominem 
cogito quom stilus in manus venit. 

2. Hexametros meos iueundissime petis, quos ego 
quoque confestim misissem, si illos mecum haberem. 
Nam librarius meus, quem tu nosti, Anicetum dico, 
quom proficiscerer, nihil meorum scriptorum mecum 
misit. Scit enim morbum meum et timuit ne, si 
venissent in potestatem, quod soleo facerem et in 
furnum dimitterem. Sane istis hexametris prope 

Ambr. 101 nullum periculum | erat. Ut enim verum magistro 
meo confitear, amo illos. Ego istic noctibus studeo, 
nam interdiu in theatro. Itaque minus ago vespera 
fatigatus, luce surgo* dormitans. Feci tamen mihi 
per hos dies excerpta ex libris sexaginta in quinque 
tomis. Sed quom leges sexaginta, inibi sunt et 
Novianae [et] atellaniolae et Scipionis oratiunculae 
— ne tu numerum nimis expavescas. 

3. Polemonis tui quom^ meministi, rogo ne Horatii 

^ We should possibly read Novius, who is mentioned below. 

* Niebuhr for Cod. ego. 

^ For Cod. fraglo. The ita is for ii added by m^ of Cod. 
after niagister. 

* Added above luce by m* of Cod. This passage is quoted 
by Charisius, ii. 223, ed. Keil. ' Rob. Ellis for Cod. quem. 



These drawbacks used formerly to be confined to 
kings^ but now, indeed, even the sons of kings have 
more than enough of men who, as Naevius ^ says. 

Still flatter with their tongues aiid still assent. 
And fanm upon them to their hearths content,^ 

I do right, then, my master, in being so ardent, right 
in setting before me one single aim, right in think- 
ing of one man only when I take my pen in hand. 

2. You very kindly ask for my hexameters, and I 
too should have sent them at once if I had had 
them with me. But my secretary — you know him, I 
mean Anicetus — did not pack up any of my work 
when I set out. For he knows my failing and was 
afraid that, if they came into my hands, I should do 
as I usually do, and consign them to the flames. 
But, as a matter of fact, those particular hexameters 
were in next to no danger. For, to tell my master 
the truth, I dote on them. 1 pore over them 
o* nights, for the day is spent in the theatre. And 
so I get through but little in the evening, being 
tired, and in the morning I get up sleepy. Still I 
have made for myself these last few days fi\^ note- 
books full of extracts from sixty volumes. But when 
you read sixty, don't be staggered by the number, for 
included in them are the little Atellane farces of 
Novius and Scipio's speechlets. 

3. As you have mentioned your Polemo, please 
don't mention Horace again, who, with Polio,^ is 

^ Naevius was the earliest great national poet of Rome. He 
wrote an epic on the First Punic War, and also tragedies. 

* cp. Shaks. Hamlet^ iii. ii, 399. 

•* Probably the Aagustan poet, orator, and historian, 

Asinius Pollio, is meant. His archaism would recommend 

him to Fronto, who subsequently quotes a work of his {Ad 

Verum. ii. 1). 



niemineris, qui mihi cum Polione est emortuus. Vale 
mi amicissime^ vale mi amantissime^ consul amplis- 
sime, magister dulcissime, quem ego biennio iam non 
vidi. Nam quod aiunt quidam duos menses inter- 
fuisse, tantum dies numerant. Eritne quom te 
videbo ? 

Jd M. Caes. ii. 11 (Naber, p. 35). 

Amplissimo consuli magistro suo M. Caesar salutem. 
Anno abhinc tertio me commemini cum patre 
nieo a vindemia redeuntem in agrum Pompei Falconis 
devertere ; ibi me videre arborem multorum ram- 
orum^ quam ille suum nomen catackannam nominabat. 
Sed ilia arbor mira et nova visa est mihi in uno trunco 
omnium ferme germina <arborum ferens> . . . . ^ 

Ad M, Goes. ii. 6 (Naber, p. 30). 

Ambr. 109 M. AuRELius Caesar [ consuli SUO et magistro 

1. Postquam ad te proxime scripsi, postea nihil 
operae pretium <fuit>2 quod ad te scriberetur aut 
quod cognitum ad aliquem modum iuvaret. Nam 
Sta rZiv auTwv fere dies tramisimus — idem theatrum, 
idem odium,^ idem desiderium tuum. Quid dico 

^ Size of lacuna is not known. 

* Cramer ; but the error seems to lie in the word poslea. 
•* The m^ of Cod. gives odeum (iJetoy), and the margin also 
notes from another MS. the alternative otiuin. 



dead and done with as far as I am concerned. Fare- 
well, my dearest, my most beloved friend ; farewell, 
my most honourable consul, my most sweet master, 
whom I have not seen these two years. For as to 
what some say, that two months ^ have intervened, 
they only count days. Shall I ever see you ? 

143 A.D. 

To the most honourable consul, his master, M. 
Caesar, greeting. 

Three years ago I remember turning aside with 
my father to the estate of Pompeius Falco ^ when on 
our way home from the vintage ; and that I saw there 
a tree with many branches, which he called by its 
proper name of catachanna,^ But it seemed to me a 
new and extraordinary tree, bearing as it did upon 
its single stem off-shoots of almost every kind of 
tree . . • « 

Naples, 143 a.d. 

M. AuRELius Caesar to his own consul and master, 

1. Since my last letter to you nothing has hap- 
pened worth writing of, or the knowledge of which 
would be of the slightest interest to you. For we 
have passed whole days more or less in the same 
occupations : the same theatre, the same dislike ot 
it, the same longing for you — the same, do I say ? 

^ July and August, the two months of Fronto's consulship, 
during which Fronto had to be in Rome. 

* He appears as one of Pliny's correspondents in his 

' Possiblj' a Punic name, thinks Niebuhr. 



ideni ? immo id cotidie novatur et gliscit ; et quod 
ait Laberius de amore, suo modo Kat cVl ISlq. fiova^, 

Amor tuus tarn dto crescit quam porrns, tarn firme 
quam palma. 

Hoc igitur ad desiderium verto, quod ille de amore 
ait. Volo ad te plura scribere, sed nihil suppetit. 

2. Ecce quod in animum venit. Encomiagraphos 
istic audiimus^ Graecos scilicet sed miros mortales, ut 
ego, qui a Graeca litteratura tantum absum quantum 
a terra Graecia mons Caelius meus abest, tamen me 
sperem illis comparatum etiam Theopompum aequi- 
parare posse ; nam hunc audio apud Graecos diser- 
tissimum natum esse. Igitur paene me opicum ani- 
mantem ad Graecam scripturam perpulerunt homines, 
ut Caecilius ait, incolumi inscientia. 
Arabr. 108 3. Caelum Neapolitanum plane commodum, | sed 
vehementer varium. In singulis scripulis horarum 
frigidius aut tepidius aut horridius^ fit. lam pri- 
mum media nox tepida, Laurentina; tum autem 
gallicinium frigidulum, Lanuvinum ; iam conticinnum 
atque matutinum atque diluculum usque ad solis 
ortum gelidum, ad Algidum maxime ; exim ante- 
meridiem apricum, Tusculanum ; tum meridies ferv- 
ida, Puteolana; atenim ubi sol lautum^ ad Oceanum 
profectus <est>, fit demum caelum modestius, quod 
genus Tiburtinum; id vespera et concubia nocte. 

^ Some prefer to read torridius, '* more tropical." 
^ m^ of Cod. for latum. 



nay, one that is daily renewed and increases and^ as 
Laberius^ after his own manner and in his own pecu* 
liar style, says of love, 

Your love as fast as any onion grows, as Jinn as any 

This then that he says of love, I apply to my longing 
for you. I should like to write you a longer letter, 
but nothing suggests itself. 

2. Stay, I have just thought of something. We 
have been listening to panegyrists here, Greeks, of 
course, but wondrous creatures, so much so that I, 
who am as far removed from Greek literature as is 
my native Caelian hilP from the land of Greece, 
could nevertheless hope, matched with them, to be 
able to rival even Theopompus, the most eloquent, as 
I hear, of all the Greeks. So I, who am all but a 
living barbarian, have been impelled to write in Greek 
by men, as Caecilius^ says, of unimpaired ignorance, 

3. The climate of Naples is decidedly pleasant, 
but violently variable. Every two minutes it gets 
colder or warmer or rawer. To begin with, midnight 
is warm, as at Laurentum ; then, however, the cock- 
crow watch chilly, as at Lanuvium; soon the hush 
of night and dawn and twilight till sunrise cold, for 
all the world like Algid us ; anon the forenoon sunny, 
as at Tusculum ; following that a noon as fierce as at 
Puteoli ; but, indeed, when the sun has gone to his 
bath in Ocean, the temperature at last becomes more 
moderate, such as we get at Tibur; this continues 
the same during the evening and first sleep of night, 

^ Marcus was born on Mods Caelius, where the Aniiii had 
a residence. 

* Caeciliiis Statins, a comic poet contemporary with 



dum se intempesta nox, ut ait M. Porcius, praecipiteU,^ 
eodem modo perseverat. Sed quid ego, qui me 
paucula scripturum promisi, deliramenta Masuriana 
congero ? Igitur vale, magister benignissime, consul 
amplissime, et me, quantum ames, tantum desidera. 

Ad M, Ones. ii. 7 (Naber, p. 32). 

Caesari suo consul. 

Meum fratrem beatum, qiii vos in isto biduo yide- 
rit ! At ego Romae baereo compedibus aureis vinc- 
tus ; nee aliter Kal. Sept. expeeto quam superstitiosi 
stellam, qua visa ieiunium polluant. Vale, Caesar, 
decus patriae et Romani nominis. Vale, Domine. 

Ad M, Caes, ii. 8 (Naber, p. .S2). 

Domino meo. 
Ambr. 107 | Gratiam meam misi ad diem natalem matri 

tuae celebrandum eique praecepi ut istie subsisteret 
quoad ego venirem. Eodem autem momento quo 
consulatum eiuravero vehieulum conscendam et ad 
vos pervolabo. Interim Gratiae meae nullum a 
fame periculum fore fide mea spopondi : mater enim 

^ From his Carmen de Moribus : see Dirksen, Opusc. i. 244. 

^ Masurius Sabinus was a great jurist of Tiberius's reign. 
Persius {Sat. v. 90) mentions a work of his called Ruhriea. 
Possibly Marcus is alluding to the jargon of minute legal 



until^ as M. Porcius says, the dead of night falls stviflly 
dotvn. But why do I string together these Masurian ^ 
banalities^ when I started with saying 1 should write 
a few words only? So farewell, most kindly of 
masters, most honourable of consuls, and let your 
love be the measure of your longing for me. 

Fronto to Marcus Aurelius 

The consul to his own Caesar. 

Lucky brother ^ of mine to have seen you those 
two days! But 1 stick fast in Rome bound with 
golden fetters, looking forward to the first of Sep- 
tember as the superstitious to the star,* at sight of 
which to break their fast. Farewell, Caesar, glory 
of your country and the Roman name. My Lord, 

Fronto to Marcos Aurelius as Caesar 

rp_ T J 143 A.D. 

10 my Lord. 
I have sent my Gratia* to keep your mother's 
birthday with her, and bidden her stay there till I 
come. The very moment, however, that 1 have laid 
down my consulship with the customary oath^ I shall 
climb into my carriage and fly off to you. Mean- 
while, I have pledged my word that my Gratia shall 
run no risk of starvation. For your mother will 

2 Probably named Quadratus. See Corpiu Iv^cr, Lat. xv. 

' The Jews. The same may be said of the Moslems and 
their fast. * Fronto's wife. 

' The oath was that he had administered his office accor- 
ding to law. Herodian (iv. 3) says that this was done in the 
old forum {iiyopd), 


vol. I. L 


tua particulas a te sibi missas cum clienta communi- 
cabit. Neque est Gratia niea^ ut causidicorum uxo- 
res feruntur, multi cibi. Vel osculis solis matris tuae 
contenta vixerit. Sed enim quid me fiet? Ne oscu- 
lum quidem usquam ullum est Romae residuum. 
Omnes meae fortunae, mea omnia gaudia Neapoli 

Oro te, quis iste nios est pridie magistratum eiu- 
randi ? Quid, quod ego paratus sum, dum ante 
plures dies eiurem, per plures deos iurare? Quid 
est autem, quod iuraturus sum me consulatu abire ? 
Ego vero etiam illud iuravero, me olim consulatu 
abire cupere, ut M. Aurelium complectar. 

Ad M. Caes, ii. 9 (Naber, p. 33). 

<CoNsuLi amplissimo et magistro> meo optimo. 
Hoc sane supererat, ut super cetera quae insig- 
niter erga nos facis etiam Gratiam mitteres hue 
<ad diem natalem matris meae nobiscum concele- 
brandum> . . . .^ 

Epist. Oraec. 2 (Naber, p. 242). 
Ambr. 164, | MrjTpl Kaicrapos 

middle of l «1? ^ « ^ ^ ^ /) ^ ^ ' /L ' 

col. 1 1 . hiKWV €KQ)V VT) TOV^ U€OVS Kttt TTttVU y€ TTpOUVfJLOV- 

/X.CV09 TT)v ifirfv KpaTTLav ef€?r€/Ai/ra <rvv€opTa^ov(rdv <toi 
ra yeviOXia koX avros av d^(Kd/4.€i/09 €i e^v. aXX 

^ Several pages are missing between this fragment and the 
beginning of Ad M. Caes, ii. 10 given above, p. 136. 



share with her protegee the tit-bits sent her by you. 
Nor is my Gratia a great eater, as lawyer s wives are 
said to be. She will live contentedly enough even 
on nothing but your mother's kisses. But what will 
become of poor me ? There is not even a single kiss 
left anywhere in Rome. All my fortunes, all my 
joys are at Naples. 

Tell me, 1 beseech you, what is the custom of 
laying down an office under oath a day earlier. 
What, am I not ready to swear by as many more 
gods as 1 can swear myself out of office days 
sooner? Again, am I to swear that I resign my 
consulship ? Yea, and 1 will swear this, too, that I 
have long wished to resign it, that I may embrace 
Marcus Aurelius. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

143 A.D. 

To the most honourable consul and my best of 

Verily this alone was wanting, that over and 
above all the other signal marks of your affectioa 
towards us you should also send Gratia here to join 
us in keeping my mother's birthday .... 

Fronto to Domitia Lucilla 

To the mother of Marcus. 

1. Willingly, willingly, by heaven, aye, with the 
greatest pleasure possible, have I sent my Gratia to 
keep your birthday with you, and would have come 
myself had it been lawful. But for myself this 

L 2 


^flOL jXtV €IJLTrO(HDV €(TTLV 7} OLpXTJ "TpO^ ^ TO) TTOOt T70€ ^ OVCa. 

oXtyat yap rjfxipai AotTrat r^s ^PX^^ wcptXcMTovTat kcll 

pLoXkov T€ ^ acrxoXoL 8ta tols kiLTOvpyias' wv d7raX/\ay€t9 

loi/ca SpafJL€L(r$aL irpos vfiais t(ou tov crTdSiov rpexovrtov 

TToXv TrpoQvfiorepov ws €K€lvol ye fipa^vTarov )^p6vov cttl 

r^s vcTTrXT/yo? CTrioravTCs, hrcira a^eivTai rpe^civ, cyw 8c 

toOtov ^8^7 /x^va Zevrepov elpyofxat rov Trpos v/>ia$ SpojJiov, 

2. *E;(p^i' 8c apa Trd<ra<s tols iravTa;(6^€v yuvatKas ^-jtI 

ravn^v rrjv "^jjbipav dSpoi^eaOai koX koprdt^eiv tol era 

yeveOXia, irpwra^ /xev Tfbv yvvaiKtov tols KJitXdvSpovs kol 

<t)LX.oT€KVOvs Koi (TiL^povas, hevjipas 8c ocrat aTrXao'TOt 

Ktti di/rcv8ers (.Wlv, T/DtVas 8c copm^ctv ras cvyvwftoi/as 

Ambr. 148 '^it evTrpocTLTOvs Kal | evTrpoaijyopovs koi aTvcfiOV's* TroXAai 

8c av KOL aXXat yvvauciov rdfct? yivoivro twv col fiipovs 

Ttvos iTraivov koX dperrj'i /xcrcxovccor, crou /xcv ctTrdoras ras 

yvvaiKt 7rpc7rov(ras dpcras icat €7rto*T)J/Aa9 K€KTrjfjL€V7}9 kol 

€7rt(rTa/jtcv)79, uicirep rj 'AOrjva T€)(yas aTrdcras KCKTTyrat' T€ 

Kttl iirtaTaTaif twv oAXwv 8c yuvatKoiv ci/ Tt * ti}? dpCT^9 

fxipos c/cda-Tjys iTnarTafiivrjs kol Kara tovto iiratvovpLivrj^t 

dtos 6 Tiav MovKTwv CTratvos ck /ntds ri^vrfs KaO^ iKaanrju 


3. Et 8c rjv cywTrpo Ovpa^:^ €l(ray(jry€vs Tts ctvat Xap(a)V 
Tcov T^s copras d^tW, Trpcoras av O/Aijpo) Trct^o/uci^os 
dTTCKXcicra tols ttJi/ cuvotav if/evSofievas kol irXaTTopiivas 

KoX " €T€poV p.€V Tl KCV^OVaaS CVt <f>p€(rLV oAAo 8c Ac" 

yov(ras," aTravra 8c tol d^o ycXwros /a^XP^ 8aKpvo)v 

^ Niebuhr for Cod. 7ipoj. ^ Pqi- Qod. t^Sct;. 

^ Heiudorf rt. * Jacobs for Cod. eVi. 

'^ Cod. dvpats. Dobson suggests upoBupaios. 



office is a clog round my feet. For there are a few 
days of it left, and these more than ever taken up 
with its duties. Once released from them, methinks 
I shall run to you with far more eagerness than 
those who run the course ; for they, after a moment's 
delay at the starting-place, are forthwith despatched 
on their race, while 1 have already been kept from 
running to you these two months. 

2. The right thing, it seems, would have been that 
all women from all quarters should have gathered 
for this day and celebrated your birth-feast, first, all 
the women that love their husbands and love their 
children and are virtuous, and, secondly, all that are 
genuine and truthful, and the third company to keep 
the feast should have been the kind-hearted, and 
the affable and the accessible and the humble- 
minded ; and many other ranks of women would 
there be to share in some part of your praise and 
virtue, seeing that you possess and are mistress of all 
virtues and accomplishments befitting a woman, just 
as Athena possesses and is mistress of every art, 
whereas of other women each one is mistress of some 
one branch of excellence and commended for it, just 
as the Muses are praised individually, each one for a 
single art. 

3. But had I been at your door, acting as a 
sort of introducer of those who were worthy of the 
festival, the first I should have shut out, on 
Homer's authority, would have been those who 
make a pretence of good-will and are insincere, 
who "hide one thing in their hearts while their 
lips speak another," ^ witli whom everything, from 

^ Homer, II. ix. 312. 



irpoairoLOVfJievas. o tol ycAws ovrtas to irplv aSoXos 

€?vai 7r€^VKO)9 0)5 Kttt Tovs oSovras t<ov ycAoiKTcov cTrt- 

8ctKVvciv €ts TOCovToi' ^St/ 'n'€pL€a"n)K€v KaKOfirj)(avia^ kol 

iviBpa^, 0)9 Ktti TO, x^^^V fpvTrrctv twv cf iirifiovXrjs 

wpoo-y cXwvTwv. yvvaiK€ta 8iJ tis avrrf ^€os Trapa rais 

irXcto'Tats twv yvvaiKwv Opr}a'K€V€Tai rj ^Airavtr)' ^is yovv 

'A^poSmys tokos ck ttoAAwv tivwv Kal voikiAwv ^A,eict>v 

1 Icre follows icaTaaiC€vao'tta€i/os.^ I 

Arabr. 147 '^ ' 

Ad M, Caes. ii. 12 (Naber, p. 35). 

<M. Caesar magistro suo.> 
Aiiibr. 106 . . . . ^ I et meus me alipta faucibus urgebat. 

Sed quae^ inquis, fabula? Ut pater meus a vineis 
domum se reeepit, ego solito more equum inscendi^ 
et in viam profectus sum, et paulatim provectus. 
Deinde ibi in via sic oves multae conglobatae adsta- 
bant ut locis solet artis,^ et canes quattuor et duo 
pastores, sed nihil praeterea. Tum pastor unus ad 
alterum pastorem, postquam plusculos equites vidit, 
Vide tibi istos equites, inquit, nam illi solent maximas 
rapinationes facere. Ubi id audivi, calcar equo sub- 
pingo, equum in oves inigo. Oves eonsternatae dis- 
perguntur ; aliae alibi palantes balantesque oberrant. 
Pastor furcam intorquet; furca in equitem, qui me 
sectabatur, cadit. Nos aufugimus. Eo pacto qui 
metuebatur ne oves amitteret, furcam perdidit. 
Fabulam existimas ? Res vera est : at etiam plura 

^ For Cod. KaraffKtvaffa/xfvris : ^iris is Naber's for Cod. ris. 
'^ It is not known how much is lost here. 
^ Frohner for Cod. locus solitarius, 



laughter to tears, is make-believe. Truly laugh- 
ter, that at first was naturally so without craft as to 
shew the teeth of the laugher, has now changed 
round to such a depth of malice and guile that those 
who laugh with sinister intent hide even their lips. 
This goddess, true woman that she is, who gets most 
worship from women, is Deceit, offspring, of a truth, 
of Aphrodite, and compact of many and various 
traits of womankind .... 

143 A.D. 

M. Caesar to his master. 

.... and my wrestHng-master ^ had me by 
the throat. But what, you say, was the story? 
When my father had got home from the vineyards, 
I, as usual, mounted my horse and set off along the 
road, and had gone some little distance when I came 
upon a number of sheep in the road huddled to- 
gether, as happens when there is little room, with 
four dogs and two shepherds ; that was all. Then 
one of the shepherds, seeing our cavalcade, said to 
his mate. Marry, keep an eye on those mounted fellows, 
they he rare hands at pillaging. Hearing that, I dug 
the spurs into my horse and galloped right into the 
flock. Frightened out of their wits, they ran helter- 
skelter bleating and fleeting in all directions. The 
shepherd whirled his crook at us. It fell on my 
equerry who was following me. We got clear off. 
So it chanced that he, who feared to lose his sheep, 
lost his crook. Do you think this a fiction? It 
really! took place : yes, and there is more I could 

^ cp. Capit. Vit. Marciy iv. 9 atnavit pugHlatum^ hictamina. 
The ^\iT2jae faxicibvs urgere is from Sail. Cat 52. 


erant quae de ea re scriberem^ nisi iam me nuntius 
in balneum arcesseret. Vale mi magister dulcissime^ 
homo honestissime et rarissime^ suavitas et caritas et 
voluptas mea. 

Ad M. Goes, ii. 13 (Naber, p. 36). 

Maoistro meo. 

Gratia minor efFecit,^ quod Gratia maior fecit, ut 
sollicitudinem nostram vel interim minuat vel iam 
Ambr. 105 omnino detergeat. | Ego tibi de patrono meo M. Por- 
cio gratias ago, quod eum crebro lectitas ; tu mihi de 
C. Crispo timeo ut umquam gratias agere possis, nam 
uni M. Porcio me dedicavi atque despondi atque 
delegavi. Hoc etiam ipsum aiqiie unde putas ? Ex 
ipso furore. Perendinus dies mens dies festus erit, 
si certe tu venis. Vale, amicissime et rarissime 
homo, dulcissime magister. 

Die ^ senatus huius magis hie futuri quam illuc 
venturi videmur. Sed utrumque in ambiguo est. 
Tu modo perendie veni, et fiat quod volt. Semper 
mi vale, animus meus ; mater me te tuosque salutat. 

Ad M. Cats. ii. U (Naber, p. 30). 

Maoistro meo. 

Tu, quom sine me es, Catonem legis, at ego, 
quom sine te sum, causidicos in undecimam horam 


^ Cod. mitiorc fecit 
- Mai for Cod. dc. 



write to you of that adventure, but here comes the 
messenger to call me to my bath. Farewell, my 
sweetest of masters, most honoured and most unique 
of men, ray joy, my treasure, my delight. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronts 

To my master. ^^"^ ^•^• 

Gratia^ the younger has served, as the elder 
Gratia did, to calm our anxiety for the while or 
sweep it altogether away at once. I thank you on 
behalf of my patron, M. Porcius, for the frequency 
with which you read him : you will never, I fear, be 
able to return me the compliment with respect to 
Gaius Crispus,^ for to M. Porcius alone have I devoted, 
aye and engaged, aye and given myself over heart 
and soul. Whence, too, think you, comes this very 
ajife and ? ^ From my very enthusiasm. The day 
after to-morrow shall be my gala day, if you really 
are coming. Farewell, dearest and most unique of 
men, sweetest of masters. 

On the day of this Senate we seem more likely to 
be here than go there. But nothing is decided. Do 
you but come the day after to-morrow, and then let 
what will befall, Fare ever well for me, soul of 
mine. My mother greets you and yours. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

To my master. ^'*^ ^•^^' 

You, when you are away from me, read Cato ; 
but I, when away from you, listen to lawyers till 

^ As Gratia, Fronto's daughter, married Victorinus about 
the year 160, she is not likely to have been more than two 
or three years old, at the most, in 143. 

^ i.e. Sal lust ; M. Porcius is Cato. 

' This repeated use of cUqtie was a habit of Cato's. 


audio. Equidera velim istam noctem, quae sequitur^ 
quam brevissimam esse. Tanti est minus lucubrare, 
ut te maturius videam. Vale mi magister dulcis- 
sime. Mater mea te salutat. Spiritum vix habeo, 
ita sum defessus. 

Ad M. Caes, 11. 15 (Naber, j). 37). 

<M. Caesar Magis>tro suo salutem dicit. 

Profecto ista tua benignitate magnum mihi ne- 
gotium perfecisti.^ Nam ilia cotidie tua Loriuni 
ventio, ilia in serum expectatio .... 

Ad M, Cats, i. 6 (Naber, p. 18). 

Arabr. 86, | M. AuRELius Caesar salutem dicit Frontoni 

ft<£ xmt. magistro suo. 

1. Nae ego 2 impudens, qui umquam quicquam 
meorum scriptorum tanto ingenio tanto iudicio legen- 
dum committo. Patri, Domino meo, locum ex ora- 
tione tua, quem me eligere^ voluit, av<To>* kox 
vir€Kptvdfxriv commode. Plane ilia suum auctorem 
sibi dari flagitabant : denique mihi vix succlamatum 
est 'Afiws Tov TTOLrjTov. Sed quod tu merito omnibus 
praeoptas, non diu diflTeram.^ Ita adfectus est audi- 
tione eorum Dominus meus, ut paene moleste ferret 
quod alio modo^ ad negotium opus sibi esset, quam 
eo quo tu orationem habiturus intraveris. Sensuum 

^ For Cod. perperisti (m^) ; profiaiosf^a (?) m-. 

2 For Hauler on this whole passage see Miacellanea Cerimii, 
pp. 504 f. 

^ m* of Cod. sibi prnelegerc. * m* adds this above the line. 

® J. W. E. Pearce for Cod. differas. 

* m^ mox and, for oyua sibi esset, arcesseretur from another 


five o'clock. Oh, that this coming night might be 
the shortest known ! so fain am I to burn less mid- 
night oil, that 1 may the sooner see you. Farewell, 
my sweetest of masters. My mother sends her 
greeting. I can scarcely breathe, so tired am I. 

U3 A.D. 

M. Caesar to his master sends greeting. 

Verily in your kindness you have done me a 
great service. For that daily call at Lorium,^ that 
waiting till late .... 

144-145 A.D. 

M. AuRELius Caesar to Fronto his master sends 

1. Nay, surely it is I who am shameless ^ in ever 
submitting any of my writings to be read by genius so 
great, by judgment so great. The passage from your 
speech, which the Lord my father wished me to 
choose out, I even declaimed with appropriate action. 
Needless to say, the words cried aloud for their own 
author to deliver them : in fact, I was scarcely greeted 
with WoHhy of the maker! But I will not delay 
telling you what you deservedly long for most. So 
struck was my Lord with what he heard that he was 
almost put out because business required his presence 
at the time elsewhere than in the court where you 
were to deliver your speech. He greatly admired 

^ Pius'fl villa, twelve miles from Rome, on the Via Aurelia, 
where he died. 

^ Fronto had evidently accused himself of iminidentm for 
sending Marcus something of his (? his speech) to be criticised. 



facultateni, elocutionis variam virtutem, inventionis 
argutam ^ novitatem^ orationis doctam dispositionem 
vehementer miratus est. Nunc credo post hoc^ 
quaeris quid me maxime iuverit. Accipe ; hinc 
coepi : 

2. "In iis^ rebus el caitsis quae a privatis iudicibus 
iudicantur, nullum est periculum, quia sententiae eorum 

Ambr. 91 intra causarum de\7num terminos valent ; tuis autem de- 
cretisy imperator, cxempla publice valitura in perpetuum 
sanciuntur, Tanto maior tibi vis et potestas quam fatis 
altribtda est. Fata quid singulis nostrum eveniat statu- 
unt : tu, ubi quid in singulos decemis, ibi universos 
exempla adstringis. 

3. " Quare, si hoc decretum tibi proconsulis placuetit, 
formam dederis omnibus omnium provinciarum magistra- 
tibus, quid in eiusmodi causis decemanL Quid igitur 
eveniet ? lllud scilicet, ut teslamenia omnia ex longinquis 
transmarinisque provinciis Romam ad cognitionem tuam. 
deferantur. Filius exheredalum se suspicabitur : postu- 
labit ne patris tabulae aperiantur. Idem Jilia postulabit, 
nepos, almepos, Jrater, consobrinus, patruus, avunculus, 
amita, matertera ; omnia necessitudinum nomina hoc pri- 
vilegium invadent, id tabulas aperiri vetent, ipsi posses- 
sione iure sanguinis fruantur. Causa denique Romam 

^ m* incliUamy and also astutam, 

' Brakrnan reads opes lau for o post ho and Mai also read 
opes. • m^ litis. 

^ This is the only considerable fragment of Fronto's 
speeches which we have. Nothing more is known of the 
case with which it deals. Fronto's legal treatment of the 



the copiousness of the matter^ the varied excellence 
of the diction^ the witty originality of the thought, 
the skilful arrangement of the speech. And now 
you are asking, I imagine, what pleased me most. 
Listen : I begin with this passage. 

2. ''In those affairs ^ and cases which are settled in 
private courts, no danger arises, since their decisions hold 
good only within the limits of the cases, but the prece- 
dents which you, O Emperor, establish by your decrees 
will hold good publicly and for all time. So much greater 
is your power and authority than is assigned to the Fates. 
They determine what shall befall us as individuals : you 
by your decisions^ in individual ca^es make precedents 
binding upon all. 

3. " Therefore, if this decision of the proconsul is 
approved by you, you will give all magistrates of all 
provinces a rule for deciding all cases of the same kind. 
What, then, will be the result ? This evidently, that all 
wills from distant and oversea provinces will be brought 
over to Rome for cognisance in your court. A son will 
suspect that he has been disinherited : he will demand 
that his fathers will be not opened. The same demand 
will be made by a daughter, a grandson, a great grand- 
child, a brother, a cousin, a paternal uncle, a maternal 
uncle, a paternal aunt, a maternal aunt ; relations of all 
degrees will usurp this privilege of forbidding the will to 
be opened, that they may enjoy possession the while by 
right of consanguinity. When, finally, the case has been 

question at issue is severely condemned by Dirksen {Opusc. 
i. 243 ff.)f but it is quite impossible to believe that Fronto 
was as ignorant of law as his critic asserts. 

2 The Emperor could legislate either directly by edict, or 
by a judicial decision {uidicium = decretum), or as became 
usual after Nerva by a rescript, interpreting the law, in 
answer to an inquiry or petition. 



Ambr. 92 

Ambr. 65 
Quat. ii. 

9'emissa quid eveniet ? Heredes scripii navigabunt, ex- 
heredati autem in possessione remanebtmt, diem de die 
ducent, dilationes petentes^ | for a variis excusatiomhus 
trahent, Hiemps est et crudum 2 mare hibemum est : 
adesse non potuit. Ubi hiemps praeterierity vemae tern- 
pestates incertae et dubiae moratae sunt. Ver eoMicium 
est ; aestas est calida et sol namgantes urit et homo nau- 
seat. Autumnus seqtiitur : poma culpabuntitr et languor 

4. '^ Fingo haec et comminiscor ? Quid, in hoc causa 
nonne hoc ipsum evenit ? Ubi est adversarius qm iam 
pridem ad agendam causatn culesse debuerat ? ^ In itinere 
est,' Quo tandem in itinere ? ' Ex Asia venit,* Et est 
ad hue in Asia ? ' Magnum iter et festinatum* Nam- 
busne an equis an diploinatibtis facit haec tarn velocia 
stativa ? Cum inteiim cognitione proposita semel a te, 
Caesar, petita dilatio <est> et impetrata : proposita cog- 
nitione rursum, <riirsum'>^ a te duiim fnensuum petita 
dilatio. Duo 7nenses exacti sunt idibus proximis et dies 
medii isti aliquot. Venit tandem ? Si nondum venit, at 
saltem odpropinquat ? Si nondum adpropinquai, <at> 
saltern profectus ex Asia est ? Si nondum profectus est, 
at saltem cogitat ? Quid ille cogitat aliud quam bo?iis 
alienis incubare^ fructus diripere, agros vastare, rem 
omnem dilapidare \ ? Non ille ita stultus est id malit 

^ The last two letters are doubtful. The Cod. as given by 
Stud, ends the word at petent \ The next two letters may 
be eo. 

2 Tiemdori dudtim. •' Heindorf. 

. 'S8 


referred to Rome, what will result ? The heirs designate 
will set sail, while the disinherited will remain in possess- 
ion, pvcrastinale from day to day, look about for delays, 
and so put off the courts on various pretexts. It is 
winter time and the wintry sea is rough; he has been 
unable to appear. Winter over, it is the equinoctial gales, 
fitful and sudde7i, that have delayed him. The spring 
is past : the summer is hot and the sun scorches voyagers, 
and the man is seasick. The fall follows : the fruit 
fvill be in fault and debility the excuse. 

4. " / am imagiiiing and inventing this ? What, has 
not this actually occurred in this case ? Where is the 
defendant who ought to have been here this long while 
past to plead his cause ? ' He is on his way.' On what 
way, prithee ? ' He is coming from Asia.* And so he 
is still in Asia ? 'It is a long way and he has made 
haste.* ^ Is it on shipboard, or horseback, or by imperial 
post that he mukes such headlong halts ? Meanwhile, as 
soon as the trial is fixed, you are asked, O Caesar, for a 
first adjournment, which is granted : the trial' is fixed 
a second time,^ a second time an adjournment of two 
months is asked for. The two months expired on the 
last ides, arid .since then several days have gone by. 
Has he come at last ? If not yet come, is he, at all 
events, near ? If not yet near, has he at least set out 
from Asia ? If he has not yet set out, does he at 
least think of setting out ? What else does he think oj 
but keeping in his hands ^ the goods of others, plunder- 
ing the proceeds, stiipping the estate, wasting the whole 
property ? He is not so foolish as to prefer coming 

^ It is possible to take these words as Fronto's o-vfrx—imicU 
way has he made and with speed. 

^ Marcus, when emperor, allowed only one adjournment ; 
see Digest ^ ii. 12, 1. 

' The Latins our slang ** sitting tight on." 



Ambr. 66 

Arabr. 58 

ventre ad Caesar em et vinci, quam revmnere in Asia et 

5. " Qui mos si fuerit induct its, ut defunctorum testa- 
menta ex pravinciis transmarinis Romam mittantur, in- 
dignius et acerhius testamentorum periculum erit, <quam> 
si corpora <huc mitli inos esset> eorum qui trans maria 
testantur. Nam <his quidem> null<um iam potest 
peri>ctdum super<esse>.^ Sepultura cadaveiihus in ip- 
sis iniuriis praesto est. Sive maria naujragos devorent 
sive Jiumina praecipites trahant sive harenae obruant sive 
ferae lacerent sive volucres discerpant, corpus humanum 
satis sepelitur, ubicumque consumitur. At ubi testamentum 
naujragio subtnersuin est, ilia demum et res et domus et 
familia naufraga atque insepulta est. Olim testamenta 
ex deorum munitissimis aedibus projh'ebantur aut tabu- 
lariis aut <ar'>cis aut archiis aut opisthodomis : at iam 
testamenta per <ma>re <procellosum> navigarint inter 
onera mercium et sardnas remigum. Id etiam superest, 
si quando iactu opus est, ut testamenta cum leguminibus 
iactentur\; quin <portorium>^ constituendum quod 
pro testamentis exigatur. Ante hue . . . .^ 

6. I *' De Junere aliquid dicamtis. Sdat famiUa qu&tn. 
admodum lugeat. A liter plangit servus manumissus, 
aUter cliens laude auctus,^ aUter amicus legato honoratus. 
Quid incertas et suspensas eccequias fads ? Omnium 
animcdium statim post mortem hereditas cemitur : ovi lana 

^ Heindorf suggested the additions in brackets. 

2 J. W. E. Pearce. 

^ About one page is lost. Hauler, in Misc. Ceriani, pp. 
r)04-520, promises in his forthcoming edition to throw fresh 
light on the pages Ambr. 65, 66. 

* For Cod. lai(daueatus. 



to Caesar and losing his case to staying in Asia and 
keeping possession}- 

5. " If this ctistom he brought in, that the wills of the 
deceased should he sent to Rome from the oversea pro- 
vinces ^ the imperilling of wills would he more discreditable 
and distressing than if it were the custom for the bodies 
of the deceased, who make their wills oversea, to he sent 
to Rome, For no further peril can touch them. A corpse 
is assured of burial in its very inishaps. For whether it 
he swallowed by the sea in shipwreck, or swept away in a 
moment by a river, or the sands cover it, whether the 
beasts of the field devour it, or the birds of the air pick 
its hones, the human body is practically buried wherever 
it is dissolved. But when by shipwreck a will is engulfed, 
the estate and home and family in question is then and 
there shipwrecked and lies unburied. Time was when 
wills used to be brought out from the securest temples 
of the Gods, from muniment rooms, or chests, or archives, 
or temple vestries: hut now shall wills sail the stormy 
seas amid bales of merchandise and rowers' kit. The 
next thing will even he for them to he jettisoned^ 
with a cargo of pulse, should it become necessary to lighten 
the ship. Moreover, also, an import duty to be levied 
on wills must he fixed. In time past .... 

6. ''But to say something as to the burial. The house- 
hold would know how to inoum. The slave enfranchised 
under the will has one way of shewing sorrow, the client 
mentioned with praise another, another the friend honoured 
with a legacy. Why throw uncertainty and delay over 
the funeral rites f In the case of all animals the inheri- 
tance is realized at once after death : from sheep the 

^ Pius punished conduct of this kind (see Digest, xlii. 4, 7) 
by adjudging the inheritance to the other claimant. 
' cp. Acts, xxvii. 38. 


VOL. I. M 


stalim detrahilur^ et elepkanto ebur, ungues leonibus, avi- 
bus pinnae plumaequ£ ; kominum hereditas post inoriem 
iacet, differtur, praedonibus exposta diripitur." ^ 

7. Puto totum descripsi. Quid ergo facerem, 
quom^ totum admir<ar>er, quom totum amarem 
hominem beatum? Vale, disertissime, doctissime, 
mihi carissime, dulcissime, magister optatissime, de- 

Herodi filius natus <hodi>e mortuus est. Id H ero- 
des non aequo animo fert. Volo ut illi aliquid quod 
ad banc rem adtineat pauculorum verborum scribas. 
Semper vale. 

Ad M. Caes. i. 7 (Naber, p. 17). 

Doming meo. 

1. Accepi, Caesar, litteras tuas, quibus quanto 
opere laetatus sim facile existimaveris, si reputaveris 
Ambr. 57 singula. Primum, quod caput est omnis mei | gaudii, 
quom * te bene valere cognovi ; tum quod ita aman- 
tem te mei sensi, finem ut amori nullum neque 
modum statuas, quin cotidie aliquid reperias quod 
circa me iucundius atque amicius facias. Ego deni- 
que olim iam me puto satis amari, tibi autem nondum 

' The Codex has dctrahatur^ and cernatur for cemitur 
above ; a marginal note on the former word gives the alter- 
native calvetur ('* shaved close "). 

2 For this passage see Hauler, fVien. Stud. 29, pt. 1, 

3 Klussm. for Cod. quod. * Heindorf would read quod. 



wool is stripped at once, and from the elephant his ivory, 
their claws from lions, from birds their feathers and 
plumes ; but a man dies and his inheritance lies derelict, is 
put aside ^ left as a prey to robbers, it is made away with'* 

7. I think I have copied out the whole. What 
indeed could I do, when I admired the whole man, 
loved the whole man — blessings on him — ^so much ? 
Farewell, my master, most eloquent, most learned, 
most dear to me, most sweet, whom I most long for, 
miss the most. 

The son of Herodes,^ born to-day, is dead. Hero- 
des is overwhelmed with grief at his loss. I wish 
you would write him quite a short letter appropriate 
to the occasion. Fare ever well. 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

n, T J ? 144-145 A.D. 

lo my Lord. 

1. I have received your letter, O Caesar, and 
the great delight it gave me you will easily gauge if 
you consider these separate points. First, and this 
is the head and front of all my joy, that I know you 
are well ; then because I felt that you loved me so 
well as not to be able to set any bound or limit to 
your love, so as not to find something to do for me 
every day more kindly and more friendly than before. 
In fine, I have long thought myself loved enough, 
but you are not yet satisfied with your affection 

' The new Tims. Ling. Lot. gives dissipatur as the gloss for 
differtur here. 

^ Herodes married Annia Regilla about 143, and this 
would be his first son by her. His passionate grief on other 
occasions is noted by Lucian, Demonax, §§ 24, 35, and 
Philostr. Fit. Soph. 242, Kays. 

M 2 


etiatn quantum me diligas satis est; ut non mare 
ullum tarn profundum quam tuus adversus ine ambr : 
sane ut illud queri possim^ cur non me amas tantum 
quantum plurimum est^ namque in dies plus amando 
efficis^ ne id quod ante [diem]^ amaveris^ plurimum 
fuerit ? 

2. Consulatum mihi putas tanto gaudio fuisse^ 
quanto tua tot in una re summi amoris indicia ? Ora- 
tionis meae particulas^ quas excerpseram^ recitasti 
patri tuo ipse^ studiumque ad pronuntiandum adhi- 
buisti^ qua in re et oculos mihi tuos utendos et vocem 
et gestum et in primis animum accommodasti. Nee 
video quis veterum scriptorum quisquam * me beatior 
fuerit^ quorum scripta Aesopus ad populum pronunti- 
avit, aut ttoscius. Meae vero orationi M. Caesar 
actor contigit et pronunciator, tuaque ego opera 
et voce audientibus placui, quom audiri a te ac 
Atnbr. Di tibi placerc | omnibus summe sit optabile. Non 
miror itaque quod placuerit oratio oris tui dignitate 
exornata. Nam pleraque propria venustate carentia 
gratiam sibimet alienam extrinsecus mutuantur. 
Quod evenit etiam in plebeis istis edulibus : nullum 
adeo vile aut volgatum est bolus aut pulpamentum, 
quin elegantius videatur vasis aureis adpositum. 
Idem evenit floribus et coronis; alia dignitate sunt 
in Portunio ^ quom a coronariis veneunt, alia quom a 
sacerdotibus in tempi o porriguntur. 

^ m' in the Codex has dies. Could Fronto have written 
anti/fea for antea ? '^ quis quisqiiavi is Plautine. 

' These two words and in templo below are found in the 
margin of the Codex and taken from another MS. (noted as 
in alio). 



for me^ so that deeper than ever plummet sounded 
is your love toward me^ insomuch that I might quite 
well make the complaint^ Why do you not yet love 
me with the utmost love possible, for by loving me 
more from day to day you prove that your love 
hitherto has fallen short of its utmost measure ? 

2. Think you that my consulship has been such a 
delight as the many tokens you have given me of 
your love in this one case ? Samples of my speech, 
which I had picked out for you, you read to your 
father yourself, and took the pains to declaim them, 
wherein you lent me your eyes, your voice, your 
gestures, and, above all, your mind for my service. 
Nor can I see which single one of the ancient 
writers, whose writings were declaimed to the people 
by Aesopus ^ or Roscius, was more fortunate than I. 
My speech has had Marcus Caesar for its actor and 
declaimer, and it was by your agency and through 
your voice that I pleased the hearers, whereas to be 
heard by you and to please you would be the height 
of every man's ambition. No wonder, then, my speech 
found favour, set off, as it was, by the dignity of 
your utterance. For many a thing, that lacks all in- 
trinsic charm, borrows from elsewhere a grace that is 
not its own, and this is the case even with our home- 
liest eatables. No pot-herb, no bit of flesh is so cheap 
or commonplace a food as not to gain piquancy if 
served in a golden dish. The same is true of flowers 
and garlands : they have one scale of worth when 
sold by flower-vendors in the Flower-market, another 
when offered in a temple by the priests. 

^ Aesopus in tragedy, Roscius, who taught Cicero de- 
clamation, in comedy. Marcus, probably about this time, 
was studying under Geminus the comedian ; see Capit. iv. 2. 

1 6s 


3. Tantoque ego fortunatior quam fiiit Hercules 
atque Achilles^ quorum arma et tela gestata sunt a 
Patricole et Philocteta, multo viris virtute inferiori- 
bus : mea contra oratio mediocris, ne dicam ignobilis^ 
a doctissimo et facundissimo omnium Caesare illus- 
trata est. Nee ulla umquam scena tantum habuit 
dignitatis — M. Caesar actor, Titus imperator^ audi- 
tor ! Quid amplius cuiquam contingere potest, nisi 
unum quod in caelo fieri poetae ferunt, quom Jove 
patre audiente Musae cantant? Enimvero quibus 
ego gaudium meum verbis exprimere possim, quod 
orationem istam meam tua manu descriptam misisti 

Ambr. 62 mihi ? Verum est | profecto quod ait noster Labe- 
rius, ad amorem iniciendum delenimenta ^ esse delera- 
menta, beneficia autem venefida, Neque poculo aut 
veneno quisquam tantum flammae ad amatorem in- 
cussisset, praeut tu et facto hoc stupid um et attoni- 
tum <me> ardente amore tuo reddidisti. Quot 
litterae istic sunt, totidem consulatus mihi, totidem 
laureas, triumphos, togas pictas arbitror contigisse. 

4. Quid tale M. Porcio aut Quinto Ennio, C. Grac- 
cho aut Titio poetae, quid Scipioni aut Numidico, 
quid M. Tullio tale usuvenit?^ Quorum libri pre- 
tiosiores habentur et summam gloriam retinent, si 
sunt Lampadionis aut Staberii, Plautiiaut D. Aurelii, 
Autriconis aut Aelii manu scripta exempla, aut a 

^ Hauler, who gives the Codex as imp. 

* Ribbeck for Cod. deliberainenta, 

' Dr. Hauler, from his inspection of the Codex, has added 
much that is new to this whole passage : see Wicn. Sttid 
31, pt. 1, 1909, pp. 264 flF. 

1 66 


3. So much more fortunate am I than was Her- 
cules or Achilles, for their armour and weapons were 
borne by Philoctetes and Patroclus, men far inferior 
to them in manhood, while my poor, not to say sorry, 
speech has been rendered famous by Caesar the most 
learned and eloquent of all men. Never was scene 
so impressive — M. Caesar actor, Titus Imperator 
audience ! What nobler fate could befall anyone save 
that alone, when in Heaven, as poets tell, the Muses 
sing, while Jove their sire is audience ? Indeed, 
with what words could I express my delight at your 
sending me that speech of mine copied out with your 
own hand ? True, surely, is what our Laberius ^ says, 
that in inspiring love charms are but harms ^ and 
the foison of gif\;s poison. For never with cup or 
philtre could anyone so have stirred the flame of 
passion in a lover as by this act of yours you have 
dazed and amazed me by the ardour of your love. 
For every letter of your letter I count myself to 
have gained a consulship, a victory, a triumph, a robe 
of honour. 

4, What fortune like this befell M. Porcius or 
Quintus Ennius, Gaius Gracchus, or the poet Titius } 
What Scipio or Numidicus ? What M. Tullius, like 
this? Their books are valued more highly and 
have the greatest credit, if they are from the hand of 
Lampadio or Staberius, of Plautius or D. Aurelius, 
Autrico or Aelius, or have been revised by Tiro or 

^ A writer of mimes and an eques of the time of Julius 

2 For beneficiiim and veneficium, cp. Apul. ^pol. ii. 2. 
The letters were constantly interchanged. Shakespeare, 
Ttoo Qentl. in. i. 216, puns on the words vanished and 



Tirone emendata aut a Domitio Baibo descripta aut 
ab Attico aut Nepote.^ Mea oratio extabit M. Caes- 
aris manu scripta. Qui orationem spreverit, litteras 
concupiscet; qui scripta contempserit, scriptorem 
reverebitur. Ut si simiam aut volpem Apelles 
pinxi<sse>t, bestiae extremae^ pretium adderet, 
Aut quod M. Cato de . . . . ^ 

JSpist. Oracc. 3 (Naber, p. 243) 

<*H/3<i>8i; Trapa ^porTO)vos> 

Arnbr. 146, . . . . | T€pOV yc . . . . 17/LtaS' TO §€ fl€TpLa^€LV iv 

ud nud. col. ** v *■> » ^ ^ \ > \nx\ 

2 : and alao Tots rjTTOtnv KaKOLs ov ova-KoAov. cv iravri fiev yap to 

after lacuna ^^"^"^ KaKOV <ayauaKT€i,v7> Kat aTrpo<crooKrjTit}S> 'irpoa"7r€'- 
at end of ' » n»S>\S>' / / »v 

Dree letter ^^^"^^^ aTrpcTTCs avOpi TraiOeias 7r€7r€tpa/xci/w. )(aipn}V 0€ 

Ambr. 145 lywyc fiaXXov <av aa'>iJL€v<t)s fiirpa <7rapaj8atvot>|/At.^ 

TO yap irpos riSovrjv irapaXoyov tov wpo^ dviav atpcrcS- 

T€pov. 'AW ouSc Toi T^s "qXucLas <TOi irapwi^Kfv 7rpo9 

iraihfav €T€p<ov dvaTpo<t>'i^v. ^rjfita Sk iraaa avv iXiriSi 

fji€V aTroKOTTTOfJi^vy ^aXeirrj' pamv Sc xnroXenrofiivrj^ cs to 

dvaXafielv^ cA,7rt8os* /cat 6 fMrj Tr€pLfJb€Lvas Tavrrfv dyewrjs 

/cat noX.v T^5 TV)(rjs avrcS )(a\€7rwTcpos* 17 fi€V yap TV)^rj 

TO irdpov d<l}€LX.€TOj 6 Bk €a-T€prj(r€v airrov Kat ttjs ikviBo^. 

"OO^v 8c av paora irapaij/v^rj^ Tvp(ot?, ireipijL fiaOiov cywye 

^ In this passage (for which see Hauler in Melanges de 
M. Emile ChcUelaine^ pp. 622 fF., and Versam. d. deutsch. 
Philologen^ 50) the corrector of the Codex, adds Plautii in 
the margin from a second MS. and substitutes aut D. Aurelii 
for m^ Adursellii or Thursellii, and Autriconis for aiU IHronis, 
adding over this the note ex Baccola, and Balbo for m^ 

* J. W. E. Pearce for Cod. . . . emae, as in Apul. Met, 

iv. 31. ' Four pages are lost. 



transcribed by Domitius Balbus^ or Atticus or Nepos. 
My speech will be extant in the handwriting of 
M. Caesar. He that thinks little of the speech will 
be in love with the very letters of it ; he who disdains 
the thing written will reverence the writer. Just as 
if Apelles painted an ape or a fox, he would add a 
value to the lowest of creatures. Or as M. Cato 
(said) of ... . 


? 144-145 A.D. 

But in lesser evils to act 

with composure is not difficult. For, indeed, in any 
case to resent an evil, even if it befall unexpectedly, 
is unseemly for a man who has tasted of education. 
But it is in joy that I should be more ready to 
overstep the bounds, for if we are to act unreason- 
ably it is preferable to do so in reference to 
pleasure than to pain. But you are not even too 
old 2 to rear other children. Every loss is grievous 
if hope be cut off with it, but easier to bear if hope 
of repairing it be left. And he that does not avail 
himself of this hope is mean-spirited and his own 
enemy, much more than Fortune. For Fortune takes 
away the present reality, but he deprives himself of 
hope as well. And I will tell you where you can 
most easily get consolation, as I have learnt by ex- 

^ The heading is lost, but the letter is certainly addressed 
to Tlerodes Atticus in response to the request of Marcus 
made in a previous letter. 

2 Herodes would not have been fifty at this time. 

* According to Naber, the above lacunae cover about ten 
lines. Dobson gives fur the last words tiv kcr^iivois fitrpidCoifit. 

• So Cod. p. 59. The reading on p. 145 is &vaxaKuv. 



oAX' ov (TO^ii^ 8iSa^<i). dci fiOL awiptf ri rcov 8ctvci>v 
iraO^iv iplovTi. Tjp<i)v 8c totc /xcv ^AOrjvo^TOv tov 
(Toifiov, t6t€ 8c Aiovvo'iov ToO prjTopo^. Koi 8^ Tovro 

Cl'VOoiv OTt /XOl (TwfotTO KCIVOS OV y' CpWV TV)(OlflLy ^TTOV 7]V 

rg Xvtry koi rots vpoanrtirTOvaLV dXcocrt/ios. ct <8€> SiJ 
T(V09 ^p^S 'cat o'v vcov ytwalov ap€TJ koi ?rat8c/a, kol 
TV)(rj KOL a'(t}<l>pocrvvri 8(a^€/)0KT0$, ovk av afiaprdvoi^, 
Ambr. 60 opfiiav iir iKuvia KoX iraa'av a.yaBo)v dtr^oXciav ctt avrcp | 
TiOifievo^ o)S,^ €<^' oo'ov yc ^fttv ovtos 'nrepCea'Tiv — avrep- 
acT^S ya/3 civat' o^ot ffirjfJLL, kol ovk airoKp-vvTOfiai — ra 
dWa yc irdvTa rjfuv cviara kol tovtov fxaKpQ 8ci;Tcpa. 

-^d M. Goes. iii. 19 (Naber, p. 56). 

Vat. 153, I i>yr 

col. 2 I Magistro meo. 

Qualem mihi animum esse existimas^ quom 
cogito quam diu te non vidi, et quam ob rem non 
vidi ! et fortassis pauculis te adhuc diebus^ quom te 
necessario confirmas, non videbo. Igitur, dum tu 
iacebis^ et mihi animus supinus erit ; quomque tu dis 
iuvantibus bene stabis, et me us animus bene con- 
stabit^ qui nunc torretur ardentissimo desiderio tuo.^ 
Vale, anima Caesaris tui, amici tui^ discipuli tui. 

* Niebuhr for Cod. 5s. 

*^ The margin of Cod. has in alio {i.e. in another MS.) tui. 



perience and not by learning. Often has it been 
my fate to suffer in my affections. At one time it 
was Athenodotus the philosopher, at another Dio- 
nysius the rhetor ^ that I loved : and yet, when 
I reflected that he was preserved to me whom 
it was my fortune to love, I was less at the mercy 
of grief and circumstance. But if you as well 
as I love a noble youth,^ distinguished for virtue 
and learning and fortune and modesty, you cannot 
go wrong if you attach yourself to him and set in 
him all your assurance of good fortune, since as long 
as he remains to us — for I confess, and make no 
secret of it, that I am your rival in his love — every- 
thing else is remediable and of infinitely less import- 
ance than this. 


„, ^ ? 144-145 A.D. 

1 o my master. 

What do you suppose are my feelings when I 

think how long it is since I have seen you, and why 

I have not seen you ? And perhaps for a few days 

I yet, while you are perforce nursing yourself, I shall 

not see you. So while you are down in bed, my 

spirits will be down too ; and when by God's grace 

you stand on your feet, my spirits also will stand 

fast, that are now fevered with the most burning 

longing for you. Fare ever well, soul of your Caesar, 

of your friend, of your pupil. 

^ * These two were masters of Fronto ; see Index. Marcus 

( Thoughts, i. 13) mentions Athenodotus. 
^ Marcus is meant. 



Ad M. Goes. iii. 20 (Naber, p. 56). 

Domino meo. 

Lectulo me teneo. Si possim^ ubi ad Centum- 
cellas ibitis^ itineris idoneus esse^ vii idus vos Lorii 
Vat. 170 videbo deis faventibus. | Excusa me Domino nostro 
patri tuo, quern — ^ita vos salvos habeam — magno pon- 
dere gravius amo et colo^ quom tam bene in senatu 
iudicatum est^ quod et provinciis saluti esset et reos 
dementer obiurgasset. 

Ubi vivarium dedicabitis^ memento quam diligen- 
tissime, si feras percuties^ equum admittere. Galbam 
certe ad Centumcellas produces. An potes octavi- 
dus ^ Lorii ? Vale, Domine, patri placeto, matri die 
salutem, me desiderato. Cato quid dicat de Galba 
absoluto tu melius scis : ego memini propter fratris 
filios eum absolutum. To 8c aKpL^h ipse inspice. Cato 
igitur dissuadet neve suos neve alienos quis liberos 
ad misericordiam conciliandam produeat neve uxores 
neve adfines vel ullas omnino feminas. Dominam 
mat rem saluta. 

Ad M, Caeif. iii. 21 (Naber, p. 67). 

Maoistho meo. 

Mane ad te non scripsi, quia te commodiorem 
esse audieram^ et quia ipse in alio negotio occupatus 

* For octavo idus. 

^ A splendid villa of Trajan's on the Etrurian coast, now 
Civita Vecchia. Pliny, Ep, vi. 31, gives a good description of it. 
^ Between Rome and Centumcellae on the Via Aurelia. 


Fronto to Marcus Aurelius as Caesar 

r^, T J ? 144-145 A.D. 

lo my Lord. 

I am confined to my bed. If I should be fit for 
the journey when you go to Centumcellae ^ J shall 
see you, please God, at Lorium on the seventh day 
before the Ides. Make my apologies to my Lord 
your father, whom — may heaven preserve you both — 
I love and honour all the more intensely since the 
excellent decision in the Senate, which, while safe- 
guarding the interests of the provinces, at the same 
time gently rebuked the offenders. 

When you inaugurate your game preserve, be sure 
that you remember, without fail, if you strike a beast, 
to set your horse at full gallop. Of course you will 
bring Galba to Centumcellae, or can you be at 
Lorium,2 on the 8th before the Ides ? Farewell, my 
Lord, please your father, greet your mother, miss me. 
You know better than I what Cato says of Galba's 
acquittal.^ As far as I remember he was acquitted for 
the sake of his nephews. But see for yourself what 
the truth of the matter is. Cato, in consequence, is of 
opinion that no one should bring into court his own or 
others* children to excite pity, nor wives nor relations, 
nor any women at all. Greet my Lady your mother. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

To my master. ^ l**-!*^ *•«'• 

I did not write to you in the morning, hearing 
that you were better, and being myself engaged in 

3 He was tried for massacring nearly the whole nation of 
the Lusitanians by means of the basest treachery. Cato, 
though eighty-five years old, was his accuser. Galba brought 
his sons and one nephew into court to excite pity. 



fueram ; nee sustineo ad te umquam quiequam seri- 
bere nisi remisso et soluto et libero animo. Igitur, 
si recte sumus, fac me ut sciam : quid enim optem 
Vat. 175 scis ; quam | merito optem, scio. Vale, mens magis- 
ter, qui merito apud animum meum omnes omni re 
praevenis. Mi magister, ecce non dormito, et cogo 
me ut dormiam, ne tu irasearis. Aestimas utique 
me vespera haec scribere.^ 

Ad M. Caes, iv. 4 (Naber, p. 66). 

Vat. 149, M. Caesar M. Frontoni magistro suo | salutem. 

150°^ 1. Postquam vehiculum inscendi, postquam te 

salutavi, iter non adeo incommodum feeimus,^ sed 
paululum pluvia ^ aspersi sumus. Sed priusquam ad 
villam venimus, Anagniam devertimus, mille fere 
passus a via. Deinde id oppidum antiquum vidimus, 
minutulum quidem sed multas res in se antiquas 
hab<ens> et aedes sanetasque caerimonias supra 
modum. NuUus angulus fuit, ubi delubrum aut 
fanum aut templum non sit. Praeterea multi libri 
lintei, quod ad sacra adtinet.* Deinde in porta, 
quom exiimus, ibi scriptum erat bifariam sic : Flamen 
sume samenium, Rogavi aliquem ex popularibus quid 
illud verbum esset.'* Ait lingua Hernica pelli- 
culam de hostia, quam in apicem suum flamen quom 
in urbem introeat imponit. Multa adeo alia didi- 

^ After this letter, at the end of Ad M. Caes, iii. follow 
words which Mai reads as Gaecilius s<ae>pe <.r>ogcUu8 legi 
emendavi. Ha vet suggests pr{aefectus) pr{aetorif>) togatus. 

2 Before this word the Codex has non, erased by m*. Nos 
and confedmus have been suggested. * Cod. pluviae. 

* Another MS. noted on margin of Cod. had pertinM, 



other business ; and I never care to write at all to 
you unless my mind is unbent and at ease and free. 
Therefore, if our news is correct, assure me of it. 
For you know what I wish, and I know how rightly 
I wish it. Farewell, my master, so rightly first in 
my thoughts before all others on all occasions. See, 
my master, I am not sleepy, yet force myself to sleep 
that you may not be angry. You realize, at any rate, 
that I am writing this in the evening. 

Signia, } 144-145 a.d. 

M. Caesar to his master M. Fronto, greeting. 
1. After getting into the carriage, when I had 
said good-bye to you, we did not have such a bad 
journey, though we got a slight wetting from the 
rain. But before reaching our country house we 
turned aside to Anagnia, about a mile off the main 
road. Then we inspected that ancient township, a 
tiny place, indeed, but containing many antiquities 
and buildings, and religious ceremonies beyond num- 
ber. There was not a corner without its chapel or 
shrine or temple. Many books too, written on 
linen,^ and this has a religious significance. Then on 
the gate, as we came out, we found an inscription 
twice over to this effect : Flamen sume samentum,^ I 
asked one of the townsmen what the last word 
meant. He said it was Hernican for the pelt of the 
victim, which the priest draws over his peaked cap 
on entering the city. Quite a number of other 

* Probably of Etruscan origin, and a sort of " Book of the 
Dead " ; cp. Livy, iv. 7. 12. It is said that such books have 
recently been found. 

« **, don the fell" (Dr. Rouse). 



cimus quae vellemus scire ; verum id solum est quod 
nolimus, quom tu a nobis abes: ea nobis maxima 
sollicitudo est. 

2. Nunc tu postquam inde profectus es, utrumne 
in Aureliam an in Campaniam abiisti? Fac scribas 
mihi et an vindemias inchoaveris, et an ad villam 
multitudinem librorum tuleris, et illud quoque, an me 
Vat 156 desideres — quod ego | stulte requiro, quom^ tu per 
te facis. Nunc tu si me desideras atque si me amas, 
litteras tuas ad me frequenter mittes, quod mihi 
solacium atque fomentum sit. Nam decem partibus 
tuas litteras legere malim quam omnes Massicos ^ aut 
Gauranos palmites : nam Signini quidem isti nimis 
rancidos racemos et acidos acinos habent, quod 
vinum malim quam mustum bibere. Praeterea istas 
uvas multo commodius passas quam puberes mandu- 
care ; nam profecto malim eas pedibus calcare quam 
dentibus comesse. Sed tamen propitiae placataeque 
sint, et mihi pro istis iocularibus bonam veniam 
duint. Vale, mihi homo amicissime, suavissime, 
disertissime, magister dulcissime. Quom videbis in 
dolio mustum fervere, in mentem tibi veniat mihi sic 
in pectore tuum desiderium scatere et abundare et 
spumas facere. Semper vale. 

* Cod. quod. * For Cod. Marsicos. _ 



things we learnt which we were glad to know ; but 
the one thing we are not glad of is that it was in 
your absence : that is our chief concern. 

2. Now for yourself, did you, when you left us, go to 
the Aurelian district ^ or into Campania ? Mind you 
tell me, and whether you have begun the vintage, 
and whether you have brought crowds of books to 
your country house, yes,, and this, too, whether you 
miss me ; and yet that is a foolish question, for you 
need no reminder to do that. Well, then, if you do 
miss me and do love me, you will write to me often 
to console me and cheer me up."^ For I would ten 
times rather have the run^ of your letters than of all 
the vineyards of the Massic * and the Gauran Mount : 
for your clusters of Signia are too nauseous and 
their berries too bitter, wherefore I would prefer their 
wine to their must for drinking. Besides it is much 
more agreeable to masticate the grapes parched 
than pulpy, for beyond question I would rather 
stamp them with my feet than champ them with 
my teeth. Yet may they be gracious and forgiving, 
and for these pleasantries a kindly pardon grant. 
Farewell, to me most affectionate, most delight- 
ful, most eloquent of men, master most sweet. 
When you see the must fermenting in the cask, 
let it remind you that my longing for you wells up 
thus and overflows and foams in my breast. Fare 
ever well. 

^ i.e. the regit) through which ran the Via Aurelia. 

2 A phrase from Cicero ( Tusc. ii. 24, 59). 

' Fronto plays on two meanings of Icgere. 

* A good wine is meant. Marsic wine was poor, see Mart, 
xiii. 121 and Athen. i. 26. The wine of Signia was astringent 
and medicinal. 




Ad M, CafH, iv. 5 (Naber, p. 68). 

Have mi magister gravissime.^ 

1. Nos valemus. Ego hodie ab hora nona noctis 
in secundaui diei bene disposito cibo studivi ; a sec- 
unda in tertiam soleatus libentissime inambulavi 
Vat 155 ante cubiculum meum. Deinde | calceatus sagulo 
sumpto — nam ita adesse nobis indicium erat — abii 
saliitatum Dominum meum. 

2. Ad venationem profecti sumus, fortia facinora 
fecimus, apros captos esse fando audiimus^ nam vi- 
dendi quidem nulla facultas fuit. Clivom tamen 
satis arduom successimus ; inde postmeridie domum 
recepimus. Ego me ad libellos. Igitur ealceis de- 
tractiSj vestimentis positis^ in lectulo ad duas boras 
commoratus sum. Legi Catonis orationem De bonis 
Pulchrae^^ et aliam qua tribuno diem dixit. lo, in- 
quis puero tuo^ vade quantum potes, de Apollinis bibUo- 
thecabus^ has mihi orationes apporla. Frustra mittis^ 
nam et isti libri me secuti sunt. Igitur Tiberianus 
bibliothecarius tibi subigitandus est ; aliquid in earn 
rem insumendum^ quod mihi ille, ut ad urbem venero, 
divisione impertiat. Sed ego orationibus his perlec- 
tis^ paululum misere scripsi^ quod aut lymphis aut 
Volcano dicarem : dkrjOias aTv;((i>s (n^fiepov yiypaTrraC 
fioL, venatoris plane aut vindemiatoris studiolum^ qui 

^ Another MS. (quoted in margin of Cod.) has carissime, 

'^ m* of Cod. has Duhhae. 

^ m^ corrects to the singular ; but there were two libraries 
in the Temple of Apollo, one for Latin and the other for 




TT M. J 1. ' 144-145 A.D. 

Hail, most reverend master. 

1. We are well. By a satisfactory arrangement 
of meals I worked from three o'clock a.m. till eight. 
For the next hour I paced about in slippers most 
contentedly before my bedroom. Then putting on 
my boots and donning my cloak — for we had been 
told to come in that dress — 1 went off to pay my 
respects to my Lord. 

2. We set out for the chase ^ and did doughty 
deeds. We did hear say that boars had been 
bagged, for we were not lucky enough to see any. 
However, we climbed quite a steep hill ; then in the 
afternoon we came home. I to my books : so taking 
off my boots and doffing my dress I passed nearly 
two hours on my couch, reading Cato's speech On the 
propei'ty of Pulckia,^ and another in which he im- 
peached a tribune. Ho, you cry to your boy, go as 
fast as you can and fetch me those speeches from the 
libraries of Apollo ! ^ It is no use your sending, for 
those volumes, among others, have followed me here. 
So you must get round the librarian of Tiberius' s 
library : ^ a little douceur will be necessary, in which 
he and I can go shares when I come back to town. 
Well, these speeches read, I wrote a little wretched 
stuff, fit to be dedicated to the deities of water and 
fire : truly to-day I have been unlucky in my writing, 
the lucubration of a sportsman or a vintager, such as 

1 Marcus was fond of hunting ; see Capit. iv. 9. Coins 
also shew this ; see Cohen, 408, and a beautiful medallion in 

^ Nothing more is known of this speech. 

3 Built by Augustus ; see Hor. Od. i. 31 ; Ep. i. 3. 17. 

* In the Palace of Tiberius. 


N 2 


iubilis suis cubiculum meum perstrepunt^ causidicali 
prorsum odio et taedio. Quid hoc dixi ? Immo recte 
Vat. 186 dixi, nam meus quid em magister orator | est. 

3. Ego videor mihi perfrixisse : quod mane sole- 
atus ambulavi an quod male scripsi, non scio. Certe 
homo alioqui pituitosus, hodie tamen multo muecu- 
lentior mihi esse videor. Itaque oleum in caput in- 
fundam et incipiam dormire : nam in lucemam hodie 
nullam stillam inicere cogito, ita me equitatio et 
sternutatio defatigavit. Valebis mihi, magister caris- 
sime et dulcissime, quem ego — ausim dicere — magis 
quam ipsam Romam desidero. 

Ad M. Com, iv. 6 (Naber, p. 69). 

Have mi magister dulcissime. 

1. Nos valemus. Ego aliquantulum prodormivi^ 
propter perfrictiunculam, quae videtur sedata esse. 
Ego ab undecima noctis in tertiam diei partim legi 
ex AgricuUura Catonis partim scripsi, minus misere 
mehercule quam heri. Inde salutato patre meo, aqua 
mulsa sorbenda usque ad gulam et reiectanda fauces 
fovi, potius quam dicerem gargarissavi : nam est 
apud ^ Novium, credo, et alibi. Sed faucibus curatis 
abii ad patrem meum et immolanti adstiti. Deinde 

^ Should probably be perdormivi, 
' For Cod. et ad. 



those whose catches ^ ring through my bedroom, a 
noise every whit as hateful and wearisome as that of 
the law-courts. What is this I have said ? Nay, 'tis 
true, for my master is an orator, 

3. I think I must have taken a chill, whether from 
walking about in slippers in the early morning, or 
from writing badly, I know not. I only know that, 
rheumy enough at all times, I seem to be more 
drivelling than ever to-day. So 1 will pour the oil 
on my head and go off to sleep, for not a drop of it 
do I intend to pour into my lamp to-day, so tired am 
I with riding and sneezing. Farewell for my sake, 
dearest and sweetest of masters, whom I would 
make bold to say I long to see more than Rome 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

TT 3. ^ r 1. ? 144—145 A.D. 

Hail, my sweetest oi masters. 

1. We are well. I slept somewhat late owing 

to my slight cold, which seems now to have subsided. 

So from five a.m. till nine I spent the time partly 

in reading some of Cato*s Agriculture and partly in 

writing not quite such wretched stuff, by heavens, as 

yesterday. Then, after paying my respects to my 

father, I relieved my throat, I will not say by gargling 

— though the word gargarisso is, I believe, found in 

Novius and elsewhere — but by swallowing honey 

water as far as the gullet and ejecting it again. 

After easing my throat I went off to my father and 

attended him at a sacrifice. ^ Then we went to 

^ Lucian {Lexiph. 2) speaks of rohs ipydras \iyvpi(ovras 

* Capit. Fit. Pii, xi. 5, says Pius always performed the 
sacrifice himself. 



ad merendam itum. Quid me censes prandisse? 
panis tantulum, quom conchim^ eaepas et maenas 
bene praegnatas alios vorantes viderem. Deinde 
Vat. 185 uvis metendis operam dedijmus et consudavimus et 
iubilavimus et aliquot, ut ait auctor^ reliquimus alti- 
pendulos vindemiae superstites, Ab hora sexta domum 

2. Paululum studui atque id ineptum. Deinde 
cum matercula mea supra torum sedente multum 
garrivi. Meus sermo hie erat: Quid eodstimas modo 
meum Frontonem facere ? Tum ilia : Quid autem tu 
meam Gratiam ? Tum ego : Quid autem passerculam 
nostram Gratiam minusculam ? Dum ea fabulamur 
atque altercamur, uter alter<utr>um2 vestrum magis 
amaret^ discus crepuit, id est, pater meus in balneum 
transisse nuntiatus est. Loti igitur in torculari cenav- 
imus : non loti in torculari, sed loti cenavimus ; et 
rusticos cavillantes audivimus libenter. Inde rever- 
sus, priusquam me in latus converto ut stertam, meum 
pensum explico et diei rationem meo suavissimo 
magistro reddo, quem si possem magis desiderare, 
libenter plusculum macerarer. Valebis mihi, Fronto, 
ubiubi es, mellitissime, meus amor, mea voluptas. 
Quid mihi tecum est ? Amo absentem. 

* Madvig would read cum conchi <.quom>. 

* Brakman. 



luncheon. What do you think I ate ? A wee bit of 
bread, though I saw others devouring beans, onions, 
and herrings full of roe. We then worked hard at 
grape-gathering, 1 and had a good sweat, and were 
merry and, as the poet says, still left some clusters 
hanging high as gleanings of the vintage.^ After six 
o'clock we came home. 

2. I did but little work and that to no purpose. 
Then I had a long chat with my little mother as she 
sat on the bed. My talk was this : What do you think 
my Fronto is now doing ? Then she : And what do you 
think my Gratia is doing ? Then I : And what do you 
think our little spairow, the wee Gratia,^ is doing? 
Whilst we were chattering in this way and disputing 
which of us two loved the one or other of you two 
the better, the gong sounded, an intimation that my 
father had gone to his bath. So we had supper 
after we had bathed in the oil-press room ; I do not 
mean bathed in .the oil-press room, but when we 
had bathed, had supper there, and we enjoyed 
hearing the yokels chaffing one another. After 
coming back, before I turn over and snore, 1 get 
my task done and give my dearest of masters an 
account of the day's doings, and if I could miss 
him more, I would not grudge wasting away a little 
more. Farewell, my Fronto, wherever you are, 
most honey-sweet, my love, my delight. How is 
it between you and me.'' 1 love you and you are 

^ Capit. {ibid. xi. 2) tells us that Pius vindemias privati 
modo cum amicis agebcU. 
^ Possibly from the VindemicUores of Novius. 
' Frontons daughter. 


Ad M. Goes. iv. 7 (Naber, p. 70). 

Have mihi magister dulcissime. 
Vat. 188 Tandem tabellarius proficiscitur, et ego tridui | 

acta mea ad te tandem possum dimittere. Nee quic- 
quam dico; ita epistulis prope ad xxx dict^dis 
spiritum insumpsi. Nam quod proxime tibi de epis- 
tulis placuerat^ nondum ad patrem meum pertuli. 
Sed quom dis iuvantibus ad urbem veniemus^ admone 
me ut tibi aliquid de hac re narrem : sed quae tua et 
mea meteoria est, neque tu me admonebis neque ego 
tibi narrabo : utique ^ enim re vera opus consulto est. 
Vale meum — quid dicam <quom> quidquid dicere 
satis non est? — vale, meum desiderium, mea lux,^ 
mea voluptas. 

Ad M, Goes, iv. 8 (Naber, p. 71). 

Maoistro meo salutem. 

Adventum tuum mihi frater tuus nuper ^vrjy- 
ycXto-aro. Cupio mehercule possis venire, quod 
<salva>3 salute tua fiat: spero enim fore ut etinm 
valetudini meae conspectus tuus aliquid conferat : 
€is ofjLfiaT €vvov <^(i)Tos ifx^KiipaL yAv#cv, Euripides ait, 
opinor. Ego impraesentiarum* sic me liabeo, ut vel 
hinc aestimatu facile sit tibi, quod haec precaria 
manu scribo. Sane quidem quod ad vires adtinet, 
incipiunt redire : pectoris etiam dolor nullus resi- 
duus ; ulcus autem illud air^pya^ .... t^9 afyrqpia^. 
Nos remedia experimur et nequid opere nostro^ 

^ Klussm. for Cod. atqw. 

'^ These words are not quite certain. ^ Klussm. 

* A colloquial contraction for in praesentia rerum. 

* Kiehl suggests iir€pyd(«rai. * = opera nostra. 


Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

„ ^ . r 1. ? 144-145 A.D. 

Hail^ xny sweetest ot masters. 

At last the messenger is starting^ and at last 
I can send yx>\i my three days' budget of news. But 
I cannot sat/ anything^ to such an extent have I ex- 
hausted my breath by dictating nearly thirty letters. 
For as to your last opinion on the question of letters, 
I have not yet broached the matter to my father. 
But when we come, God willing, to Rome, remind 
me to tell you something on this matter. But you 
and I are so much up in the clouds that neither will 
you remind me nor I tell you : and yet, indeed, it 
really needs consideration. Farewell, my — what 
shall 1 say when whatever I say is inadequate ? — 
farewell my longing, my light, my delight. 

M. Aurelius to Fronto 

rr- . .. ? 144-145 A.D. 

To my master, greeting. 

Your brother but now brought me the good 
news of your arrival. Heaven knows I long for you 
to be able to come, if only your health will allow of 
it, for I hope that the sight of you may do some- 
thing for my health also. Sweet *tis to look into a 
friend's kind eyes, as Euripides,^ I take it, says. My 
present condition you can easily gauge by the shaki- 
ness of my handwriting. As far as my strength is 
concerned, it is certainly beginning to come back. 
The pain in my chest, too, is quite gone ; but 
the ulcer .... the trachea. I am under treat- 
ment and taking every care that nothing militates 

1 Ion, 732. 



Vat. 187 claudat, advigilamus. | Neque eniin ulla alia re tolera- 
biliora diutuma incommoda fieri sentio^ qoam con- 
scientia curae diligentis et temperantiae medicis 
obsequentis. Turpe alioqui fiierit diutius vitium cor- 
poris quam animi studium ad recuperandam sani- 
tatem posse durare. Vale mi iucundissime magister. 
Salutat te mater mea. 

Ad M, Caes. v. 58 (73) (Naber, p. 92). 
Vat i(K>, I Domino meo. 

col 2 

Vexatus sum^ Domine^ noete diffuso labore per 
umerum et cubitum et genu et talum. Denique id 
ipsum tibi mea manu scribere non potui. 

- - - g 

ailjin,co\. 1 

Ad M. Goes. iv. 9 (Naber, p. 71). 

Vat. 187, I DoMiNo meo.^ 

Accepi litteras tuas elegantissime scriptas^ qui- 
bus tu intervallo desiderium litterarum inearum obor- 
tum tibi esse ais. Est igitur vera Socrati opinio^ 
'* doloribus ferme voluptates connexas esse/* quom in 
carcere dolorem constricti vinculi voluptate resoluti 
compensaret. Item profecto in nobis^ quantum 
molestiae absentia^ tantum commodi adfert desi- 
derium inritatum. Nam desiderium ex amore est. 
Igitur amor cum desiderio auctus est^ quod est in 

^ This letter is omitted in the Index (given Naber, 
p. 58). 



against its success. For I feel that my protracted 
illness can be made more bearable only by a con- 
sciousness of unfailing care and strict obedience ^ to 
the doctors* orders. Besides, it were shame, indeed, 
that a disease of the body should outlast a deter- 
mination of the mind to recover health. Farewell, 
my most delightful of masters. My mother greets 

Fronto to Marcus Aurelius as Caesar 

rr. T J ? 144-145 A.D. 

lo my Lord. 
I have been troubled, my Lord, in the night 
with widespread pains in my shoulder and elbow 
and knee and ankle. In fact, I have not been able 
to convey this very news to you in my own writing. 

Fronto to Marcus Aurelius as Caesar 

rp, T J ? 144-145 A.D. 

lo my Lord. 

I have received your letter, most charmingly 

expressed, in which you say that the intermission in 

my letters has cau'sed a longing for them to arise in 

you. Socrates was right, tlien, in his opinion that 

^^ pleasures are generally linked to pains," when in 

his imprisonment he held that the pain caused by 

the tightness of his chains was made up for by the 

pleasure of their removal.^ Precisely so in our case 

the fondness which absence stimulates brings as 

much comfort as the absence itself causes affliction. 

For fond longing comes from love. Therefore, 

absence makes the heart grow fonder, and this is far 

1 We know from Galen (xiv. 216, Ktihn) that Marcus was 
in later life, too, a good and intelligent patient. 
' In Plato's Phaedoy ad init, 

. 187 


amicitia multo optimum. Turn quod quaeris de vale- 
tudine mea, iam prius scripseram tibi, me humeri 
dolore vexatum ita vehementer quidem ut illam 
ipsani epistulam^ qua id significabam^ scribendo dare 
operam nequirem ; sed uterer contra morem nostrum 
Knd«»fViU. <Hliena manu> .... I. 

IN7 lUlli 
(jUlit. ix. 

Ad M, Ca'iif. iv. 10 (Naber, p. 72). 

<Maoi8Tiio meo salutem.> 

Haec me in praesentia^ .... <Vale mi 
Vat. ua Fronto caris>|sinie. Mater mea te salutat. Consulem 
nostrum saluta et matronam nostram. 

Ad M, Cues. V. 1 (Naber, p. 77). 

Vhi. ijr, I Domino meo. 

^"^•^ Si quicquam nos amas^ dormi per istas noctes, 

ut forti colore in senatum venias et vehementi latere 


A(i M, Caes. v. 2 (Naber, p. 78). 

Magistro meo. 

Ego te numquam satis amabo : dormiam. 

Ad M. Vacs. v. 3 (Naber, p. 78). 

Domino meo. 

Miserere, unum verbum de oratione ablega, et 
quaeso ne umquam utaris: dictionern pro oratione.^ 
Vale, Domine, mea gloria immortalis. Matrem 
Dominam saluta. 

^ These words are from the Index. Apart from them four 
paces are lost from nostrum in the previous letter. 
^ m^ of Cod. has orcUionetn. 



the best thing in friendship. Then as to my healthy 
about which you enquire, I had already written to 
you that I was suffering so much pain in the shoulder 
that I could not succeed in writing the very letter in 
which I mentioned it, but, contrary to my usual 
custom, had to employ another hand .... 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

rp . .. ? 144-145 A.D. 

1 o my master, greeting. 

These things at present .... Farewell, my 

dearest Fronto, my mother greets you. Greet our 

consuP and our lady. 

Fronto to Marcus Aurelius as Caesar 

rr T J 145-147 A.D. 

To my Lord. 

If you have any love at all for me, sleep those 
nights that you may come into the Senate ^ with a 
good colour and read with a strong voice. 

M. Aurelius to Fronto 

rj. . 145-147 A.D. 

lo my master. 

I can never love you enough : I will sleep. 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

' To my Lord. 1*^1*^ *•"• 

For pity's sake, cancel one word from your speech 
and, I entreat you, never use it — dictio for oratio. 
Farewell, my Lord, my everlasting glory. Greet my 
Lady your mother. 

^ It is not known who is referred to. 

' For his speech of thanks as consul (145 a.d.) or as 
invested with Trib. Pot (147). 



Ad M. Goes. v. 4 (Naber, p. 78). 

Cras me de hoc verbo tibi, si admonueris, 

Ad M. Caes. v. (Index) (Naber, p. 76). 

lines"' <DoMiNo meo.> I Quam fortis advenias^ 

<Magistro meo.> Fortes venimus 

< Domino meo.> Sume cibum, Domine 

<Magistro meo.> Sumpsi cibum 

< Domino meo.> Si animus Faustinae 

<Magistro meo.> Et consilio tuo obsequor . . . 

< Domino meo.> At hercule compleri tem<pus> 

<Magistro meo.> Nimis diu sollieitus 

<Domino meo.> Mirifice ego quidem 

<Magistro meo.> In media ineommoda .... 

< Domino meo.> Adflictus sum labore 

<Magi8tro meo.> Fatigatio ista tua 

< Domino meo.> Modo mihi Gratia 

<Magistro meo.> Possit satis pro re ista . . . . 

< Domino meo.> Caietae substiti 

^ These fifteen letters have only the opening words pre- 
served. As they were contained (including the beginning of 
the following letter) in four pages of the Codex, they could 
only have been four or five lines apiece. 

* Cicero uses it {De Orat, i. 33). 


Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 
Answer. 145-147 a.d. 

To-morrow, if you will remind me, I will state my 
case for this word.^ 

From the hidex 
Fronto to Marcus and Marcus to Fronto 

Alternately 145.147 ^.d. 

To my Lord. (Tell me) how strong you feel on 
arriving .... 

To my master. I arrived quite strong .... 

To my Lord. Take food, my Lord .... 

To my master. I have taken food ^ . . . . 

To my Lord. If Faustina's ^ courage .... 

To my master. I both bow to your advice .... 

To my Lord. But, by heaven, the completion ot 
the time .... 

To my master. Too long anxious .... 

To my Lord. I indeed (was) wonderfully (pleased) 

• • • 

To my master. Into the midst of worries .... 

To my Lord. I have been worn out with work 

To my master. That fatigue of yours .... 
To my Lord. Lately Gratia .... 

To my master. Possibly enough for that matter 


To my Lord. I have halted at Caieta* .... 

2 The first four letters seem to refer to the same occasion 
as the four that precede. 

^ The first mention of Faustina in connection with Marcus, 
to whom she was married in 1 45. 

* A harbour of Latium. Marcus {Thoughts, i. ad fin.) 
mentions a stay there. 



Ad M, Caes. v. 5 [20] (Naber, p. 78). 

<Magistro meo.> 
Vat. 106 : Quantum tu mihi .... | in biduo ^ nunc^ si 

ends videtur, dentes adprimamus tamen ; et quo brevius 

iter sit tibi recenti morbo Caietae nos opperire. 
Facio delicias, quod ferme evenit quibus quod 
cupiunt tandem in manu est : difFerunt, affluunt^ 
gestiunt ; ^ ego vero etiam fastidio omnia. Domina 
mater te salutat, quam ego hodie rogabo ut ad me 
Gratiam perducat — vel famum inquit 'patriae Grains ^ 
poeta. Vale mi — omnia mea — magister. Amo me 
quod te visurus sum. 

Ad M. Caes. v. 6 [21] (Naber, p. 78). 

Domino meo. 

Postquam profecti estis, genus dolore arreptus 
sum, verum ita modico ut et ingrederer pedetemptim 
et vehiculo uterer. Hac nocte vehementior dolor 
invasit, ita tamen ut iacens facile patiar, nisi quid 
amplius ingruerit. Augustam tuam vexatam audio. 
Deis equidem salutem eius eommendo. Vale, Domine 
dulcissime. Dominam saluta. 

^ Cod. viduo. From defendam in Ad M. Caes, v. 4 (p. 190) 
four pages are lost. 

* The margin of Cod. gives stnUm diffluunt, affluunt, et 
fastidiurU, ^ Jacobs for Caius (Mai). 

* Perhaps the phrase means ** belittle" or "make light 
of a thing." 




rp . 145-147 A.D. 

To my master. 

in two days now, if that is 

best^ let us clench our teeth all the same ; and as 
you are just recovering from illness^ to shorten the 
journey, wait for us at Caieta. I begin to be dainty,^ 
as generally happens with those who have at last in 
their grasp what they long for: they are carried 
away ,2 they feel in affluence, they are exultant : for 
myself, however, I am even disgusted with every- 
thing. My Lady mother greets you. I shall ask her 
to-day to bring Gratia to me — even ike smoke of one's 
fatherland, as the Greek poet ' says. Farewell, my — 
all in all — master. I love myself at the thought of 
seeing you. 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

rp T J 145-147 A.D. 

To my Lord. 

After you had set out, I was seized with pain 

in the knee, but so slight that I could both walk 

slowly and use a carriage. To-night the pain has 

come on more violently, but so that I can easily 

bear it lying down, if it gets no worse. I hear that 

your Augusta is poorly. I pray the Gods, indeed, 

to have care of her health. Farewell, most sweet 

Lord. Greet my Lady.* 

3 Hauler ( Wien. SUid, 25, pt. 1, 1903) takes differunt as 
= differuntur, a Plautine usage. 

' Homer, see above p. 94. 

^ Either Faustina or the mother of Marcus. By Augusta 
is meant Faustina the younger, who received this title on 
her marriage to Marcus in 145. 

VOL. I. O 


Ad M. Caes. v. 10 (25) (Naber, p. 80). 

Domino meo. 
Vat 88 Modo mihi Victorinus indicat Dominam tuam| 

magis caluisse quam beri. Gratia leviora omnia 
nuntiabat. Ego te idcirco non vidi^ quod ex grave- 
dine sum imbeeillus. Cras tamen mane domum ad 
te veniam. Eadem^^ si tempestivom erit^ etiam 
Dominam visitabo. 

Jd M. Caes. v. 11 (26) (Naber, p. 80). 

Maoist Ro meo. 

Caluit et hodie Faustina^ et quidem id ego 
magis hodie videor mihi deprehendisse. Sed dis 
iuvantibus aequiorem mihi animum facit ipsa^ quod 
se tam obtemperanter nobis accommodat. Tu^ si 
potuisses scilicet^ venisses. Quod iam potes et quod 
venturum promittis^ delector^ mi magister. Vale mi 
iucundissime magister. 

Ad M. Caes, v. 7 (22) (Naber, p. 79). 

Vat. 106, I Magistro mco. 

^'i^ Ludis tu quidem^ at mihi peramplam anxietatem 

et summam aegritudinem^ <acerbissimum> dolorem, 
et ignem flagrantissimum litteris his tuis misisti^ ne 
cenare, ne dormire, ne denique studere libeat. 
Verum tu orationis hodiernae tuae habeas aliquod 

* sc, opera, 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

rr J ^ A 145-147 A.D. 

To my Lord. 

Victorinus ^ has just told me that your Lady is 
more feverish than yesterday. Gratia reported that 
everything had taken a turn for the better. The 
reason that I have not seen you is that I am 
indisposed with a bad cold. To-morrow morning, 
however, I will come to you at home. At the same 
time I will call on your Lady also, if convenient. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

T, 4. 145-147 A.D. 

To my master. 

Faustina has been feverish to-day also, and, in 

fact, I fancy I have noticed it more to-day. But the 

Gods be thanked she herself makes me less anxious 

by being such an obedient patient. Of course you 

would have come had you been able. I am rejoiced 

that you can come now, and promise to do so, my 

master. Farewell, most delightful of masters. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

rr> . Lorium, 145-147 a.d. 

1 o my master. ' 

You indeed are playful,^ but by this letter of 

yours you have sent me immense anxiety and intense 

distress, most acute pain and burning fever, so that 

I have no heart to sup or sleep or even study. But 

you would find some comfort in your speech to-day, 

* Afterwards Fronto's son-in-law. 

* It is not known what misfortune had befallen Fronto. 

o 2 


Vat 105 solacium; at | ego quid faciam? qui et auditionis 
iam voluptatem consumpsi^ et metuo ne Lorium tar- 
diuscule venias, et doleo quod interim doles. Vale, 
mi magister, cuius salus meam salutem inlibatam et 
incolumem facit. 

Ad M. Caes, v. 8 (23) (Naber, p. 79). 

Maoistro meo. 

Ego dies istos tales transegi. Soror dolore 
muliebrium partium ita correpta est repente, ut 
faeiem horrendam viderim. Mater autem mea in ea 
trepidatione imprudens angulo parietis costam in- 
flixit: eo ictu graviter et se et nos adfecit. Ipse 
quom cubitum irem, scorpionem in lecto offendi : 
occupavi tamen eum occidere priusquam accum- 
berem. Tu si reetius vales, est solacium. Mater 
iam levior est, dis volentibus. Vale mi optime dul- 
cissime magister. Domina mea te salutat. 

Ad M. Caes. v. 9 (24) (Naber, p. 79). 

Domino meo. 

Quom te salvom et illaesum dei praestiterunt, 
maximas dels gratias ago. Te certum habeo, quom 
instituta tua reputo, baud perturbatum : ego, quam- 

^ Annia Cornificia, born about 123 a.d. She married 
Ummidius Quadratus. 

* This would be at Lorium, or somewhere in the country. 



whereas I, what am I to do ? who have already 
forestalled the pleasure of hearing it and fear that 
your visit to Lorium may be delayed, and am in 
pain because you meanwhile are in pain. Farewell, 
my master, whose health makes my health un- 
impaired and assured. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

rr X 145-147 A.D. 

I o my master. 
This is how I have passed the last few days. 
My sister^ was seized suddenly with such pain in the 
privy parts that it was dreadful to see her. More- 
over, my mother, in the flurry of the moment, in- 
advertently ran her side against a corner of the wall, 
causing us as well as herself great pain by the acci- 
dent. For myself, when I went to lie down I came 
upon a scorpion in my bed^; however, I was in 
time to kill it before lying down upon it. If you are 
better, that is a consolation. My mother feels easier 
now, thank the Gods. Farewell, best and sweetest 
of masters. My Lady^ greets you. 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

rr. T J 145-147 A.D. 

lo my Lord. 

I am truly thankful to the Gods that they have 
kept you safe and unharmed.* You, I make no 
doubt, were unperturbed, for I know your philosophic 
views ; for myself, however much you wiseacres may 

' It is not clear whether this is his mother or Faustina. 
• If Fronto here refers to the scorpion incident, it is 
curious that he does not enquire for the rest of the family. 



libet vos sapientes me inrideatis^ constematus equi- 
dem sum. Vale, Domine dulcissime, et dels curae 
esto. Dominam saluta. 

AdM, Goes. v. 12 (27) (Naber, p. 80). 
Vat. 88, I Domino meo. 

col 2 

ad\nid, Quomodo manseris, Domine, scire cupio. Ego 

cervicum dolore arreptus sum. Vale, Domine. Do- 
minam saluta. 

Ad M, Goes, v. 13 (28) (Naber, p. 80). 

Magistro meo salutem. 

Noctem sine febre videor transmisisse ; cibum 
non invitus cepi : nunc ago levissime. Nox quid 
ferat cognoscemus. Sed, mi magister, cervicum te 
dolore arreptum quo animo didicerim, profecto ex tua 
proxima sollicitudine metiris. Vale mi iucundissime 
magister. Mater mea salutat te. 

Ad M. Gaes. v. U (29) (Naber, p. 81). 

Vat. 87 I Domino meo. 

Cervicum, Domine, dolore gravissimo correptus 
sum 1 ; de pede dolor decessit. Vale, Domine op- 
time. Dominam saluta. 

* Schwierczina for Cod. grav mm cvrreptus sum, 


laugh at me^ I confess I was thoroughlj shocked. 
Farewell^ my most sweet Lord^ and may the Gods 
have you in their keeping. Greet my Lady. 

Fronto to Maucus as Caesar 

rr T J 145-147 A.D. 

To my Lord. 

I am anxious to know, my Lord, how you are 
keeping. I have been seized with pain in the neck. 
Farewell, my Lord. Greet your Lady. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

rp 4. 1.. 145-147 A.D. 

To my master, greetmg. 

I think I have got through the night without 
fever. I have taken food without repugnance, and 
am doing very nicely now. We shall see what the 
night brings. But, my master, by your late anxiety 
you can certainly gauge my feelings when I learnt 
that you had been seized with pain in the neck. 
Farewell, my most delightful of masters. My 
mother greets you. 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

rp T J 145-147 A.D. 

lo my Lord. 

I have been seized, my Lord, with a most severe 

pain in the neck. The pain has gone from my foot. 

Farewell, best of Lords. Greet my Lady. 



Ad M. Com, v. 15 (30) (Naber, p. 81). 

Maoistro meo salutem. 

Cervicum dolores si tertio^ quoque die remi- 
serint^ erit quod meam valetudinem maiorem in 
modum adiuvet^ mi magister. Lavi et hodie et am- 
bulavi paulum^ cibi paulo plus sumpsi^ nondum tamen 
libente stomacho. Vale mi iucundissime magister. 
Mater mea te salutat. 

Ad M. Cats. V. 16 (31) (Naber, p. 81). 

Maoistro meo salutem. 

Quod 2 tibi etiam tum cervices doluerint, quom ^ 
mihi scriberes^ non possum aequo animo ferre^ neque 
sane volo aut debeo. Ego autem, iuvantibus votum 
tuum deis^ lavi hodie et cibi quantum sat erat cepi ; 
vino etiam libenter usus sum. Vale mi iucundissime 
magister. Mater mea te salutat. 

Ad M, Goes, v. 17 (32) (Naber, p. 81). 

Domino meo. 

Dolores quidem cervicum nihil remiserunt, sed 
animo bene fuit quom te balneo et vino libenter 
usum cognovi. Vale^ Domine. Dominam saluta. 

^ Cod. tertia, * Schopen for Cod. quom. 

• ibid, for quo. 



Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

rp 1.1.' 145-147 A.D. 

To my master^ greeting. 

If the pains in your neck get better, even in 

two days* time, it will help on my convalescence 

more than anything, my master. I have had a 

bath and to-day even done a little walking and 

taken a little more food, but not as yet without 

discomfort. Farewell, my most delightful of masters. 

My mother greets you. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

rT> t i.- 145-147 A.D. 

To my master, greetmg. 

I cannot but be distressed that at the very time 
when you were writing to me your neck was so 
painful, nor indeed do I wish to be, nor ought I to 
be, other than distressed. As for me, thanks be to 
the Gods and your prayers, I have bathed to-day, 
and taken sufficient food, and wine too I have used 
with relish. Farewell, my most delightful of masters. 
My mother greets you. 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

rr. T J 145—147 A.D. 

To my Lord. 

The pains in my neck are no easier, but my 
mind was set at rest as soon as I knew that you had 
been able to take a bath and relish your wine. Fare- 
well, my Lord. Greet your Lady. 



Ad M. Com. iv. 11 (Naber, p. 72). 

Vat. 142, I Caesar Frontoni. 

Volentibus dis spem salutis nancisci videmur: 
alvi fluxus constitit^ febriculae depulsae : macies tamen 
pertenuis, et tussiculae nonnihil restat. Profecto 
intelligis de parvola nostra Faustina haec me tibi 
scribere, pro qua satis egimus. Tibi valetudo an pro 
meo voto se accommodet, fac sciam^ mi magister. 

Ad M, Caes, iv. 12 (Naber, p. 72). 

Fronto Caesari. 

1. Ut ego, di boni, consternatus sum lecto initio 
epistulae tuae ! quod ita seriptum fuit ut tuum 
aliquod valetudinis periculum significari suspicarer. 
Postquam deinde illud periculum, quod quasi tuum 
principio litterarum tuarum acceperam, filiae tuae 
Faustinae fuisse aperuisti, quantum mihi permutatus 
pavor ! Nee permutatus modo, verum etiam nescio 
quo pacto nonnihil sublevatus. Dicas licet : leviusne 
tibi visum est Jiliae meae periculum quam meum ? Tibi- 
ne ita visum, qui praejers Faustinam id tibi esse quad 
lucem serenam, quod diem festum, quod spem propin- 
Vat. 141 quam, quod votum | impeiratum, quod gaudium integrum, 
quod laudem nobilem aique incolumem ? Equidem ego 
quid mihi legenti litteras tuas subvenerit scio ; qua 
vero id ratione evenerit nescio : nescio, inquam, cur 
magis ad tuum quam ad tuae filiae periculum conster- 
natus sim; nisi forte, tametsi paria sint, graviora 



r> J. T? J. 145-147 A.D. 

Caesar to rronto. 
Thank the Gods we seem to have some hopes ot 
recovery. The diarrhoea is stopped, the feverish 
attacks got rid of; but the emaciation is extreme, and 
there is still some cough. You understand, of 
course, that I am telling you of our little Faustina ^ 
who has kept us very anxious. Mind you let me 
know, my master, if, as I heartily pray, your health 
is improving. 

j2 . n 145-147 A.D. 

Fronto to Caesar. 

1. Good heavens ! how shocked 1 was on read- 
ing the beginning of your letter ! It was written in 
such a way that I thought some danger to your 
health was meant. Then, when the danger, which 
at the beginning of your note I had taken to be 
yours, was shewn to be your daughter Faustina's, 
how transformed was my apprehension. Yet not 
merely transformed, but in some subtle way a little 
relieved. You may say. Did my daughter s dangei" seetn 
of less account to you than mine ? Could it so seem to 
you, who protest that "Faustina is to you as a limpid 
Ugkty as a gala day, as a near and dear hope, as a 
wish fulfilled y as an unalloyed delight, as a glory noble 
and assured ** ? I know, indeed, what came into 
my mind on reading your letter, but why it came 
to be so I do not know : I do not know, I say, 
why I was more shocked at your danger than at 
your daughter's, unless, perchance, though things be 

* Annia Galeria Faustina, bom probably early in 146. 
She died in infancy, and Herodes set up an inscription to 
her at Olympia (Dessau, ii. 8803). 



tamen videntur quae ad aures prius accidunt.^ Quae 
denique huiusce rei ratio^ tu facilius seias^ qui de 
natura et sensibus hominum sols amplius aliquid 
meliusque didicisti. Ego qui a meo magistro et 
parente Athenodoto ad exempla et imagines quas- 
dam rerum^ quas ille ciKova^ appellabat^ apte aDimo 
comprehendundas accommodandasque mediocriter 
institutus sum^ banc huiusce rei imaginem repperisse 
videor, cur meus translatus metus levior sit mihi 
visus : simile solere onus grave humero gestantibus^ 
quom illud onus in sinistrum ab dextro humero 
transtulere, quamquam nihil de pondere deminutum^ 
tamen ut oneris translatio videatur etiam elevatio.^ 
2. Nunc quoniam postrema parte epistulae tuae^ 
Vat. 132 quae meliuscule iam valere Faustinam nuntiasti^ | 
omnem mihi prorsus metum ac sollicitudinem depu- 
listi, non alienum tempus videtur de meo adversus 
te amore remissius aliquid tecum et liberalius fabu- 
landi; nam ferme metu magno et pavore relevatis 
conceditur ludere aliquid atque ineptire. Ego quanto 
opere te diligam, non minus ^ de gravibus et seriis 
experimentis quam plerisque etiam frivolis sentio. 
Quae aut cuiusmodi sint haec frivola indicabo. 

3. Siquando te somno lent, ut poeta ait, placidoque 
revinctus video in somniis, numquam est quin am- 
plectar et exosculer: turn pro argumento cuiusque 
somnii aut fleo ubertim aut exulto laetitia aliqua et 

' The margin of Cod. gives accedurU. 

* Read in the marein of (>)d. as relevatio. 

' Should not this be magis ? 



equally bad, yet those seem worse which are the 
first to fall on our ears. What is, in fact, the cause 
of this you are more likely to know, for about the 
nature and feelings of men your knowledge is some- 
what wider than mine, and you have learnt your 
lesson better. Tolerably well trained as I was by 
my master and parent Athenodotus in the nice 
apprehension by the mind and application of illus- 
trations and, as it were, similes of things, which he 
called €tKovas, I think I have hit upon the following 
simile of this kind, to explain the fact that the 
transference of my fear seemed an alleviation of it — 
that much the same thing happens to those who, 
carrying a heavy weight on their shoulder, transfer 
it from the right shoulder to the left, so that, though 
the burden remains as it was, yet the transference 
of the pressure seems even a relief. 

2. Now, since you have quite dispelled all my fear 
and anxiety by the last part of your letter, in which 
you announced that Faustina was now somewhat 
better,^ it seems the very time for a little easy and 
unconstrained chat with you on my love for you ; for 
those who are freed from a great fear and apprehen- 
sion are generally allowed to indulge in a little play- 
fulness and frivolity. I feel how dearly I love you, 
as much from weighty and serious proofs as also from 
many trifles. What these trifles are, and of what 
nature, I will point out. 

3. Whenever " with soft slumber's chains around 
me," as the poet says, I see you in my dreams, there 
is never a time but I embrace and kiss you : then, 
according to the tenor of each dream, I either weep 
copiously or am transpoi*ted with some great joy and 

^ This does not seem to be found in the preceding letter. 



voluptate. Hoc unum ex AnnaUbus sumptum amoris 
mei argumentum poeticum et sane somniculosum. 
Accipe aiiud lixatorium iam hoc et iurgiosum. Non- 
numquam ego te coram paucissimis et familiaris- 
simis meis gravioribus verbis absentem insectatus 
sum : olim hoc quom tristior quam par erat in coetu ^ 
hominum progrederere, vel quom in theatro tu libros 
vel in convivio lectitabas — ^nec equidem turn * thea- 
tris, necdum ^ conviviis abstinebam — tum igitur ego 
Vat. 181 te durum et intempestivom hominem^ odiosum | etiam 
nonnumquam ira percitus appellabam. Quod si quis 
alius eodem te convicio audiente me detrectaret^ 
aequo animo audire non poteram. Ita mihi facilius 
erat ipsum loqui quam alios de te secius quid dicere 
perpeti: ita ut Gratiam meam filiam facilius ipse 
percusserim quam ab alio percuti viderim. 

4. Tertium de meis frivolis addam. Scis ut in 
omnibus argentariis mensulis pergulis tabernis pro- 
tectis vestibulis fenestris usquequaque ubique imagi- 
nes vestrae sint volgo propositae^ male illae quidem 
pictae pleraeque et crassa^ lutea immo^ Minerva 
fictae sculptaeve ; quom interim numquam tua imago 
tam dissimilis ad oculos meos in itinere accidit^ ut 
non ex ore meo excusserit^ rictum osculi et som- 

^ Heindorf prefers coetum. ^ For Cod. ego dum tu, 

^ The du7n is added over the line b}^ m^ in the Codex. 

* Horace, Sat. v. 4, 35, has the phrase exctUere risum, "to 

raise a smile. " For Cod. somnum perhaps savium could be 




pleasure. This is one proof of my love, taken from 
the Annals,^ a poetical and certainly a dreamy one. 
Listen to another, a quarrelsome and contentious one 
this time. I have occasionally inveighed against you 
behind your back in somewhat strong terms before a 
very few of my most intimate friends. Time was I did 
this, when you went about in public gatherings with 
too serious a face,^ as when you used to read books 
either in the theatre* or at a banquet — nor was 
I then refraining from theatres, nor as yet from 
banquets — on such occasions, then, I would call 
you an austere^ and unreasonable, even at times, 
stung by anger, a disagreeable sort of person. But 
if anyone else found fault with you in my hearing 
with similar detraction, I could not listen to him 
with any patience. So it was easier for me to say 
this of you myself than to suffer others to speak 
any ill of you : just as I could more easily strike 
my daughter Gratia myself than see her struck by 

4. I will add the third of my trifles. You know 
how in all money-changer s bureaus, booths, book- 
stalls, eaves, porches, windows, anywhere and every- 
where there are likenesses of you exposed to view, 
badly enough painted most of them to be sure, 
and modelled or carved in a plain, not to say sorry, 
style of art, yet at the same time your likeness, 
however much a caricature, never when I go out 
meets my eyes without making me part my lips for 
a smile and dream of you. 

^ Of Ennius. ^ ^p, Capit. Vit. Mard^ iv. 8, 10. 

• ibid. XV. 1 , and cp. Thoughts, vi. 46. 

* Capit. xxii. 6 : quia durus videhatur ex philosophiae 



5. Nunc ut frivolis finem faciam et convertar ad 
serium, hae litterae tuae cum primis indicio mihi 
fuerunt, quanto opere te diligam^ quoin magis per- 
turbatus sum ad tuum quam ad filiae tuae periculum : 
quom alioqui te quidem mihi^ filiam vero tuam etiam 
tibi^ ut par est^ superstitem cupiam. Sed heus tu 
videbis ne delator existas neve indicio pareas apud 
Vat. 188 filiam^ quasi vero ego te { quam illam magis diligam. 
Nam periculum est ne ex ea re filia tua commota^ ut 
est gravis et prisca femina^ poscenti mihi manus et 
plantas ad saviandum ea causa iratior subtrahat aut 
gravatius porrigat : cuius ego^ di boni ! manus par- 
volas plantasque illas pinguiculas tum libentius ex- 
osculabor quam tuas cervices regias tuumque os pro- 
bum et facetum. 

Ad M. Cues. v. 28 (43) (Naber, p. 84). 

Vat. 80, I Magistro mco. 

Dies mihi totus vacuus erit. Siquid umquam 
me amasti^ hodie ama et uberem mi materiam mitte^ 
oro et rogo koX dvTt)SoXo) ^at Siofiai koI iKcrevo). In ilia 
enim centumvirali non inveni praeter iirKfxovrj/jiaTa. 

Vut. 70 Vale, optime magister. | Domina mea te salutat. 
Volebam aliquid, ubi clamari debeat, scribere. Fave 
mi et quaere clamosam vtto^co-iv. 

^ Uber (= grandiSf Quintilian, xii. 10. 58) correBponds to 
tbe Greek a^p6sf and characterises the epideictic kiod of 

* Cic. Ad AU. i. 19 uses this word as equivalent to 
acclainationes, i.e. approval by acclamation ; but ircitpdavitfia 



5. Now to call a truce to my trifles and to return 
to seriousness; this letter of yours served in no 
small degree to shew the depth of my love for you, 
since I was more shocked at your danger than your 
daughter's, whereas, in other respects, I should wish 
you, indeed, to survive for my sake, but your daughter 
also for yours, as is right. But hark you, see that you 
do not turn informer or appear as a witness before 
your daughter, to make her think that I love you more 
than her; for there is a danger of your daughter 
being put out in consequence, as she is a serious and 
old-fashioned lady, and when I ask for her hands 
and feet to kiss, of her drawing them away from 
pique at this, or tendering them grudgingly : whose 
tiny hands and plump little feet I shall then kiss, by 
heaven, with more zest than your royal neck and 
your honest and merry lips. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

rj. ^ 145-147 A.D. 

lo my master. 

I shall have the whole day free. If you have 
ever loved me at all, love me to-day, and send me a 
rich ^ subject, I ask and request and beseech and 
entreat and implore. For in that law-court subject 
I found nothing but exclamations.^ Farewell, best 
of masters. My Lady greets you. I want some- 
thing where there ought to be shouts of approval. 
Humour me and pick out a " shouting " subject. 

also stands for exclamatio, a rhetorical term for apostro- 
phizing something to excite pity or anger (see Auct. cui 
Herenn. iv. 15. 22). Quintilian however uses it (viii. 6) for 
the summing up in a concise, telling form of a narrative or 

VOL. I. P 


Ad M. Goes. v. 22 (37) (Naber, p. 82). 

Vat. 102, I Domino meo. 

ad fin. 

Ego prodormivi.^ Materiam misi tibi : res seria 
est. Consul populi Roman! posita praetexta mani- 
cam induit^ leonem inter iuvenes quinquatribus per- 
cussit populo Romano spectante. A pud censores ex- 
Vat. 101 postulat<ur>. | AuLO-Ktvaa-ov, av$rj<rov. Vale, Domine 
duleissime. Dominam saluta. 

Ad M. Caes. v. 23 (38) (Naber, p. 82). 


Quando id factum et an Romae ? Num illud 
dicis in Albano factum sub Domitiano? Praeterea 
in hac materia diutius laborandum est ut factum 
credatur, quam ut irascatur. ^AirCOava^ vTrd^co-is vide- 
tur mihi, quom plane maluerim,^ qualem petieram.j* 
Rescribe statim de tempore. 

^ Should probably be pcrdonnivi. 

' Crossley for Cod. quod plane haluceis. Kluss. suggests 
aKvcTKusy a poetical word. 

* The word Qui-nquairus means ** falling on the fifth 
day" {i.e. after the ides of March, viz. March 19), but 
the feast also lasted five days. A lesser festival of the 



Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

rp T J 145-147 A.D. 

lo my L.ord. 

I have slept late. I have sent you a theme : 

the case is a serious one. A consul of the Roman 

people^ laying aside his robes^ has donned a coat ot 

mail and among the young men at the feast ot 

Minerva ^ has slain a lion in the sight of the Roman 

people. He is denounced before the Censors. Put 

into shape and develop. Farewell, most sweet 

Lord. Greet your Lady. 

From Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

. 145-147 A.D. 


When did it occur and was it at Rome? Do 
you mean that it took place under Domitian at his 
Alban Villa. ^ Besides in such a theme it will take 
more time to make the fact credible than to treat 
it with the indignation it deserves. It seems to me 
an improbable subject. I certainly should have pre- 
ferred one such as I asked for. Let me know the 
date by return. 

same name fell on June 13. Suetonius {Domit, 4) says 
that Domitian celebrated the feast yearly at his villa at 

'^ Afterwards became the town of Albanum. Dio, Ixvii. 1, 
describes it. He tells us (Ixvii. 14, § 6) that Acilius Glabrio 
(supposed to have become subsequently a Christian) fought 
with wild beasts (cp. Juvenal, 4, 95). Suetonius (Domit. 10) 
informs us that he was put to death by Domitian. 


p 2 



Ad M. Goes, v. 24 (39) (Naber, p. 83). 

Maoistro meo salutem. 

Vindemias laetas <eas>que quam firmissimo 
corpore agere te, mi magistei% opto. Me adlevant 
nuntii de Domnula mea^ commodiora dis iuvantibus 
indicantes. Vale mi iucundissime magister. 

Ad M. Cues. v. 25 (40) (Naber, p. 83). 

Domino meo. 

In hortis vindemias ago. Commode valeo. 
Aegre tamen insisto dolore digitorum in sinistro 
pede. Pro Faustina mane cotidie deos appello. 
Seis^ enim me pro tua salute optare ac precari. 
Vale mi Domine dulcissime. Dominam saluta. 

Ad M. Cacs. v. 26 (Naber, p. 83). 

Maoistro meo. 

Ego adeo perscripsi — tu mitte aliud quod scri- 
bam — sed librarius meus non praesto fuit qui tran- 
seriberet. Scripsi autem non ex mea sententia^ nam 
Vat. 80 et festinavi et tua ista valetudo aliquantujlum de- 
trivit mihi. Sed veniam eras petam^ quom mittam. 
Vale mi dulcissime magister. Domina mea mater 

^ Rob. Ellis for Cod. sdo. Query supply sic. 



Marcus Aurei.ius to Fronto 

^ . .' 145-147 A.I), 

lo my master, greeting. 

That you should keep a happy vintage, and that 
in the best of health, is my wish, my master. I am 
much relieved by the news of my little lady ^ telling 
me, the Gods be praised, that she is better. Fare- 
well, my most delightful of masters. 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

rp T J 145-147 A.D. 

To my Lord. 

I am keeping the vintage in my "gardens.**^ 

I am fairly well, but I cannot walk with comfort 

owing to pain in the toes of my left foot. Every 

morning I pray the Gods for Faustina, for you know 

that by so doing I wish and pray for your health. 

Farewell, my most sweet Lord. Greet my Lady. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

rr ^ 145-147 A.D. 

lo my master. 

As far as I am concerned, the writing is finished 
— so send me something else to write — but my 
secretary was not at hand to copy out what I wrote. 
However, what I wrote was not to my mind, as I 
was hurried, and your being poorly took a good deal 
out of me. But I will ask your indulgence to- 
morrow, when I send it. Farewell, my sweetest of 
masters. The Lady my mother sends you greeting. 

^ Apparently the daaebter, not the wife, of Marcus. 
2 Probably his residence on the Esquiline, the Iforti 



salutem tibi dicit. Nomen tribuni plebis^ coi im- 
posuit notam Acilius censor^ qaem scripsi^^ mitte 

Ad M. Cues. v. 27 (42) (Naber, p. 83). 

Domino meo. 

Tardius tibi^ Domine^ rescribo; tardius enini 
libellum tuum aperui^ quoniam ad agendum ad 
forum ibam. Ego commodius me babeo: tamen 
ulcusculum altius est. Vale, Domine dulcissime. 
Dominam saluta. 

M. Lucilius tribunus plebis hominem liberum 
civem Romanum^ quom collegae mitti iuberent^ ad- 
versus eorum sententiam ipsusque^ vi in carcerem 
compegit. Ob earn rem a censoribus notatur. Di- 
vide primum causam^ ctra cts cKarcpa to. fi^prj €7ri;(€t- 
prja'ov Koi Karrjyopwv kol dvokoyovfjievo^. Vale, Domine, 
lux omnium tuorum. Matrem Dominam saluta. 

Ad M, Cues. iv. 13 (Naber, p. 75). 

Vat. 188, I Maoistko meo. 

C. Aufidius animos tollit, arbitratum suum in 
caelum fert, negat se hominem iustiorem, ne quid 
immoderatius dicam, ex Umbria ullum alium Romam 
venisse. Quid quaeris ? ludicem se quam oratorem 

^ Query scripsti. 

^ Brakman says that this is the reading of the Codex. 

^ A Lucilius was trib. pi. in 94, but no Acilius appears 
as censor at that date. This letter seems to be an answer to 


ad med. 


Let me have the name of the people's tribune 
against whom Acilius the censor, of whom I wrote, 
set a mark. 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

rp T J 145-147 A.D. 

To my Lord. 

My answer to you, my Lord, has been somewhat 

delayed, for I delayed to open your letter, as I was 

on my way to the forum to plead. I feel better, but 

the little sore is deeper. Farewell, my sweetest of 

Lords. Greet my Lady. 

M. Lucilius,^ a tribune of the people, against the 

decision of his colleagues and with his own hand cast 

into prison by force a Roman citizen, though they 

ordered his discharge. For that action he was 

" marked " by the Censors. First divide the case, 

then try your hand on either side both as accuser 

and defender. Farewell, my Lord, the light of all 

your friends. Greet your lady mother. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

rr- ^ 145-147 A.D. 

lo my master. 

Gains Aufidius^ gives himself airs, extols his 
own judgment to the skies, says that not another man 
more just than himself ever came from Umbria, for I 
must not exaggerate, to Rome. What need of 
more? He would rather win praise as a judge 

the preceding one, but it gives details of the theme which 
we should expect to have been given when it was first set. 

• Victorinus, later Fronto's son-in-law. For his incor- 
ruptibility see Dio, Ixxii. 11. The family came from Pi- 
saurum in Umbria. 



volt laudari. Quom rideo^ despicit : facile esse ait 
oscitantem iudici assidere^ ceterum quidem iudicare 
praeclarum opus. Haec in me. Sed tamen nego- 
tium belle se dedit. Bene est : gaudeo. Tuus ad- 
ventus me quom beat turn soUicitat. Cur beet, 
nemo quaerat; quam ob rem soUicitet, ego medius 
fidius fatebor tibi. Nam quod scribendum dedisti, 
ne paululum quidem operae ei, quamvis otiosus, 
dedi. Aristonis libri me hac tempestate bene acci- 
piunt, atque eidem habent male : quom doeent 
meliora, tum scilicet bene accipiunt ; quom vero os- 
Vat 187 tendunt quantum ab his melioribus ingenium | meum 
relictum sit, nimis quam saepe erubescit discipulus 
tuus sibique succenset, quod viginti quinque natus 
annos nihildum bonarum opinionum et puriorum 
rationum animo hauserim. Itaque poenas do, irascor, 
tristis sum, ^rj\oTV7r(a, cibo careo. His nunc ego 
curis devinctus obsequium scribendi cotidie in diem 
posterum protuli. Sed iam aliquid comminiscar ; et 
quod orator quidam Atticus Atheniensium contionem 
monebat, nonnurnquarn permittendum legibus dormire, 
libris Aristonis propitiatis paulisper quiescere conce- 
dam, meque ad istum histrionum poetam ^ "f totum 
convertam, lectis prius oratiunculis TuUianis. Scri- 
bam autem alterutram partem, nam eadem de re 

^ If the reference is to the preceding letter we should have 
expected something like istu7n Ludhum tribunum plcbis. 

^ A Stoic philosopher, but with leanings to Platonism. 
His system, like that of Marcus subsequently, concerned 
itself only with ethics. 



than as an orator. When I smile^ he turns up his 
nose. Anyone, he says, can sit yawning beside 
a judge, but to be a judge is indeed to do noble 
work. This is meant for me ! However the affair 
has turned out finely. All is well : I rejoice. Your 
coming makes me happy and at the same time un- 
easy. Why happy, it needs not to enquire : where- 
fore uneasy I will, 'fore heaven, avow to you. For 
with plenty of time on my hands I have not given 
an atom of it to the task you gave me to write. 
Ariston's ^ books just now treat me well and at the 
same time make me feel ill. When they teach me a 
better way, then, I need not say, they treat me well ; 
but when they shew me how far short my character 
comes of this better way, time and time again does 
your pupil blush and is angry with himself, for that, 
twenty-five years old as I am,^ no draught has my 
soul yet drunk of noble doctrines and purer principles. 
Therefore I do penance, am wroth with myself, am 
sad, compare myself with others, starve myself. A 
prey to these thoughts at this time, I have put off 
each day till the morrow the duty of writing. But 
now I will think out something, and as a certain 
Athenian orator once warned an assembly of his 
countrymen, that the laws must sometimes be alhwed to 
sleep, ^ I will make my peace with Ariston*s works 
and allow them to lie still awhile, and after reading 
some of TuUy's minor speeches I will devote myself 
entirely to your stage poet.* However, I can only 
write on one side or the other, for as to my defend- 

2 This was written, therefbre, between April 20, 146, and 
April 26, 147. 

^ See Plut. Ages. 30. 

* Supposed by some to be Plautus. 



diversa tueri numquam prorsus ita dormiet Aristo 
uti id permittat. Vale mi optime et honestissime 
magister. Domina mea te salutat. 

Ad M. Caes*. v. 29 (44) (Naber, p. 84). 

Vat. 79, I Domino meo. 

Perendie, Domine, te videbo : sum enim adhuc 
a eubito et cervice infirmus. Fer me, obsecro, nimia 
et ardua a te postulantem : ita in animum meum 
induxi posse <te> efficere quantum contenderis. 
Nee deprecor quin me oderis, nisi quantum postulo 
perfeceris, si ut facis animum et studium accom- 
modaveris. Vale, Domine, anima mea mihi potior. 
Dominam matrem saluta. 

Ad M. Caes, iii. 13 (Naber, p. 50). 

Vat. Ill, I Doming meo. 

1. Quod poetis concessum est SvofiaTOTrouLv, 
verba nova fingere, quo facilius quod sentiunt ex- 
primant, id mihi necessarium est ad gaudium meum 
expromendum. Nam solitis et usitatis verbis non 
sum contentus : ita amentius ^ gaudeo quam ut ser- 
mone volgato significare laetitiam animi mei possim, 
tot mihi a te in tam paucis diebus epistulas scriptas, 

^ For Cod. amantius. 

* Here came the parting of the ways, and philosophy and 
his teacher Rustious definitely yanquished Fronto and 
rhetoric. See ThotightSy i. 7 and 17, § 4. 



ing both sides of the question, Ariston will, I am 
sure, never sleep so soundly as to allow me to do 
that ! ^ Farewell, best and most honoured of masters. 
. My Lady greets you. 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

rp T J 145-147 A.D. 

lo my Lord. 

I cannot see you, my Lord, till the day after to- 
morrow ; for I am still laid up with pain in the 
elbow and neck. Bear with me, I beseech you, if 
what I ask of you is too great and difficult, so 
rooted in my mind is the conviction that you can 
succeed in all your endeavours. And I will let 
you hate me, if you do not accomplish all that I 
ask, provided that you apply, as you do, heart and 
mind to it. Farewell, my Lord, dearer to me than 
my life. Greet my Lady your mother. 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

rr T J 145-147 A.D. 

lo my Lord. 

1. The coining of new words, or onomatopoeia, 
which is allowed to poets to enable them more easily 
to express their thoughts, is a necessity to me for 
describing my joy. For customary and habitual 
words do not satisfy me ; so transported am I with 
joy that I cannot in ordinary language signify the 
gladness of my heart at your having written me 
so many letters in so few days,^ composed too with 

• Philost. {Vif. Soph, 242, Kays.) tells us that Marcus 
sometimes wrote to Herodes three letters in one day. 



easque tarn eleganter tarn amice tarn blande tarn 
effuse tarn flagranter compositas^ quamquani ^ tot 
negotiis tot ^ officiis, tot rescribendis per provincias 
litteris destringerere. At enim proposueram — ^iiihil 
enim mihi a te occultum aut dissimulatum retinere 
fas est — ita^ inquam^ proposueram vel desidiae cul- 
pam a te subire rarius scribendo tibi potius quam te 
multis rebus occupatum epistulis meis onerarem et 
ad scribendum provocarem, quom tu cotidie ultro 
seripsisti mihi. Sed quid dico cotidie ? Ego iam hie 
mihi oi'o/taroiroJas opus est. Nam cotidie foret^ si 
singulas epistulas per dies singulos scripsisses ; quom 
Vat. 242: vero plurcs epistulae sint quam dies, | verbum 
istud cotidie minus significat. Nee est, Domine, 
cur^ mihi tristior sis, quod* omnino veritus sim ne 
tibi litterae meae crebriores oneri* essent: nam 
quo mihi amantior es, tanto me laborum tuorum 
parciorem et occupationum tuarum modestiorem 
esse oportet. 

2. Quid est mihi osculo tuo suavius? llle mihi 
suavis odor, ille fructus in tuo collo atque osculo 
situs est. Attamen proxime quom proficiscerere, 
quom iam pater tuus vehiculum conscendisset, te 
salutantium et exosculantium turba diutius morare- 
tur, profuit * ut te solus ex omnibus non complecterer 
nee exoscularer. Item in ceteris aliis rebus omni- 
bus numquam equidem mea commoda tuis utilitatibus 

* Ehrenthal for Cod. cum clam. 
2 For Cod. quod in both places. 

^ For Cod. quod, * For Cod. cur. 

* For Cod. oncris. • Mai : prope fuU. 

2 20 


such felicity^ such friendship^ such kindness, such 
fulness^ such ardour^ though you were distracted by 
so much business^ so many duties^ so many letters to 
be answered throughout the provinces.^ But indeed 
I had purposed — for I must not keep anything 
hidden or dissembled from you — I had purposed, 
I say, to incur even the reproach of laziness 
from you by writing to you less often, rather 
than to trouble you, amid your many engage- 
ments, with my letters and tempt you to write, 
whereas you of your own accord have written to 
me daily. But why do I say daily ? It is just 
here that the need of word-coining comes in. For 
it would be daily, if you had written one letter a 
day; since however, there are more letters than 
days, that word daily falls short of the meaning. 
Nor is there need, my Lord, for you to be vexed with 
me for actually fearing that my too frequent letters 
should be a burden to you ; for the more you love 
me, the more chary should I be of adding to your 
work, and the more forbearing in respect of your 

2. What is sweeter to me than your kiss ? That 
sweet fragrance, that delight dwells for me in your 
neck, on your lips. Yet the last time you were 
setting out, when your father had already got into 
the carriage, but you were delayed by the crowd of 
those who were saying good-bye and kissing you, 
it was to your advantage that I alone of all did not 
embrace or kiss you. So too in all other things, 
I will never set my convenience before your interests, 

^ The expression points to a time after Marcus had 
been invested with the Trib. Pot. and Proconsular Im- 



anteponam ; quia si opus sit^ meo gravissimo labore 
atque negotio tuum levissimum otium redimam. 

3. Igitur cogitans, quantum ex epistulis scribendis 
laboris caperes, proposueram parcius te appellare, 
quom tu cotidie scripsisti mihi. Quas ego epistulas 
quom acciperem, simile patiebar quod amator pati- 
tur, qui delicias suas videat currere ad se per iter 
asperum et periculosum. Namque is simul adveni- 

Vat. 241 entem | gaudet, simul perieulum reveretur.^ Unde 
displicet mihi fabula histrionibus celebrata, ubi 
amans amantem puella iuvenem nocte lumine accenso 
stans in turri natantem in mari opperitur. Nam ego 
potius ^ te caruero, tametsi amore tuo ardeo, potius 
quam te ad ^ hoc noctis natare tantum profundi 
patiar, ne luna occidat, ne ventus lucernam interi- 
mat, ne quid ibi ex frigore implieiscare,* ne fluctus 
ne vadus ne piseis aliquo^ noxsit. Haec oratio 
amanti plus ^ deeuit et melior et salubrior fuit non 
alieno capitali periculo sectari voluptatis usuram 
brevem ac poenitendam. 

4. Nunc ut a fabula ad verum convertar, id ego 
non mediocriter anxius eram, ne necessariis laboribus 
tuis ego insuper aliquod molestiae atque oneris im- 
ponerem^ si praeter eas epistulas, quas ad plurimos 
necessario munere cotidie rescribis, ego quoque ad 
rescribendum fatigarem. Nam me carere omni fructu 
amoris tui malim^ quam te ne minimum quidem 
incommodi voluptatis meae gratia subire. 

^ Jacobs for Cod. veneretur. * Query proraus. 

^ C. F. W. Miiller suggests the old form ted for these two 
words. * Jacobs for Cod. implicUear. 

^ ftc. modo or read aliqtca. • Orelli : ainaniibtis. 

"> -7 


for, if need were, with heaviest toil and service of 
mine I would purchase your slightest ease. 

3. Considering therefore, how much labour the 
writing of letters imposed upon you, I had deter- 
mined to address you more sparingly, when you 
wrote daily to me. When I got those letters of 
yours I was in similar plight to a lover, who sees 
his darling running towards him along a rough and 
dangerous pathway. For he rejoices at the loved 
one's coming at the same time that he fears the 
danger. Consequently I do not care for the story ,^ 
which is such a favourite with actors, where a loving 
girl standing by night in a turret with a lighted taper 
in her hand, awaits her young as he swims the 
straits. For though I burn with love for you, I 
would rather be severed utterly from you than let 
you swim so deep a sea so late at night, for fear the 
moon should set, the wind dash out your light, the 
cold benumb your senses there, a wave, a reef, a 
sea-beast in some way work you harm. This language 
were more fitting for a lover and better and more 
sound — not at the peril of another's life to seek to 
enjoy a pleasure short in duration and fraught with 

4. Now to turn from fiction to reality, my especial 
anxiety was lest I should add to your unavoidable 
labours some superfluous trouble and burden, if 
besides those letters which your unavoidable duties 
require you to write daily to very many correspon- 
dents, I too should weary you with answering my 
letters. For I should prefer to sacrifice every ad- 
vantage of your love, rather than that you should 
suffer the slightest inconvenience to gratify my 

* Obviously of Hero and Leander. 



Vat. 102, 

Vat. 87 

Ad M, Caes. v. 18 (33) (Naber, p. 81). 

Domino meo. 

Gravissimo dolore inguinis sum arreptus^ | quo 
omnis dolor a dorso et lumbis incubuit. Vale, 
Domine. Dominam saluta. 

Ad M. Caes. v. 19 (34) (Naber, p. 81). 

Maoistro meo salutem. 

Doluisse te inguina cognosco, mi magister, et 
quom recordor quantam vexationem tibi iste dolor 
adferre soleat, gravissimam sollicitudinem patior. 
Sed me levat quod spero illo spatio, quo perferebatur 
hue ^ nuntius, potuisse cedere fomentis et remediis 
illam vim doloris. Nos aestivos calores adhuc ex- 
perimur, sed quom parvolae nostrae, dixisse liceat, 
commode valeant, mera salubritate et verna tem- 
perie frui existimamus. Vale mi optime magister. 

Vat. 99, 
middle of 
col. 1 

Ad M. Caes, v. 50 (65) (Naber, p. 90). 

I Domino meo. 

Ego gravissime arreptus sum iterum ab altero 

^ For Cod. ?ioc. 



Fronto to Marcus as Caesar. 

r^ r . ? 148-149 a.d. 

lo my Lord. 

I have been seized with very severe pain in the 

groin. All the pain from the back and loins has 

concentrated itself there. Farewell, my Lord. 

Greet my Lady. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto. 

rr ^ u' ? 148-149 a.d. 

lo my master, greeting. 

You tell me that you have pain in the groin, 
my master. Remembering what distress that pain 
generally causes you, I feel the most serious anxiety. 
But I comfort myself with the hope that in the 
interval required for bringing the news here, the 
intensity of the pain may have yielded to fomenta- 
tions and remedies. We are still experiencing 
summer heat. But since our little girls ^ — we 
mustn't boast — are quite well, we think that we are 
enjoying the healthiest of weather and the balmy 
temperature of spring. Farewell, my best of 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar. 

rr T A ? 148-149 A.D. 

lo my JuOrd. 

I have been seized with very severe pains again 

in the other side of the groin. 

^ Annia Galeria Faustina and Annia Lucilla, who was 
born about 148. A son born between the two died soon 
after birth in 147. See C.I.G. 3176. 


VOL. I. Q 


Ad M. Caa. v. 51 (66) (Naber, p. 91). 

Quom haec scribas mihi, mi magister, credo 
iutelligis sollioitissimum me vota facere pro salute 
tua : cuius dis iuvantibus cito compotes erimus. 
Vale mi magister iucundissime. 

Ad M. Caa. v. 20 (35) (N»ber, p. 82). 
I UoHiNo meo. 

Patri tuo fac notum de infirmitate mea. An me 
quoque scribere ei debere putes, scribe mihi. 

Ad M. Caa. y. 21 (Naber, p. 83). 

Statim, mi magister, indicabo Domino meo 
necessitatem huius quietis tuae. Velim tameii et a 
te scribi. Vale mi optime et iucundissime magister. 

Ad Anlonimiia Piwii, S (Naber, p. 167). 
I Antonino Pio AuGUSTo Pronto. 

Carius • <quam> vitae meae parte adpicisci * 
pio ut te complecterer felicissimo et optatissimo 
ti imperii die, quem ego diem natalem salutis 
^itatis securitatis meae existimo. Sed dolor 
meri gravis, cervicis vero multo gravissimus ita me 

■ This word ia added /rom the Index (Naber, p. 163). 

■ Biicheler compares Terence, Phor. i. iii, 14, and reads 
ticisei. Niebuhr dispeoaes with the guairt supplied by 
lindotf and reads adipisci. 


Marcus Aurelius to Fronto. 

Answkk. ' 1*8-149 *.->• 

When you write thus to me, my master, you 
are aware, I am sure, that I am most anxious and 
offer up prayers for your health ; of which, please 
heaven, we shall speedily be assured. Farewell, my 
most delightful of masters. 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar. 

rr J A ? 148-149 A.D. 

lo my Lord. 

Please acquaint your father with my illness. 

Tell me if you think I also should write to him. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto. 

Answer. ' ^^^''^ -«'• 

I will let my Lord know at once that your 
health necessitates this rest for you. But please 
write to him yourself as well. Farewell, ray best and 
most delightful of masters. 

? 148-149 A.D. 

Fronto to Antoninus Pius Augustus. 

More dearly than with a portion of my life 
would I bargain to embrace you on this most happy 
and wished- for anniversary of your accession,^ a day 
which I count as the birthday of my own health, 
reputation, and safety. But severe pain in my 
shoulder, and much more severe in my neck, have 

July 1, 138. 

Q 2 


adflixit^ ut adhuc usque vix inclinare me vel erigere 
vel convertere possim : ita immobili cervice utor. 
Sed apud Lares Penates deosque familiares meos et 
reddidi et suscepi vota^ et precatus sum^ uti anno 
insequenti bis te complecterer isto die, bis pectus 
tuum et manus exoscularer praeteriti simul et prae- 
sentis anni vieem perficiens. 

Ad AnUminum Pium, 6 (Naber, p. 167). 

Ab Augusto rescriptum. 

Quom bene perspectas habeam sincerissimas in 
me adfectiones tuas, tum et ex meo animo non 
difficile eredo,^ mi Fronto carissime, vel praecipue 
hunc diem, quo me suscipere banc stationem placuit, 
at te potissimum vere religioseque celebrari. Et 
ego quidem et vota tua et te mente, ut par est, 
Ambr. 847 repracsentavi. | . . . .^ 

Ad M. Goes. v. 30 (45) (Naber, p. 84). 

Vat. 79, I DoMiNo meo. 

Annum novum faustum tibi et ad omnia, quae 
recte cupis, prosper um cum tibi tum Domino nostro 
patri tuo et matri et uxori et filiae ceterisque omni- 
bus, quos merito diligis, precor. Metui ego invalido 

* Brakman's reading of the Codex. 

* Probably only a line or two of this letter is lost, the gap 
here covering part oi Ad Pium, 7. 



so crippled me, that I am still scarcely able to bend, 
sit upright, or turn myself, so rigid must I keep my 
neck. But before my Lares, Penates, and household 
gods have I discharged and renewed my vows,^ and 
prayed that next year I might embrace you twice 
on this anniversary, twice kiss your neck and hands, 
fulfilling at once the office of the past and the 
present year. 

Antoninus Pius to Fronto. 

Answer by Augustus. 

As I have well ascertained the entire sincerity 
of your feelings towards me, so I find no difficulty, 
I assure you, my dearest Fronto, in believing that 
this day in particular, on which it was ordained for 
me to assume this station, is kept with true and 
scrupulous devotion by you above all others. And 
I indeed have with my mind's eye, as was right, 
pictured you and your vows .... 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar. 

rr J A ? 148-149 A.D. 

1 o my Lord. 

A happy New Year and a prosperous in all 

things that you rightly desire to you and our Lord 

your Father, and your mother and your wife and 

daughter,'-^ and to all others who deservedly share 

your affection — that is my prayer ! In my still feeble 

* If this letter is correctly dated, these vota would be the 
decennalia. See Coins of PitiSy Cohen, 226-229. 

' As only one daughter is now mentioned, the little 
Faustina must have died, leaving Lucilia alone. 



adhuc corpore turbae et impressioni me committere. 
Si dei iuvabunt^ perendie vos vota nuncupantes videbo. 
Vale mi Domine dulcissime. Dominam saluta. 

Jd M. Goes. V. 31 (46) (Naber, p. 85). 

Magistro meo salutem. 

Et ipse prospere sis ingressus annum ! Omne 
votum tuum Dei tibi ad usum tuum^ qui noster idem 
Vat 94 erit, devertant atque, ut facis^ pro amijcis bene optes, 
ceteris bene velis. Quae ^ pro me preeatus es scio te 
<ex ammo> precatum. Quod a turba cavisti, tibi 
et meae curae consuluisti. Quietius idem fiet peren- 
die, si di <velint. Gratia> tua <tuo> officio functa 
est. Nescio an <Dominam> suam saluta verit. Vale 
mi dulcissime magister. Mater mea te salutat. 

Ad M. Cats. V. 32 (47) (N»ber, p. 85). 

Maoistro meo. 

Et nunc sanus et deinceps validus laetus com- 
pos omnium votorum agas ^ diem natalem, mi magis- 
ter ; quae mea precatio sollemnis semper auctior fit, 
quanto magis accedit et mihi firmitas ad diligendum 
et aetas suavissimae familiaritatis nostrae. Vale mi 
magister iucundissime milii. Mater mea te salutat. 
Gratiae salutem die <et fer osculum parvolae tuae 

* Half a line is left blank in the Cod. before qxiae. 
2 Mai for Cod. magis. 

' I have added these words : see end of next letter. 



state of health I was afraid to trust myself to the 
crowd and crush. I shall see you, please God, the 
day after to-morrow offering up your vows. Farewell, 
my most sweet Lord. Greet my Lady. 

rp . .. } 148-149 A.D. 

To my master, greetmg. 

May you also have entered upon a prosperous 

year, and may the Gods turn to your advantage, 

which will be ours also, every prayer of yours ! 

May you pray, as you do, for the good of your 

friends and wish for the good of all others ! Your 

prayers for me I know have been heartfelt. In 

fighting shy of the crowd, you have consulted both 

your safety and my anxiety. The ceremony will be 

repeated on a quieter scale the day after to-morrow, 

if the Gods will. Your Gratia has done your part for 

you. I do not know if she has greeted her Lady. 

Farewell, my sweetest of masters. My mother 

sends you her greeting. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto. 

rr ^ ? 148-149 A.D. 

lo my master. 

May you keep your birthday, my master, both 
sound in health now and strong in all years to come, 
happy, and with all your wishes granted; which 
yearly prayer of mine grows ever more compre- 
hensive as my capacity for affection increases and 
the period of our most sweet intercourse lengthens ! 
Farewell, my master most delightful to me. My mother 
greets you. Give Gratia a greeting and your little 
Gratia a kiss from me. 



Ad M. Cues. v. 33 (48) (Naber, p. 85). 

Domino meo. 

Quaecumque mihi precatus es^ omnia in tua 
salute locata sunt. Mihi sanitas^ bona valetudo^ 
laetitia^ res prosperae meae ibi sunt^ quom tu corpore 
animo rumore tarn incolumi uteris, tam car us patri, 
tam dulcis matri, tam sanctus uxori, tam fratri bonus 
ac benignus. Haec sunt quae me cum hac valetu- 
dine tamen cupientem vitae faciunt. Absque te 
Vat. 93 satis su|perque et aetatis et laboris et artis et gloriae, 
dolorum vero et aegritudinum aliquanto plusquam 
satis superque. 

Filiae meae iussu tuo osculum dedi. Numquam 
mihi tam suavis tamque saviata visa est. Dominam 
saluta, Domine dulcissime. Vale et fer osculum 
matronae tuae. 

Ad M, Caen. v. 34 (49) (Naber, p. 86). 

Domino meo. 

Saenius Pompeianus in plurimis causis a me 
defensus, postquam publicum Africae redemit, pluri- 
mis causis rem familiarem nostram adiuvat. Coin- 
mendo eum tibi, quom ratio eius a Domino nostro 
patre tuo tractabitur, benignitatem ingenitam tibi, 

1 This the first allusion to Lucius Verus, the other adopted 
son of Pius, afterwards joint-emperor with Marcus. 
* Lucilla, the daughter of Marcus, must be meant. 



Fronto to Marcus as Caesar. 

rr T ji ? 148-149 A.D. 

lo my Lord. 

All the blessings you have prayed for me are 

bound up with your welfare. Health of body and 

mind, happiness, prosperity, are all mine, as long as 

you enjoy a body, a mind, a reputation so hale and 

well, while you are so dear to your father, so sweet 

to your mother, so blameless a husband, so good and 

kind a brother.^ It is this which makes me cling 

to life, in spite of my ill-health. Apart from you I 

have had enough and to spare of life and toil, of 

profession and fame, but of pains and infirmities 

something more than enough and to spare. 

I gave my daughter the kiss you sent her : never 

has she seemed to me so kissing-ripe, never so 

kissed. Greet my Lady, my most sweet Lord. 

Farewell, and give your little matron 2 a kiss 

from me. 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar. 

rr J ji ? 149-153 A.D. 

10 my Lord. 

Saenius Pompeianus,^ whom I have defended in 
many cases, since he took up the contract for farm- 
ing the taxes of Africa, is from many causes a 
stand-by in my affairs. I commend him to you that, 
when his accounts are scrutinised by our Lord your 
Father, you may be induced both by my recommen- 

' There is an inscription {CLL. vi. 8588 ; cp. viii. 997) by 
his wife, Fuficia Clymena, to Q. Saenius Pompeianus as 
condrtator III I publicorum AJricaey i.e., farmer of four public 
revenues of Africa (see Orelli, Inscr. Lat. 6650). 


quam omnibus ex more tuo tribuis^ ut huic et mea 
commendatione et tua consuetudine ductus impertias. 
Vale, Domine dulcissime. 

Ad M, Goes, V. 35 (50) (Naber, p. 86). 


Pompeianus mentis isdem^ quibus te sibi con- 
ciliavit, me quoque promeruit. Quare cupio omnia 
ei ex indulgentia Domini mei patris obsecundare. 
Nam ea quae tibi ex sententia procedunt, gaudia 
sunt mea. Vale mi magister iucundissime. Faustina 
et parvolae nostrae te salutant. 

Ad M. Caes. v. 36 (51) (Naber, p. 86). 

Magistro meo. 

Si te in provineia, mi magister^ adierit Themis- 
Vat. 104 tocles quidam^ qui se ApoUbnio magistro | meo 
philosophiae dicat cognitum, eum <scito> esse ^ qui 
hac hieme Romam venerit et mihi voluntate magistri 
per filium Apollonium sit demonstratus : ei tu, mi 
magister, velim quod possis bene facias, bene suad- 
eas. Nam ius et aequom omnibus Asianis erit apud 
te paratissimum : sed consilium, comitatem, quaeqUe 

* Mai for Cod. sese. 

* Lucilla and Arria Fudilla, the latter born about 150 a.d. 

^ Asia. Fronto was consul in 143, and the usual interval 

between the consulship and proconsulate at this time was 



dation and your own constant practice to extend to 
him that characteristic kindness^ which you habitu- 
ally show to all. Farewell, my sweetest Lord. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto. 

. ? 149-153 A.D. 



Pompeianus has won my esteem also by the 
same deserts which have endeared him to you. So 
I desire that in accordance with the Lord my father s 
indulgent ways everything should second his wishes. 
For whatever falls out as you desire is a joy to me. 
Farewell, my most delightful of masters. Faustina 
and our little girls ^ greet you. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto. 

^ , ? 153-154 A.D. 

lo my master. 

If in your province,^ my master, you come 

across a certain Themistocles, who says that he is- 

known to Apollonius my teacher^ in philosophy, 

understand that he is a person who came to Rome this 

winter and was brought to my notice by Apollonius 

the son, at his father's request. May I ask you, my 

master, to befriend him, and advise him, as far as 

you can. For you will, I know, be always most 

ready to do what is just and proper by all Asians, 

but counsel and courtesy and all those personal 

twelve to fifteen years. But Fronto may have had his ap- 
pointment accelerated in consideration of his age or health. 

• Marcus speaks very highly of him {Thoughts^ i. 8 ; 17, § 4), 
and Epiphanius calls him eraipos *Avrwvlyov. But see 
Capit. Fit. Pii, x. § 4, and Lucian, Deviormx, § 31. 



amicis sine ullo cuiusquam incommodo propria im- 
pertire fides ac religio proconsulis permittit, peto 
Themistocli libens impertias. Vale mi iucundissime 
magister. Resqripto nihil opus est. 

Ad Antoninum Pium, 8 (Naber, p. 169). 

Anton iNo Pio Augusto Fronto. 

1. Omnem operam me dedisse, sanctissime Im- 
perator, et impenso studio cupisse fungi proconsulari 
munere res ipsa testis est. Nam et de iure sor- 
tiendi, quoad incertum fuit, disceptavi et, postquam 
iure liberorum prior alius apparuit, eam quae mihl 
remansit splendidissimam provinciam pro electa 
Ambr. 832 : habui. Post ilia quaecumque ad instruendam | pro- 
ends vinciam adtinerent, quo facilius a me tanta negotia 
per amicorum copias obirentur, sedulo praeparavi. 
Propinquos et amicos meos, quorum fidem et integri- 
tatem cognoveram, domo accivi. Alexandriam ad 
familiares meos scripsi ut Athenas festinarent, ibi- 
que me opperirentur, iisque Graecarum epistularum 
curam doctissimis viris detuli. Ex Cilieia etiam 
splendidos viros, quod magna mihi in ea provineia 
amicorum copia est, quom publice privatimque sem- 
per negotia Cilicum apud te defenderim, ut venirent 
hortatus sum. Ex Mauretania quoque virum aman- 
tissimum mihique mutuo carum, Julium Senem, ad 
me vocavi, cuius non modo fide et diligentia, sed 
etiam militari industria circa quaerendos et conti- 
nendos latrones adiuvarer. 

^ Cirta, in Numidia, where he was born. 


civilities, which both honour and conscience permit 
a proconsul to shew^ his friends, so long as no one 
else is injured thereby — these I ask you freely to 
extend to Themistocles. Farewell, my most delight- 
ful of masters. No answer is required. 

} 153-154 A.D. 

Fronto to Antoninus Pius Augustus. 

1. The facts testify, most reverend Emperor, 
that I have spared no pains and earnestly desired to 
discharge the duties of proconsul. For as long as 
the matter was undecided, I claimed my rights under 
the lot and, when by virtue of having more children 
another proved to have the prior claim, I was as satis- 
fied, as if I had chosen it, with that most splendid 
province which was left to me. Then I took active 
steps to enlist the help of my friends in all that 
concerned the ordering of the province. Relations 
and friends of mine, of whose loyalty and integrity 
I was assured, I called from home^ to assist me. 
I wrote to my intimates at Alexandria ^ to repair 
with all speed to Athens and await me there, and 1 
deputed the management of my Greek correspon- 
dence to those most learned men. From Cilicia 
too I called upon eminent citizens to join me, for, 
owing to my always having advocated the public and 
private interests of Cilicians before you, I had hosts 
of friends in that province. From Mauretania also 
1 summoned to my side Julius Senex, a man whose 
love for me was no less than mine for him, that I 
might avail myself not only of his loyalty and dili- 
gence, but also of his military activity in the hunting 
down and suppressing of brigands. 

'^ Where he probably studied in his youth. 



2. Haec omnia feci spe fretus posse me victu tenui 
et aqua potanda malam valetudinem qua impedior, 
si non omnino sedare^ certe ad maius intervallum 
reiectos eius impetus mitigare. Ita evenit ut solito 
diutius bene valerem et fortis vigerem, adeo ut 
duas amicorum causas non minimi laboris apud te 
tutatus sim. Ingruit deinde tanta vis valetudinis, 
Ambr. 331 quac mihi ostenderet omnem spem illam | <frustra 
fuisse> . . . .^ 

Ad M. Caes. v. 37 (52) (Naber» p. 87). 

Vat. 104, I Domino meo. 

Aridelus iste, qui tibi litteras meas reddit, a 
pueritia me curavit a studio perdicum usque ad seria 
officia. Libertus vester est; procurabit^ vobis In- 
dustrie ; est enim homo frugi et sobrius et acer et 
diligens. Petit nunc procurationem ex forma suo 
loco ac iusto tempore. Faveto ei, Domine, quod 
poteris. Si formam non cognosces hominis, ubi ad 
nomen Arideli ventum fuerit, memento a me tibi 
Aridelum commendatum. Vale, Domine dulcissime. 
Dominam saluta. 

^ The lost parts at the end of this letter and at the begin- 
ning of Ad Piwriy 9, cover one page. 
'^ Cod. procuravitf but b and v are used interchangeably. 



2. All this I did buoyed up by the hope that by 
abstemiousness and water-drinking I mighty if not 
wholly relieve the ill-health from which I suffered, 
yet at all events mitigate its attacks by postponing 
them for a longer period. The result was that 
I had a lengthier spell of health than usual, and 
felt strong and vigorous, so much so that I was 
able to appear before you on behalf of two of my 
friends in cases that entailed very considerable 
labour. Then I was assailed by so severe an attack 
of illness as shewed me that all my hopes had 
been illusory .... 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

r,. T J ? 153-154 A.D. 

lo my Lord. 
This Aridelus, who is taking my letter to you, 
has attended to all my wants since I was a boy, from 
a passion for partridges to important duties. He is 
a freedman of yours ; you will find him a diligent 
procurator, for he is honest, temperate, brisk, and 
industrious. He is now a candidate for a procura- 
torship 1 in due form, being of suitable position and 
regulation age. Assist him, my Lord, with your 
interest, as far as may be. If you do not recognize 
his person, when you come to the name Aridelus, 
remember that Aridelus has been commended to you 
by me. Farewell, most sweet Lord. Greet your 

' A procurator might be (1) a collector of the imperial 
revenues, (2) a steward, (t3) an overseer of any kind, as agent 
or manager. 



Ad M. Caes. v. 38 (53) (Naber, p. 87). 

Domino meo. 
Vat. 103 Utrum facti virtus ornaverit orationem, an | 

oratio factum nobilissimum aequiparaverit, incertus 
sum : certe quidem eiusdem <haec> dicta cuius ilia 
facta. Sed et fratris tui oratio me delectavit, nam 
et oruata fuit et cordata. Et certum habeo eum 
minimum spatii habuisse ad meditandum. 

Ad M. Caes. v. 39 (54) (Naber, p. 87). 


Reversus a convivio patris libellum tuum accepi, 
dimisso iam ut cognosco eo per quem fuerat adlatus. 
Rescribo igitur vespera multa quod tu legas die 
crastino. Orationem patris mei parem materiae suae 
visam tibi nihil mirum est, mi magister. Fratris 
autem mihi gratiarum actio eo laudabilior est, quo 
minus ad meditandum, ut coniectas, habuit spatii. 
Vale mi iucundissime magister. Mater mea te 

Ad M. Cas, V. 40 (Naber, p. 87). 

Domino meo. 

Cholera usque eo adflictus sum ut vocem amit- 
terem, singultirem, suspirio angerer,^ postremo venae 

^ Schopen for Cod. agerer. 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

rr. T J ? 153—154 A.D. 

To my Lord. 

Whether the merit of the act set off the speech,^ 
or the speech did not fall short of a most noble act, 
I can hardly say : yet of this 1 am sure, that these 
words had the same author as those deeds. But 
your brother's speech ^ also delighted me, for it was 
polished and politic, and I feel sure he had very 
little time for preparing it. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

. ? 153-154 A.D. 


On my return from a banquet of my father's I 

got your letter, and learn that the messenger who 

brought it has already gone. So I am writing this quite 

late in the evening, that you may read it to-morrow. 

It is no matter of surprise, my master, that my father s 

speech should seem to you worthy of the occasion. 

But my brother's speech of thanks is in my opinion 

the more praiseworthy, in that, as you surmise, he had 

but little time to prepare it. Farewell, my most 

delightful of masters. My mother greets you. 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

rj. J . ? 154-156 A.D. 

To my Lord. 

I have had such a choleraic attack * that I lost 

my voice, gasped and struggled for breath ; finally, 

1 Of Pius. 

''^ Of thanks, possibly for the consulship in 154. 

^ What the specific disease was is nob clear. 


VOL. I. R 


deficerent^ sine ullo pulsu venarum animo male fieret ; 
denique conclamatus sum a nostris ; neque sensi 
aliquamdiu : ne balneo quidem aut frigida aut cibo 
recreandi me ac fovendi medicis tempus aut occasio 
data, nisi post vesperam micularum minimum cum 
Vat. 86 vino destillatum gluttivi. Ita | focilatus totus 
sum.^ Postea per continuum triduum vocem non 
recuperavi. Sed nunc deis iuvantibus commodissime 
valeo^ facilius ambulo^ clarius clamito : denique^ si 
dei iuvabunt^ eras vehiculo vectari destino. Si facile 
silicem toleravero, quantum pote ad te curram. Turn 
vixero quom te videro. Ad vii Kal. Roma profi- 
ciscar, si dei iuvabunt^ Vale, Domine dulcissime, 
desiderantissime, causa optima vitae meae. Domi- 
nam saluta. 

Ad, M. Caes, v. 41 (66) (Naber, p. 88). 

Maoistro meo salutem. 

Post tempus te videre cupiebam ; quid tu censes 
post periculum? quod suffugisse te, mi magister, 
iterum deis ago gratias lectis tuis litteris, quae me 
rursum quasi renovant : quom commemorares quo in 
loco fueris, consternarunt. Sed habeo te dis volen- 
tibus, et ut promittis propediem videbo: et bene 
spero de bona longa valetudine. Salutat te mater 
mea. Vale mi iucundissime magister. 

^ The Cod. repeats mm after fodlatiuf. Query <8ensim> . 


my circulation failed and the pulse being impercep- 
tible I became unconscious ; in fact^ I was given up 
by my family as dead and remained insensible for 
some time. The doctors were given no time or 
opportunity to revive or relieve me even with a 
warm bath or cold water or food^ except that after 
nightfall I swallowed a few morsels of bread soaked 
in wine. Thus I was gradually brought quite round. 
For three whole days after I did not recover my 
voice. But now by God's help I am getting on very 
comfortably. 1 walk with more ease and my voice 
is stronger and more distinct ; in fine, I purpose, 
please God, to take a drive to-morrow. If 1 find I 
can stand the flint paving well, I will hasten to you 
as fast as I can. Only when I see you shall I live. 
I will set out from Rome, please God, on the 7th day 
before the Kalends. Farewell, my Lord, most sweet, 
most missed, my best reason for living. Greet your 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

rr. . .. ? 154-156 A.D. 

1 o my master, greetmg. 
After your absence I was longing to see you : 
what think you ^ after your danger ? for your escape 
from which, my master, I thank the Gods a second 
time after reading your letter, which again, as it 
were, reassures me : it stinick me with consternation 
when you gave me an account of your condition. 
But the Gods be thanked I have you still and, as you 
promise, shall see you again soon : and I have good 
iiopes of your continued convalescence. My mother 
greets you. Farewell, my most delightful master. 

* sc, ** must my feeling be." 

R 2 


Ad M. Cats. V. 42 (57) (Naber, p. 88(. 
DoHiNo meo. 

Pluriraos natales dies liberum tuorum prosperis 
tuis rebus ut celebres parentibus probatus, populo 
acceptus, amicis pergratus,^ fortuna et genere et loco 
tuo dignuSjOmni vita mea redemisse cupiam, non hac 
modo [ exigua vita quae mihi superest, sed ilia etiam 
quani vixi, si quo modo <in> integrum redigi ac pro 
te tuisque Hbemm tuorum commodis in solutum 
depend! potest Si facile ingredi possem, hie erat 
dies quo cum primis complecti te cuperem, sed con- 
cedendum est pedibus scilicet, quando ipsi parum 
procedunt. Ego de aquarum usu delibero. Si eer- 
tius quid statue ro, faciam tibi notum. Vale mi 
Domine dulcissime. Faustinaro tuam meis verbis 
appella et gratulare, et matronas nostras meo nomine 
exosculare sed, uti ego soleo, cum plantts illis et 
manibus. Domiiiani saluta. 

, C<K$. V. 43 (6&) (Naber, p. W)- 
LOisTao meo sal u tern. 

salvos esto nobis, salva sit tibi domus tua, salva 
a ; quae, si animum nostrum spectes, una est 
IS. Recte scio autem, si vel difliculter ingredi 
' Comeliasen tor Cod, probatus. 


Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

rr. T J ' ? 154-156 a.d. 

To my Lord. 

That you may keep many birthdays of your 
children with all happiness^ the pride of your 
parents^ the darling of the people, the beloved of 
your friends, worthy of your fortune, your lineage, 
and your station, gladly would I give my whole life, 
not that meagre portion of it only that now remains 
to me, but also what I have already lived, if in any 
way it could be restored to me entire, and expended 
as the repayment of a debt for the benefit of your- 
self and your children. If I could walk with com- 
fort, this were the day on which I would wish among 
the first ^ to embrace you ; but I must, as you see, 
make my feet some concession, since they have not 
much procession in them. I am thinking of trying 
waters. If I come any nearer a decision, I will 
let you kno.w. Farewell, my sweetest Lord. Give 
your Faustina a message from me and congratulate 
her 2 and kiss our little ladies in my name and, as 
I always do, their feet and hands as well. Greet 
your Lady.^ 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

m ^ ^. ? 154-156 a.d. 

lo my master, greeting. 

May you be preserved to us ! May your house 

be preserved, and ours ! which, if you look at our 

feelings, is but one house. I know well you would 

1 Or, "above all." 

2 On the birthday of one of the children ; see next letter. 
' The mother of Marcus. 



posses^ venturum te ad nos fuisse. Sed venies saepe 
et tecum celebrabimus^ si del volenti omnia festa 
nostra. Vale^ mi magister iucundissime. Mater mea 
te salutat. 

Ad M. Cacs. v. 44 (59) (Naber, p. 89). 

Domino meo. 

Pueri dum e balneis me sellula^ ut adsolent, 
advehunt, imprudentius ad ostium balnei fervens 
Vat. 100 adflixerunt. Ita genum mi hi simul abrasum | et 
ambustum est : postea etiam inguen ex ulcere ex- 
titit. Visum medicis ut lectulo me tenerem. Hane 
causam^ si tibi videbitur^ etiam Domino patri tuo 
indicabis^ si tamen videbitur. Etiam ^ eras mihi 
adsistendum erit familiari. Hodierno igitur otio et 
quiete labori me crastino praeparabo. Victorinus 
noster aget^ ne me acturum putes. Vale, Domine 
dulcissime. Dominam saluta. 

Ad M, Caes. v. 45 (60) (Naber, p. 90). 

Maoistro meo salutem. 

Auxisti curas mihi, quas opto quam primum 
releves, sedatis tibi doloribus genus et inguinis. Me 
autem infirmitas Dominae meae matris quiescere non 
si nit. Eo accedit appropinquatio partus Faustinae. 
Sed confidere dis debemus. Vale, mi magister iucun- 
dissime mihi. Mater mea te salutat. 

^ Eussner reads si tibi videbitur, etiam ipse, 


have come to us^ if you could have walked even with 
difficulty. But you will come often and join us, if the 
Gods will, in keeping all our fetes. Farewell, my 
most delightful of masters. My mother greets you. 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

rr. T J ^ 154-156 A.D. 

lo my Lord. 

While my attendants were carrying me here 
as usual from the baths in a sedan-chair, they dashed 
me somewhat carelessly against the scorching en- 
trance to the bath. So my knee was both scraped 
and scorched : afterwards, too, a swelling came up on 
the sore place. The doctors advised my keeping in 
bed. Should you think fit, please also give my Lord 
your father this reason, but only if you think fit. 
To-morrow, too, I must support an intimate friend in 
court. So by to-day* s idleness and rest I shall get 
myself ready for to-morrow's duties. Our Victorinus 
will do . the pleading, for do not suppose that I 
shall plead. Farewell, sweetest of Lords. Greet 
my Lady. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

rr- . .. ? 154-156 A.D. 

To my master, greetmg. 

You have added to my anxieties, which I hope 
you will as soon as possible relieve by the subsidence 
of the pains in the knee and the swelling. As for me, 
my Lady mother's illness gives me no rest. There 
is, besides, the near approach of Faustina's lying-in. 
But we must have faith in the Gods. Farewell, my 
most delightful of masters. My mother greets you. 



Ad M, Caps. V. 46 (61) (Naber, p. 90). 

Domino meo. 

Ipso die quo ^ proficisci destinabam^ genus dolo- 
rem sensi. Spero in paucis diebus me recte fore. 
Vale, Domine optime. Dominam saluta. 

Ad M. Caes, v. 47 (62) (Naber, p. 90). 

Magistro meo salutem. 

Nunc denique opto, mi magister, iucundiora in- 
dices. Nam doluisse te in id tempus, quo mihi 
scribebas, litterae declarant. Haec obambulans dic- 
tavi. Nam eum motum in praesentia ratio corpusculi 
Vat. 99 desiderabat. Vindemiarum | autem gratiam nunc 
demum integram sentiam, quom tua valetudo placa- 
tior esse nobis coeperit. Vale mi iucundissime 

Ad M, Goes. v. 48 (63) (Naber, p. 90). 

Domino meo. 

Plantae, Domine, dolore impedior. Ideo vos 
per istos dies non salutavi. Vale, Domine optime. 
Dominam saluta. 

Ad M. Caes. v. 49 (64) (Naber, p. 90). 

Magistro meo. 

Quom salubre tibi est facile progredi, tunc et 
nobis conspectus tuus erit iucundus. Id ut quam 
primum eveniat et dolor plantae quiescat, di iuvent. 
Vale mi optime magister. 

* For Cod. ipsa . . . qiia. 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

rr. T J ? 154-156 A.D. 

lo my Lord. 
The very day on which I proposed to start I 
felt a pain in my knee. I hope to be all right in a 
day or two. Farewell, my best of Lords. Greet my 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

rr> . .• ? 154-156 A.D 

1 o my master, greetmg. 
By this time, at all events, my master, I hope 
you can send better news, for your letter says that 
you were in pain up to the time when you wrote. 
I have dictated this, walking about. For the state 
of my wretched body requires that exercise just 
now. But I shall only feel the full benefit of the 
vintage season when we find your health beginning 
to mend. Farewell, my most delightful of masters. 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

n, T J ? 154—156 A.D. 

lo my Lord. 

I am laid up with pain in the sole of my foot. 
That is why I have not paid you my respects these 
past days. Farewell, best of Lords. Greet my 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

rr. . ? 154-156 A.D. 

I o my master. 
When you are well enough to walk comfortably, 
then we also shall be delighted to see you. May 
the Gods bring that about as soon as possible, and 
the pain in your foot be better. Farewell, my best 
of masters. 



Ad M. Goes, v. 52 (67) (Naber, p. 91). 

L^Jin?' I Domino meo. 

Decern tanta te amo. Filiam tuam vidi. Videor 
mihi te simul et Faustinam infantes vidisse : tantum 
boni ex utriusque voltu est commlxtum. Decern 
tanta te amo. Vale^ Domine dulcissime. Dominam 

Ad M. Caes. v. 63 (68) (Naber, p. 91). 

Magistro meo. 

Et nos Gratiam^ quod tui similis est^ magis 

Vat. 110: amamus. Facile ergo intellegimus | quanta apud te 

sit filiolae nostrae conciliatrix similitudo utriusque 

nostri^ et omnino quod eam vidisti est iucundum 

mihi. Vale mi optime magister. 

Ad M. Cues. v. 54 (69) (Naber, p. 91). 

Domino meo. 

Tertius est dies, quod per noctem morsus ven- 
tris cum profluvio patior. Hac vero nocte ita sum 
vexatus, uti prodire non potuerim, sed lectulo me 
tej;Leam. Medici suadent balneo uti. Multos natales 
tuos ut celebres a deis precatus sum. Vale, Domine. 
Dominam saluta. 

^ Probably Bomitia Faustina, who died as an infant. See 
inscription on the Moles ffadriana, Orelli 672 = Willm. 964. 
Cornificia, the next daughter, was not born till about 159. 


Fronto to Marcus as' Caesar 

rr. T J ? 154-156 A.D. 

lo my Liord. 

I love you ten times as much — I have seen your 
daughter ! ^ I seem to have seen you as well as 
Faustina in your infancy : so much that is good in 
both your faces is blended in hers. I love you ten 
times as much. Farewell, sweetest of Lords. Greet 
your Lady. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

rj. ^ ? 154-156 A.D. 

1 o my master. 

We too love Gratia the more for her likeness 

to you. 2 So we can easily understand how our little 

girl's likeness to both of us endears her to you, and 

in every way it is a delight to me that you have seen 

her. Farewell, my best of masters. 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

rr. r J ? 154-156 A.D. 

lo my Lord. 
This is the third day that I have been troubled 
all night long with griping in the stomach and 
diarrhoea. Last night, indeed, I suffered so much 
that 1 have not been able to go out, but am keeping 
my bed. The doctors recommend a bath. I have 
prayed tlie Gods to give you many happy returns of 
the day.^ Farewell, my Lord. Greet your Lady. 

2 Ehrenthal thinks that Marcus should have said : **We 
too love you the more because Gratia is like you. So we 
can understand how our likeness to our baby endears us 
to you." » April 26 (? 156). 


Ad M. GO'S. V. 55 (70) (Naber, p. 91). 

Tu quoque intelligis, mi magiater, quid ego pro 
rae optem : sanum et validum te deinceps et hunc 
diem tuum sollemnem et ceteros vel nobiscuiu vel 
nobis utique securis pro te quam diutissime eele- 
brare. Ceterum ego coniectavi statim fuisse eius- 
modi aliquid quam ob rem te non viderim. Et, si 
dicendum est, delector potius talem querellam cor- 
pusculi quam dolores aliquos intercessisse. Prae- 
terea de produvio isto bene spero, nam etsi nune te 
exhauserit, tamen dis volentibus conlido satubriter 
sponte provenisse alvum tibi verno tempore, quom 
alii id consulto movent et machinantur. Vale, mi 
iucundis|sime magister. Mater mea te salutat. 

Ad M. Ciu$. V. 56 {71) (Naber, p. 92). 

Domino meo. 

Fauces miseras habeo, unde etiam calui per 
nocteni. In genu dolor est modicus. Vale, Domine. 
Dominam saluta. 

Ad M. Cats. f. 57 (72) (Naber, p. 92). 

lam habeo quod prinium et praecipuum desid- 
erabam : desisse febriculam colligo ex litteris tuis. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

rri . ? 154-156 A.D. 

lo my master. 

You also know, my master, what I on my part 
wish : that you should be hale and strong hence- 
forth, and keep this your solemn day^ and all 
future ones for as many years as possible either 
with us or, at all events, without giving us any 
anxiety on your behalf. Of course, I guessed at 
once that there was some reason of this kind for 
our not seeing you. And I must confess that I am 
thankful that the cause was such a complaint of your 
body rather than some other pains. Besides I 
have great hopes of that flux, for though it prostrate 
you for the time, yet I trust, if the (jods will, that 
your bowels have naturally and to the good of your 
health felt the motions of the spring, while others 
contrive and bring this about by design. Farewell, 
my most delightful of masters. My mother greets 

Fronto to Marcus as Caesar 

rp T J ? 154-156 A.D. 

lo my Lord. 

I have a wretched sore throat, which also made 
me feverish all the night. My knee pains me a 
little. Farewell, my Lord. Greet your Lady. 

Marcus Aurelius to Fronto 

rr . ? 154-156 A.D. 

lo my master. 

I now learn what I wished first and foremost to 
hear. I gather from your letter that the feverishness 

^ Viz. Marcus's birthday. 



Nunc, mi magister, quod ad fauces adtinet, brevi 
temperantia aspelletur,i et mihi a te levior ^ nuntius 
veniet. Vale mi magister iucundissime. Mater 
mea te salutat. 

Ad Antoninum Pium, 3 (Naber, p. 164). 

Ambr. 341, 
ad fin. 

I Antonino Pio Augusto Fronto. 

1. Si e venire posset. Imp., ut amici ac familiares 
nostri nostris moribus cuncta agerent, maxime vel- 
lem ; tum, si non moribus, at saltem ut consiliis ubi- 
que nostris uterentur. Sed quoniam suum ^ cuiusque 
ingenium vitam gubemat, fateor aegre ferre me, 
Ambr. 856 quod amicus meus | Niger Censorius testamento suo, 
quo me heredem instituit, parum verbis temperavit. 
Id ego factum eius improbus sim, si defendendo 
purgare postulem; immemor amicitiae, nisi saltem 
deprecando sublevem. 

2. Fuit sine dubio Niger Censorius verborum suo- 
rum impos et minus consideratus, sed idem multarum 
rerum frugi vir et fortis et innocens. Tuae clemen- 
tiae est, Imp., unicam hominis verborum culpam cum 
ceteris eius recte factis ponderare. 

3. Ego quidem quom ad amicitiam eius accessi, 

* Schopen for Cod. appellelur. 

'^ Cod. has at plenior. The levior is by Brakmau. 

^ m^ in the margin of Cod. gives suam. 

* Lucilla, the mother of Marcus, died about 156. This is 
the last mention of her. 


has gone. Now, my master, as for the sore throat, 
it will be got rid of by a little abstinence, and we 
shall soon have better news from you. Farewell, 
my most delightful of masters. My mother * greets 

? 154-156 A.D. 

Fronto to Antoninus Pius Augustus. 

1. If it could be brought about, Imperator, that 
our friends and relations should in all cases act by 
our principles of conduct, there is nothing I should 
desire more ; next 1 would have them follow, if not 
our principles yet at least our advice on every 
occasion. But since each man's own character 
governs his life, I can only confess that I am sorry 
my friend Niger Censorius^ used such intemperate 
language in his will, in which he made me his heir. 
If I claimed to clear him by justifying his action, 
I should be unprincipled; I should be disloyal to 
my friend if I did not at least say what I could in 
his excuse. 

2. It cannot be denied that Niger Censorius was 
unrestrained and ill-advised in his language, but at 
the same time in many respects he was an honest 
man and manly and blameless. It will accord with 
your clemency, Imperator, if you set his other 
creditable actions against his solitary misconduct 
in word. 

3. When I first came to be his friend, his strenuous 

' Nothing is known of Censorius, but Gavins Maximus, 
whom he attacked, probably died in 157. The tone of this 
letter is much more formal and less familiar than the pre- 
vious ones to Pius, and this may be evidence of an earlier 
date. But Fronto had a difficult task to perform, and his 
letter is a model of tact. 



<iain ei amorem aliorum> ^ strenua opera domi belli- 
que promeruerant. Ut ceteros eius amicos omittam^ 
Turboni Marcio et Erucio Claro erat familiarissimus, 
qui duo egregii viri alter equestris alter senatorii 
ordinis primarii fuerunt. Postea vero ex tuis etiam 
iudiciis ei plurimum et honorum et auctoritatis acces- 
serat. Talis ego viri amicitiam appetivi. 

4. Haud sciam an quis dicat debuisse me amici- 
tiam cum eo desinere,^ postquam cognoveram gratiam 
eius apud animum tuum imminutam. Numquam ita 
animatus fui^ Imp.^ ut coeptas in rebus prosperis 
amicitias^ siquid adversi increpuisset, desererem. Et 

Ambr. 865 omnino - cur enim non sententiara | animi mei ex- 
promam ? — ego eum qui te non amabit hostis numero 
habebo ; quem vero tu minus amabis^ miserum potius 
quam hostem iudicabo. De^ . . . . permultum 
refert improbes aliquem an oderis .... <so>ciis 
et consiliis indigebat. Atque utinam Niger, sicut in 
plerisque mihi post paruit, ita consilium meum in 
testamento <conficiendo>* rogasset ! Haud umquam 
tantam maculam memoriae suae inussisset verbis 
immoderatis ipsum se potius quam alios laedentibus. 

5. Nee . . . . ^ intervallum intercessisset quo 
Ambr. 346 . . . . | virum illo ipso tempore quo ofFendit : sed 

amando ita ofFendit ut pleraque animalia, quibus 

^ Nothing can be read in the Codex except a . . . crem 
c . . . nfi. 

2 For Cod. desinire. Query deserere as below. 

^ From here eighteen lines are lost, the one sentence 
{permultuiriy etc.) given being from the margin of the Codex. 

* Mai. 

^ One line lost, and after quo nine and a half line^. 



achievements^ civil and military, had already won 
him the love of others. Not to mention his other 
friends, he was on the most intimate terms with 
Marcius Turbo ^ and £rucius Clarus,^ who were both 
eminent men in the first rank, the one of the 
Knights, the other of the Senators. Subsequently, 
however, a great accession of honours and authority 
accrued to him from your courts ^ also. Such was 
the man whose friendship I coveted. 

4. Possibly some might say that I ought to have 
given up my friendship with him when I realized that 
he was not held by you in the same favour as before. 
But, Imperator, I was never of such a spirit as to 
cast off a friendship formed in prosperity as soon 
as a whisper of adversity was audible. And in any 
case — for why should I not say what is in my 
mind ? — I shall hold as an enemy one who bears you 
no love, but one for whom you have but little love 
I shall count as an unfortunate rather than as an 
enemy .... There is a very great difference be- 
tween blaming a man and hating him .... was 
in want of friends and advice. And would that 
Niger, as in most things subsequently he was guided 
by me, so had asked my advice in drawing up his 
will ! Never would he have seared his memory with 
such a stain by reckless words that injured himself 
more than anyone else. 

5. Nor .... would an interval have intervened 
.... a man at the very time of his offence. But 
he offends from very love, just as most animals that 

^ He w&Bpraef. prod, under Hadrian from 119-135 a.d. 
2 Consul II. in 146, and then praef. urbi. 
' Or do the words mean "from your marks of appro- 
bation " ? 


VOL. I. "S 


abest ars et sedulitas educandi^ ova atque catulos 
suos unguibus aut deiitibus male contrectant^ nee 
odio sed imperitia nutricandi obterunt. 

6. Ego certe deos superos inferosque et (idem 
arcanam humanae amicitiae testor^ me semper auc- 
torem fuisse cuius ^ . . . . me .... animo .... 
Ambr. 345 utraque causas . . . . et sane . . . . | hominem 
.... eum incidisse magis doleas sed fideliter 
quem in eodem <agere> velle in quo . . . . et sane 
.... expeetari poterat in eo quem <corre>xerat. 
Nee <moverat> tanta benignitas et tot beneficia 
.... tibi autem non .... equidem .... cumque 
habeat suum finem. Res autem istas^ quas nee 
<tacere> voluimus nee <negare e re> credimus et, 
si dei aequi sint^ veras et congruentes simplicitati 
nostrae amicitiae^ semper adsequamur. 

Ad Antoninum Fium, 7 (Naber, p. 168). 
Ambr. 847 or | <GaVIO MaXIMO FrontO> 

fuegibi? ^^^ gravitatem 2 . . . . Dolor iracundiae con- 

except iunctus mentcm hominis perturbavit .... Virtuti- 

bus ceteris iracundia venenum ac pernicies tuit^ 

.... <Sed nemo meum erga Nigrum amorem 

Ambr. 368 improbet>* I qui non tuum ante reprehenderit. 

Postremo neque ego Nigrum propter te amare 

^ The mutilated portions of this letter cover about forty 
lines. The position of the isolated words me to sane is 
doubtful, as Mai (see Naber, p. 166, note 6) inserts them 
in his two editions in separate places. All the added 
words are by Mai, except e re, which are suggested by 
Rob. Ellis. 

^ From the Index to Ad Amicos (ii. 6). See Naber, p. 189. 



lack skill and perseverance in maternal duties injure 
their eggs and their young with talons or teeth, 
maltreating them not from malice but from want 
of experience in nursing. 

6. I at least call to witness the Gods above and 
the Gods below and the hidden loyalties of human 
friendship, that I have ever been the author .... 

Nor has he been influenced by kindness so great and 

benefits so many whenever 

he has his own end. But let us always strive for those 
things, which we have neither been willing to pass 
over in silence nor think it right to deny, and such 
things, if the Gods are just, as are true and in accord 
with the straightforward nature of our friendship. 

? 154-156 A.D. 
Fronto to Gavius Maximus.^ 

Grief added to anger upset the 

man's mental balance .... Anger poisoned and 
ruined his other virtues .... But let no one find 
fault with my love for Niger, who is not prepared 
to blame yours first. Lastly, I did not begin to 
love Niger on your account, that I should on your 

^ He was praef. praet. 141-157, and therefore, we ma>' 
suppose, a personal friend of Pius. 

* These two sentences are from the margin of Cod. Ambr. 

* Added by Mai, oxcopt improhet, for which he gives vitu- 

s 2 


coeperam^ ut propter te eundem amare desinerem^ 
neque tu me a Nigro tibi traditum diligere coepisti. 
Quam ob rem tecum quaeso^ ne quid obsit amieitia 
nobis^ quae^ nihil profuit. lam si dicendum sit^ 
deos testor me saepe vidisse Nigrum Censorium 
ubertim flentem desiderio tui atque huius discidii 

Sed erit fortasse tempus aliud, quod ^ ego memoriae 
eius placem te ac mitigem. Interim^ ne quid loci 
malignis hominibus ad vers us me apud aures tuas 
pateat^ <tibi spondeo in perpetuum meam> ^ fidem^ 
quam quom firmam et sinceram cum Censorio serva- 
verim, multo magis profecto tecum perpetuam atque 
incorruptam retinere conitar. 

Ad Antoninum Pium, 4 (Naber, p. \&1).* 

Ambr. 345, I DoMiNo meo Cacsari. 

Niger Censorms diem suum obiit. yuincuncem 
bonorum suorum nobis reliquit testamento cetera 
honesto, quod ad verba vero adtinet inconsiderato : 
in quo irae magis quam decori suo consuluit. In- 
clementius enim progressus est in Gavium Maximum 
clarissimum et nobis observandum virum. 

Ob cam rem necessarium visum scribere me 
Domino nostro patri tuo et ipsi Gavio Maximo difti- 
cillimae quid em rationis epistulas : in quibus et 
factum Nigri mei, quod improbabam^ non repre- 
hendere nequibam^ et tamen amici atque heredis 

' Mai for Cod. qui. Kluss. prefers quibus. 

2 Naber reads quo. 

^ Mahly, but he reads perpetuum without in. Cod. per- 

* This letter is omitted in the Index of Letters to Pius, 
but is found among them. It is clearly to Marcus. 



account cease to love him ; nor did you begin to 
have a liking for me through Niger's introduction. 
Wherefore, I beseech you, let not a friendship now 
be a hindrance which was never a help to us. Now, 
if I must say so, let the Gods witness that I have 
often seen Niger Censorius weeping copiously for 
want of you and for distress at this dissension. 

But perhaps I shall have another opportunity of 
mollifying you and reconciling you to his memory. 
Meanwhile, lest your ears be open to any attacks by 
ill-disposed persons on me, I pledge to you my 
lasting loyalty, which, as I kept it truly and 
faithfully with Censorius, much more assuredly shall 
I strive to preserve lasting and unimpaired with you. 

Fronto to Marcus. 

rr> T J o 154-156 A.D. 

To my Lord Caesar. 

Niger Censorius is dead, leaving me heir to five- 
twelfths of his estate by a will in all other respects 
unexceptionable but, as far as its language is con- 
cerned, ill-advised, since in this he followed the 
dictates of anger rather than consulted his self- 
respect. For he inveighed in unmeasured terms 
against Gavius Maximus, a man of senatorial rank 
and entitled to my regard. 

In consequence I have thought it necessary to 
write to our Lord your Father and to Gavius Maxi- 
mus himself letters of a very difficult tenor. For, 
whereas I could not but find fault with the action of 
my friend Niger, which I myself disapproved of, I 
wished at the same time, as was right, not to fail in 


Ambr. 348 


officium, ut par erat, retinere cupiebam. Haec ego 
te, ut mea omnia cetera, scire volui, conatus | me- 
lierculesad te quoque de eadem re prolixiores litteras 
scribere : sed recordanti cuncta mihi melius visum 
non obtundere te neque a potioribus avocare. 

Ad Antoninum Piumy 9 (Naber, p. 170). 

Ambr. 330, 
ad tried. 

1 <Antonino Pio Augusto Fronto>. 
1 amicorum meorum fecit modestia ne 

Ambr. 329 quid improbe peterem ^ . . . . | Equitis Romani 
unius contubernalis mei Sextii Calpurnii dignitatem 
rogatu meo exornasti duabus iam procurationibus 
datis. Ea ego duarum procurationum beneficia 
quater numero : bis quom dedisti procurationes, 
itemque bis quom excusationes recepisti. 

2. Supplicavi iara tibi per biennium pro Appiano 
amico meo, cum quo mihi et vetus consuetudo et 
studiorum usus prope cotidianus intercedit. Quin 
ipsum quoque certum habeo et affirmare ausim 
eadem modestia usurum qua Calpurnius lulianus 
meus usus est. Dignitatis enim suae in senectute 
ornandae causa, non ambitione aut procuratoris sti- 
pendii cupiditate optat adipisci hunc honorem. 

* From the margin of Ambr. 330. 

^ Fronto had pupils who lived with him, such as the two 
sons of Sardius Saturninus, mentioned below. 

2 This was the historian Appian, who tells us in the Pre- 
face to his History that he received such an appointment 



my duty as friend and heir. I was anxious that you 
should know of this, as of all else that concerns me, 
and, by heaven, I began a lengthy letter to you on 
this subject ; but on thinking everything over I 
decided not to importune you or call you away from 
more important business. 

? 157-161 A.D. 

Fronto to Antoninus Pius Augustus. 

1 The modesty of my friends has 

ensured that I should make no unworthy request for 
them .... you have at my request enhanced the 
dignity of one Roman knight, Sextius Calpurnius, 
who lived with me,^ by the grant of two procura- 
torships already. I count these two procuratorships 
as favours four times given : twice when you granted 
them, and twice when you permitted them to be 

2. For two years now I have been your suppliant for 
my friend Appianus,^ between whom and myself there 
has been both a long-standing intimacy and almost 
daily practice of mutual studies. Moreover, I feel 
certain and would be bold to affirm, that he will 
shew the same modesty that my friend Calpurnius 
Julianus has. For it is to enhance his dignity in old 
age that he desires to attain this distinction, and not 
from ambition or coveting the salary of a procurator. 

from Marcus and Lucius, when emperors. These procurators 
were set over every department of state and of the imperial 
household. They managed the emperor's domains, his mines, 
etc., the corn-supply, the water-supply, and the alimentary 
institutions. In the imperial provinces the procurators were 
fiscal oiSicers. The procurator a rafAonibus was the highest 
of these officials, and corresponded to a Secretary of State. 



Quom primum pro Appiano petivi^ ita benigne ad- 
misisti preces meas ut sperare deberem. 

Proximo superiore anno petenti mihi propitius 
multa respondisti, illud vero etiam comiter, futurum 
ut quom Appiano me rogante procurationem dedisses^ 
causidicorum seatebra exoreretur idem petentium. 
Meministi etiam quem de Graecia propitius et ridens 
nominaveris. Sed multa distant : aetas orbitas, cui 
Ambr. 840 leniendae solaciis opus est. | Ausim dicere hones- 
tatem quoque et probitatem inter duos bonos viros 
nonnihil tamen distare : quod propterea facilius 
dico^ quoniam illum^ cui amicum meum antepono^ 
non nominavi. 

3. Postremo dicam^ quomodo simplicitas mea et 
Veritas me dicere hortantur et fiducia amoris erga te 
mei, profecto aequius esse ilium quoque propter me 
impetrare. Memento etiam, Domine Imperator, 
quom ille meo exemplo petet, me biennio hoc 
petisse. Igitur illi quoque, si videbitur, post bien- 
nium dato. Fecerit exemplo nostro, si ipse quoque 
se tibi impetraverit excusare. 

EpisL Graec. 4 (Naber, p. 244). 

Ambr. 160, 
lul init. 

Ilapa KirTTLavov ^povTiovi. 

1. OvSk cri^fJLCpov iSvvrjOrjv ere iSctv 8ta ttjv yaaripa 
vvKTo^ €VO)(^ov(rav cw? dpTt KOLfi7]6€L^» a 8c dypvTTvSiv 

* i.e. that the Greek as well as Appian should be granted 
his request. 

* See Fronto's letter throwing up his proconsulship, p. 236. 



When 1 first made request for Appianus, you gave my 
petition so kindly a hearing that J had a right to hope. 

When I renewed my request the next, which was 
last, year, your answer contained much that was 
gracious, one thing even in a vein of pleasantry, that 
the moment you gave Appianus the procuratorship 
at ray request, a flood of pleaders would gush forth 
asking a like favour. You remember too the native 
of Greece whom you graciously and smilingly men- 
tioned. But the cases are far from parallel : there 
is age, there is childlessness, which calls for consola- 
tions to relieve it. I would make bold to add that, 
though both are good men, yet in worth and in- 
tegrity one has some advantage over the other ; 
and I may say this the more freely, in that I have 
not named him whom I put second to my friend. 

3. Lastly I will say, as I am prompted to do by 
plain dealing and truth as well as by the assurance 
of my love towards you, that surely it is fairer that 
the other ^ too should gain his wish on my account. 
Remember too, my Lord Imperator, when he follows 
my example in petitioning, that I have petitioned 
these two years. Then let him too, if so it please you, 
be gratified after two years. He will but be follow- 
ing my example, if he also then get permission to be 

From Appianus to Fronto.^ 

} 157-161 A.D. 

1. I COULD not see you to-day either, as owing 
to gastric trouble last night I have only just 
got up. What I was puzzling over in my wakeful 

' It appears that Appian had sent Fronto a present of two 
slaves, which Fronto returned. Appian now sends them 
again, with this letter. 



^opow, ov Karicr\ov ovS* avePaXofirfv^ aXX! €k "rroWiov 
oXtya cot y€ypa<f>a. <rv Se, €i fxkv StVaca cotiv, w? 
8(Katoi9) €1 3c (r;(oXa(mKa) o>9 aTrXois, el 3c /a^, dW* 
c/iotyc 0)9 XvTrov/Aci'u) fcal wapaKaXovvTi TreLfrOrjTi icai 

2. Eiicos CTTCcr^at rois KOivot9 ra iSuoTLKa. tvOvvoyiev 
yovv ra iSia irpo% cKCtva xal 6 vo/ao9 ovTia kcXcvci. ttco? 
ovv ai /Acv 9roXci9 ovk okvoOo'i XafiPdvoixrai irapa rwv 
hihovrwv avaOrj/JLard re koX ^ly/tara koL dpiyvpiov avro 
woAiTcDv TC Kal ^cvojv, iJSt; Sc rivas Kat avTOvs ttcds vtto- 
3t3orra5, ^/Ao9 3c 3^ Trapa kjuXov \a8eiv OKvei irapa- 

KokoVVTOS ; Kttl Ot ^Col 3c T<3 vd/AO) Toiv TToXcOiV TTpoo'UvTai ^ 

Tavra Trapa twv dvOpiiymav ^ Kal Beucvvovcnv oi 9rforavpol 
Tcoi/ Oeiav. Kal ol <f>i\ioi 3c €k tcov 3(a^K«i>v Xa/jiffdveiv 
ovK OKVovaiv. Kal 3ta Tt ovi/ €#c //.cv 3ia^)7K^9 dv tls 
Xd^ot, irapa SI twv TTcptdvTwv ou XdjSoi, oTrore .Kat ftctfoi/ 
tout' ^ e;(€t to 3cty/xa t^9 irpoBvpLia^ ; oi ftcv yap oAAov 
aXA.ou TTpOTLOiacTLVj ol 3c 7r€ptdvTC9 cavTcov T0U9 ffiCXovs 
TTpomBiafTiv. Kal rfiLov irapa rov irepLovro^ Xafieivf on 
Kal jJiapTVprja'aL TrcptdvTt 3waTdi' lo"Tt icat dfxeCiffao'Oai. 
irdXiv ^eviov fikv outc OeoL^ ovt€ ttoXci Trc/ATrcTai, Ta 
(Ti/ivoTepa 8' del Tot9 crepLVoripoi^. 
Ambr. 162 3. AXA' ovk ci(7t Tav|Ta papvrepa Xafi/SdveLV ; Tt yap 

ccTTt ^iXta9 Kat TLfirjs jSapvTCpov, wv ouS' to'a)9 yc * dpeiov 
ovSiv coTiv ; Tt 3c Kat fiapv rjv 0X09 ^ Tt av cyo) )9apv 

^ Heindorf for Cod. vpoffdevat. 
^ Jacobs for Cod. &,vBpwv. 
2 Naber for Cod. TaCr'. 
* Studemund for Cod. ta-os y\ 



hours 1 am not keeping back or putting off^ but 
have written you a few out of my many thoughts. 
And you, if they are just, give ear and assent to 
them as just ; if they are pedantic, as sincere ; but 
in any case do so to me, as aggrieved and a suppliant. 

2. It is but natural that the individual should 
take pattern by the community. At any rate we 
direct our private affairs on the lines of public ones 
and the law bids us do this. How is it then, that 
states do not shrink from receiving from the donors, 
native and alien, offerings and property and money 
itself, and in some cases even a free gift of their 
persons, but a friend shrinks from receiving a gift 
from a friend when he entreats it ? And the Gods 
too by the law of cities accept these gifts from men, 
as the treasuries of the Gods testify. Aye friends 
too do not shrink from taking under wills. And why, 
pray, should a man take under a will, but take 
nothing from the living, when the latter gift is an 
even greater proof of affection. For the testator 
prefers one man to another, but the living donor 
prefers his friend to himself. And it is sweeter to 
receive a gift from the living, because it is possible 
both to acknowledge it to a living person and to 
make a return. Again a trifling gift ^ is not made 
to Gods or cities, but nobler things are always for 
the more noble. 

3. But, you will say, does not their acceptance 
bring a heavier obligation ? Why, what can be a 
heavier one than friendship and honour, than which 
things there is perhaps nothing better ? And what 
was there here even heavy at all, or what should 

^ Martial heads his thirteenth book of epigrams Xenia, 
from the little complimentary gifts made to guests and friends. 



e^oifJLi; ov8' av fxev ifyyaKraLfiTjv ovSkv ovSk irpuiiiJiijv 

OvS€7rOT€, "fStOV TtVa fJLUrOoV 1(7 OV ^f cf OLKOVy tJM.O'lVy €S 

oLKov fi^riKBtiv. iworjcov 8c KaK€LV0f otrrf fiev "^Bovrj tw 
7r€ fiijf am \rj<f}0€VTiaVy o(rq §€ Xvirq fxrj X.rf<t>0€VT(ov iirryty- 
vcrai. €1 TO KaOapbv . . . .^ koI /tera iroXv TrpocrtCFat 
aoL, TTtcrrcvois 8c hiKaiov ctvai tov vofJiov rwv tc ttoXccov 
Ktti ^co)V #cal ffiLKiiiv . . . .* <f)iX.(i}V 8c ou toctoutov ctti- 
SctKVVKTCov Opdco^ cvvo£a9> dXAoL ■(■KpuTrrdKrcov * varo 
8€0vs,'|" €7r€fnl/a to Trplv iiTLTpiilrgs* <rv 8c firf Se-vrcpov 
dwoirc/xi/a/s,^ <p yc €8ct fxrfS* aira^, 

Epist. Grace. 5 (Naber, p. 246). 

'ATTTTiav^ ?rapa ^povnavo^. 

1. OvK a'7ropYi<T€L€v OV ovh^ cKcivos TTiOavtov Xoyoyvy 
ocTTL^ wpos TO irp^TOV IvOvfiY^fJia Twv VTTO aou TrpoTcOevTwv 

h/LOTOXTOi ft)S /i*^ Scot CTTCO'^ai TOtS ICOtVOtS TO tSta. -TToAAoL 

yap tOrj koI vofiifia Koivfj Tais ttoXco'iv Kai i8ta TOts Ka^* 
eKaoTOV €vp'rj(rop,€v ov\ ofxoia, tidOoL^ he Av irpoo'c^a)!/ 
Tats TC ^iVcais Koi tols ayaxriv Tots 8>;/xoo'tois icat TOts 

(8((i)TtK0lS* CV^a OVT€ 6 TOTTOS TWV hLKa(TTrjpiiaV OVT€ T<tiV 

Anibr. 138 8tKafdvT0)V 6 apLOfib^ ovtc 17 Tajfts twv <^ao'€<i)V Kai 
/cAiyo'ccov ovTc tou u8aT0S to fiirpovy ovSe ra Trpoari/irj- 
fiara twv KaTcyviocrfJLivwv ra avrd, oAAa irXctorov oo-ov 

^ Du Rieu reads the faint traces ia the Codex as fitoX . . . 
afieiajveixov. * Twelve letters are lost. 

3 About eighteen letters are lost. 
** Jacobs for Cod. vaiTOPTwv (according to du Rieu). Mai 



I count heavy ? I would not traffic in anything nor 
buy anything^ that necessitated an equivalent re- 
turn passings as they say^ from house to house. 
Consider this point also^ what pleasure acceptance 
gives the sender, and what mortification follows 
upon non-acceptance .... even after many days 
to come to you. Pray believe that the law of Gods 
and cities and friends is a just one .... but as 
friends do not parade such a forwardness of good- 
will but from diffidence conceal it, I send before 
you give permission. Do not you send back my 
gift a second time, as you ought not to have done 
even the first time. 

To Appian from Fronto. 

? 157-161 A.D. 

1. Even he would have no lack of plausible argu- 
ments who, in answer to the first of the propositions 
submitted by you, should object that private conduct 
ought not to conform to that of states. For we 
shall find many customs and usages publicly estab- 
lished in cities and privately practised by individuals 
to be dissimilar. You can easily convince yourself 
of this by looking at the litigation and disputes 
between public bodies and individuals, wherein 
neither the venue of the court nor the number of 
the judges nor the order of the pleas and summonses 
nor the allowance of time for the speakers nor the 
penalties of conviction are the same, but there is 

read the Codex koX ro^mv vico^iovai. The oh roffovrov is 
Naber's correction of Mai's oitx ^f rovroy, 
* Niebuhr for Cod. firiBc rtfirj . . . 



Sirjv€yK€v TOL Brrffioaui twv iSicov. kol otl ttjs fi€v -ttoXccos 
avaireTrrcurOai TrpoarJKei rots irvXas ctcrtevat tc tw ^ov- 
\ofi€V(a KOL i^uvai oTrore /SovXolto' €KdaT(^ Sc -q/jLwv t<ov 
iSuDTtov CI /if^ <f}vXdTTOL TflLS Ovpas KOL wttw iypY^yopoiTfj 6 
Ovptoposj elpyoiv p\v ttj^ cicroSov tous firf^ev vpoa^KOvras, 
Tots §€ oiKcVais au ^ eiriTpCTrwv dScu)? oiroT€ jSovkoLvro 
6^(0 paSi^€Lv, ovK av opOSi^ olKOvpoLTO TOL KaTOi rrjv OLKiav. 
KoX (TToai Sc Kai a\<rr) kol /^iofiol kol yvpLvdcia koX kovrpa 

TO. fl€U 877/U.Oa'ia TraCTLV KOL TTpOlKa ttVClTat, TOt Sc TCUV 

tStwroiv vTTo (nSrjpa k\€L^I Kai rivi Ovpo^v\aKi,^ koI 
fiurOov iKXiyovcTLV irapa. roiv Xovaa/xiviav. ovSk ra SctTrva 

8c OfJLOia TO, ISkOTLKOL kol TCL iv JlpVTaV€LiO\ Ovhl 6 tTTTTOS o 

T€ iStcDTtfcos /cat 6 ST^/Aocrtos' ovSc 17 7rop(f}ijpa twv dp^^ovnav 
KOL rCiiv ^fxoTiov' ovSk 6 (rri^avo^ 6 toJv pdScov rmv 
olk6$€V kol 6 T^s cXaias t^s *OAv/x,7rta(rtv. 

2. ''A/ta ravra ^t€v ida-eiv fxoi Sokcu icat )(apL€LcrOaL <rot 
TO Sctv €Trc<r^at rots 817/AOoriots ra i8i<0T(Ka. )(apLad/j.€vos 
Sk TOVTO ovkIti )(apL(raLfi'rjv av tovO* fo <y€ w>cto'at </x€ 

^>€XctS, <OTt Kat> C/U.C TT/OCTTCl CITCO'^at.'f Tt 8^ TOVTO 

Ainbr. 137 idTLV, cyo) | tjypdo'w. to /acv dfi<liLarl3r}TOv/X€vov rjfMy 
olfJLaL, TOVTO ^Vf ct ;(p^ fi€ydXa kol 7roXXrj<s TLfirjs afta 
Siopa Trapa Toiv ffiCkiov Scp^cor^at. Tavra Trpoarda^a-iav cts 
7rapaScty/xa c/caXcis to tois ttoXcis /x€yaA.a 3(i)/oa Trap' 
dXX)^A.(i)V TTpoaUaOaLf avTO Sry to aLiJi<f}LafirjTOVfX€VOV 
0"^€Tcpt^d/x€vos, w KJiiXoTTj^. 6 yoLp tous tStwras fyw 
ffida-Kinv firj helv /icyoXa 8(upa Trap dXXiJXcDV Xa/u^di/ctv, 

TO aUTO TOVTO ttV CiTTOlfK KOt TTCpl TWV iroAcWV, 0)5 OvSc 

^ For Cod. ot»fc. 2 Naber for Cod. 2tfpv 9i5Ao/ct. 


every difference between the public cases and the 
private. Again the gates of a city must be opened 
wide for any to enter at will and, when he will, to 
go out. But for each one of us as individuals, if his 
doorkeeper guard not his door and be ever on the 
watch, debarring from ingress those who have no 
business there, but on the other hand permitting 
the inmates to go out freely whenever they wish, 
the safeguarding of the house could not be properly 
effected. So also porticoes and groves and altars 
and gymnasia, and baths, if public ones, are thrown 
open free to all, but if private, are kept under 
strong lock and key with a door-keeper to boot, and 
a fee is exacted from the bathers. Nor yet are 
banquets in private houses and in the Town- Hall 
the same ; nor a horse if it belong to a private person 
or to the state ; nor the purple robe of the magis- 
trate and of the townsman ; nor the garland of home- 
grown roses and the wreath of olive at Olympia. 

2. At the same time I think that I will waive 
this and concede to you that private conduct must 
needs conform to public. But conceding this, I 
would not go further and concede what you would 
fain persuade me of, that / must conform to it. I 
will explain what I mean. The point in dispute 
between us, I take it, was this, whether one ought 
to accept great and valuable gifts from friends. 
Justifjdng this, you pointed to the example of cities 
accepting great gifts one from another, taking for 
granted, my dear friend, the very point in dispute. 
For alleging as I do that individuals ought not to 
take great gifts from one another, I would say 
exactly the same of cities, that they ought not to 
take them either; but you, begging the question 



Tats TTo^fixiv Xafiotv, eh o3rd8«iiv ^ep«s toS koI tow 
JSicurai! wpocrijKOVTO^. to Sk ^yjTovntmy ni) Ziiv i$ airuiv 
tSiv afi.ii>urPi[TOofi.iviov airoSfucvvfLv i^o-ais ov. tl Si 
T0V7O ^'s, on Xo/xjldvowri iroXXai jroXtis ri Toiavra 
Smpa, ^aitiv a.v on Koi roiv ihiarrSiv voXXoi kafifiavowi 
TO Totavra, ilvpoii/Afc St tt opSHi^ koX irpotniKOVTa^ Ka/i- 
PanoxMnv. tovtd 8c to ^T/Tq/ia diro rujv lSt'j>Ta}V dpfo- 

/HCOV 8(^«H KOI irpOS TttS JTO^dS. TOVTO /icr OUV SlKOIa 

voijuv & ^-qT^fiaroi fitpti SuxX(i\ptt% d/x^Kr/JijTijiri/iov, to 
Tioi' ffoXe*uv Xiyu). ouS* -yi/i oiS' cKfivo a iyvoiiv oI/JlHI, 
ui<t oj. vXiurraC yt ruiv tuSo(ora.Tan' koi tvvofiovnivuiv ^ 
TToXfiov ovK iSf^avTO TO, fWyoAJi hSipa' iSoTrep ^ Pui/iaitul' 
n'oAif iroWa n-oXXdici; vaf>a { n'XciVruii' Trc^iroficva oi 
vptxr^Kora, f/ Si rmv 'AOr/vaiiov ^apvrtoa ruiv irpainf 

3. To Si yt tZv 6fZv irapaStiypLa, ttri Stopa koi dvaftj- 
fiara Seoi Sc;^oi^ai, xai iruvu 0*01 Sia ppa,)(fiov tiprj/xivov, 
iv i<7iu Ttij^H QjroXuo-ao-flm ictipaaopai. ovSi yap irpotr- 
KWturSaL^ poi TrpoaT}Kti' firjrt ^eui ' /iijrt au PatriXti 

4. nrfavurraTOi' S< :^ i(oi to Tuik Siaft/Kuij' vn^vtyKOS, 
Ti &7 ffore (K BuiflijKciii' Knl Ta ^eyoA/x Xa/i^ai'oiTts n'apa 
Toil' (uiVTiiiv TijXiKavra ' ot Trpotnjo'd/ieflii- <^S(iv(ts 8* T^v 
aiTttiv ouTos iTTojSriXXuiv. oi /*(>■ ydp, w <rh ^gs, bXXoi' 
oAXou TrpoTiOiaoiv ol koto. Siafl^itas x''/"S''p.<i'of 0i)^t 8^ 
jTttpa TOUToii' Xn^/Sai'tii' Trpo<7iji«(v. oi Si av fSiTes, (us 

u ^Si favTw Tous ^iXous oil )(api^ovTai wpoTip,iatTtv 
' aW S^ toEto i^^t Stiv tA irtfHTO/iti'a p^ irptMrUirdat. 

' Niebuhr for Cod. «tiiDou/n»ii»ii. 

' Mai for Cod. irpaffiidfdirtai. 

' Brakman Bays the Codex reads inraiitaia. 


that this is right for cities, adduce it as a proof of 
what is right for individuals. You must admit that 
one ought not to prove the question at issue by 
means of the very points in dispute. But if you say 
that many states accept such gifts, I will answer 
that many individuals also accept them, but that 
the question is whether it is right and fit that they 
should accept them. And this question beginning 
with individuals extends to cities also. This point, 
therefore, I mean the action of cities, you must in 
all fairness leave on one side, as part of the question 
in dispute. For I take it you are not unaware that 
the majority of the most famous and well-ordered 
cities have never accepted great gifts; as, for ex- 
ample, the City of Rome has rejected many such 
many a time from very many senders, but Athens 
exacting heavier gifts than befitted was not at all 
benefited thereby. 

3. As to your example from the Gods, that they 
receive gifts and offerings, which you touched on 
quite briefly, I will endeavour to dismiss it no less 
shortly. As I am neither God nor the Persian King, 
it was not fitting even to pay me homage. 

4. The most plausible argument you brought 
forward, by heaven, was the one from wills — why is 
it that, when we take even large bequests under 
wills, we should not accept such from the living ? 
The reason is suggested already by yourself. For 
those who benefit their friends in their wills pre- 
fer, as you say, one legatee to another : from them 
I admit that it is right to take. The living on 
the other hand prefer, as you say, the friends 
whom they benefit to themselves. For this very 
reason I say that what is offered should not be 


VOL. 1. T 


Papv yap 6vto)s kol xnrepoTmKOv kol rvpavviKov, a>s 
dXi/^ws, TO hi)(€<r$at. raf^ TOtaura? vpoTtfii^cruSi iv als 6 


Sexrrepio TiOels tov irpoTenfJirjfxivov. ovSe yap Tinrov 
avapairjv dv, d^* ov Kara^as auTos tls kol Pa^l^mv ifil 
8^^ iTnral^€(rOaL a^LOirj' ovSk iv B^drpia KaOe^OL/xrjv dv, 
dWov fiOL vTravta-Tafievov, ovSl ifiaTiov h^^ai^riv av ev 
Ambr. 148 x^'-H'^^^^ ^P^y €1 Tts diroSvofitvos \ ptywiy filv avTos, ipie Sk 
dfji,(jii€wvoL. ouc^LOTipos yap avro? CKaoTO? aurcS kol 
TrpoTLp.acrOaL trpo^ avTov SiKatorepo^. 

5. ^bjjs 8c ^evLa firj Trc/xTrccr^at ^cois* 17 ov)(l ievia ra 
if/aicTTa <Ta> irowava icat rb fieXi #cal 6 011/09 o otttcvSo- 
fievos Kal to ydXa ical tol o-7rXdy;(va tol twv lepcLtav ; Kat 6 
At^avwTos §€ ^ivLOV Ocov. 

6. TdVTtt /x€v Trpos tol vtto o^oi) o'o^a>9 Kal Tri^avois iravu 
Sr)fJiO(rL(ji}V T€ Kat Oeifnv Kat SiaOrjKwv Trept irpor^Ohrra 
ivOvfiT^fjiaTa, to. 8c wap* c/uoO Tavra elp-qaSo) 8ta Ppa^iiav' 
oaa atTctv di/at8€S Kat <fiiX.OK€pS€s koi TrAcovcKTtKoV) Tairra 
Kat Tra/o' ckovtos^ \ap.pdvtLV Ofiotia^ dvat8ov9 Ttvos Kat 
^tXoKcpSovs dvSpo^ Kat ttAcoi/cktou* ttiTciv 8c yc tol 
/LtcydAa dvatSc9, ttoAu 8^ /xoAXov yc Xa/ji)8avciv. Kai 
ovScv 8tiyv€yK€v ct 7ra/o ckoVto? Xafi/SdvoL Tt? ^ dpvowTO?" 
ov fJilv yap Set atTCiv,^ dXX' ovSe Aa/x^dvctv.j" ov8€ yc Tot 
TOtavTa Swpa xprj Tiva kXiaOai, a rovs p.\v iri^JLTTOvra^ 
Trevearipov^ d7ro8ctfct, tovs 8c X.afji/3dvovTag ttAodotio)- 
T€povs 7rapao"K€uaor<t. kKdripov 8c tovto cv TOt? ftcyoXot? 
SwpoL^ €V€(rTLV. CI yovv aTTOTtftiyo-cis ytyvotvTO, cu yxcv 6 

^ Cod. Se ; if 8e is kept, read fiaBi(oi. 
^ Naber for Cod. rrapixovTos. 

* For Cod. (according to Studemund) tkvo ^ apyovvro^ 
ouK 4v ry > airtly, 



accepted. For it is in reality no light thing and 
savours^ to tell the truth, of arrogancie and tyranny 
to receive such marks of preference, wherein he, 
that does another honour, manifestly does himself 
dishonour, and sets him whom he has honoured above 
himself. For I would not even mount a horse, if 
the rider dismounting and going on foot asked me 
to ride ; nor would I sit down in a theatre, if 
another gave up his seat to me; nor in wintry 
weather accept a man's cloak, if by stripping him- 
self and shivering he kept me warmly wrapped. 
For each man is his own nearer concern and more 
deserving of honour at his own hands. 

5. You say that trifling gifts are not sent to the 
Gods. What, are not these trifling gifts — the little 
barley-cakes and the honey and the libation-wine and 
the milk and the organs of the victims ? Aye, and 
the frankincense is a trifling gift to a God. 

6. So much for the propositions so cleverly and 
plausibly urged by you touching things public and 
things divine and touching wills. But for myself 
let me briefly say this : whatever it is shameless 
and greedy and covetous to ask for, it is no less 
characteristic of the shameless, the greedy, and the 
covetous man to accept even from a voluntary giver. 
To ask for big gifts is shameless, far more to accept 
them. And it is all one whether we take from a 
willing or a reluctant giver ; for it is not right to 
ask, but it is not right to take either. Nor should 
a man accept such gifts as shall leave the sender 
poorer and render the receiver richer. And great 
gifts involve both these results. At any rate in the 
case of a property valuation, you who sent these two 

T 2 


TrefjLil/a^ tov^ Svo tovtov^ TratSas fiiKporepav, €yo> 8€ 6 
Xa/Swv fJL€L^w rrjv ovaCav airoffyavovficu. ov yap iartv 
Ambr. 151 €VKaTa(f)p6inp'o^ ovT€ €v d7roTLfiYJ<r€L )(prjiJ.dTO)V ovt€ | kv 
avTLS6(r€L oucrtas ovre iv avoypa^-Q tcXous ovt€ iv Kara- 
PoX"^ <f>6pov o T(i>v Bvo Sov\u}V dpiOfio^. 

7. *0 8c TO. l^apvTepa Swpa ttc/xttcov ov)( iJttov XweZ 
Tov fiapelav irifxirovTO^ ctti tov (rva'<f>aipC^ovTa ^ fXcydXrp^ 
KvXrjv TrpoTTLVOVTOS T<3 crvfiTTOTr)' €19 yap fiiOrjv ovk €t? 


(riixfipoaLV cru/XTrocrt'ots opCifxev Kipvdfievov aKpana p\v 
Travv oXtyo), TrXeLcrrto 8c to) v8aTt, ovtw Srj koI to. Swpa 
Kipvavai 7rpo<rrJK€v voWy pXv <^i\o<f>po(rvvyi, Ika^ioTm 8c 
dvoXco/Aari. rtcriv yap ai^ ffiairj/jiev dpftoTTCtv ra TroXirrcX^ 
8a)pa ; apd yc rot? TrevrjaLV ; aWa TTC/iTrctv ov Suvavrat* rj 
TOi? TrAovctots; dAXa Aa/i,^dvc(v ov 8€0VTat. rot? /acv 
ovv /AcydXots Swpot? TO o-uvc;(€s ou Trpoaco'TLVf rj cKTrccctv 
dvayK^ Twi/ VTrap^dvTwv, ct Tts /xcydXa tc Trifnroi /cat 

7roXAdKt9. TOt9 8c fXLKpOLS SwpOtS TO TC OTn'C^CS WpOO'COTlV 

Kat TO d/xcTayvwoTov, ct <Kat fiiKpa Set TC>X€0"ai fxiKpa 

8. 0/LtoA.oy>;o-ats 8' av Kat tovto, o)?, <t Tt? cavrw /xcv 
cTratvov TrapacKcvd^oi, ertpov 8c iiraivov dTroaTcpoiTy, ov 
8ticat09. 0"v 8c fi€yd\a 8a)pa vefxinov o'avTw /xcv CTratvov 
7rapao'K€vd^ct9 ft)9 ftcyaAo^pova)9 xapL^6fJi€V0Sf Cfic 8c 
CTratvov d7roo-Tcpct9 TrpoaUa-Oai ^tafd/xcvo9. 8dfat/xt yap 

Ambr. 152 av | icat avT09 /x€yaXd<^pa>v Toi T>/A.tKavTa /x^ irpoaifxevos. 
iv Sk Tot9 fXLKpoLS Twv 8a)pa)V to"09 6 €7ratro9 t« /utcv 



slaves would declare your property as less and I who 
received them as more. For the item of these two 
slaves is no negligible one, either in valuation of 
goods or in exchange of properties ^ or in assessment 
for taxation or in payment of tribute. 

7. He that sends too heavy a gift offends no less 
than he who sends his fellow ball-player too heavy 
a return or toasts his fellow guest with a big cup. 
For he would seem to toast him for debauch not for 
delight. But just as in temperate banquets we see 
the wine mixed in the proportion of a great deal of 
water to quite a little wine, so should gifts be a 
blend of much loving-kindness and very little 
outlay. For whom can we say that costly gifts befit ? 
The poor ? But they cannot send them. The rich ? 
But they do not need them. Moreover, great gifts 
cannot be given continuously ; or, if a man send 
great gifts and often, he must come to the end of 
his resources. But small gifts admit of being given 
continuously and with no compunction, since a man 
need make but a small acknowledgment to one who 
has sent a small gift. 

8. This too you would confess, that a man acts 
unjustly, if he so acquire praise for himself as to rob 
another of his. But you in sending great gifts 
acquire to yourself praise for large-hearted generosity, 
but you rob me of praise by constraining me to 
accept favours. For I too might shew large-hearted- 
ness by refusing to accept such. But in small gifts 
the apportionment of praise is equal, in that the 

* At Athens a man, who thought himself unfairly taxed 
compared with another, could claim a re-assessment for both 
or an exchange of properties between them {ivTi^Sffis). 



irifixl/avTi otl ovk '^iJL€\r}a'€v, t<3 8c XafiovrL on o »*^ vrrcpiy- 
fl>dvrja'€V, /xaT€V(rai/x,?7V 8' av, ci Kat crot ^aXiirws XP***" 
/xcvosj^f o)? Kttl crv avTO tovto Btapov ifiov Trifi^avro^ ovk 
av lAa^€s, TTois irapa aov tovs TrejXfjyOevras yralSas 1780- 
/xcvo? Trpo(r€tfirjv av; . . . .^ FXavKOS . . . .^ 
Xpva-ea twv x^Xk€£(ov xat to, iKaTOfJifioui twv Iw^aPoiiav 
aficl/SovTO^, watra /i€v yap avayKq rov a/i,€i)3d/Aevov 17 
TToXv ttXcovo? afta avrnrifxiriiv koX Ofirjpta fidprvpL tols 
<f>pfya^ hoK€LV VTTO Tov Atos /Sc^Aa^^ai, ^ ra /xcc'o) dm- 
Trifiirovra fir] 8(Kaia 7rot€tv. rpiTOV Se icat 8ocaioTaToi', a 
ir€/X7rcTat t<3 avro) fiirpio kol tols icrois* S<apOL^ d/tct- 
P^crOai, TOVTO 8c 6 Trottov o/AoioraTos c/ao/, tw avra 8-^ 

TO. 7r€fJL<l>0€VTa dTrOTrC/ATTOKTt. 

'AAAoL Tavra /a€i/ ^iXo) irpos rov ^iKTaTov Tr€vaC\Oio. 
j"rpo<^cr<a> 8c <roiv 7rai8a)r> Kat Xoyifo/xcvw fxtlj^ova 
Tov Kapirov cot vvv Trapcf ct.^j" 

.-^tZ AmicoSf i. 3 (Naber, p. 175). 
Arabr. 836, | Fronto Lolliano Avito salutem. 

ad fin. col. 1 ••jt j. t • • • -i. a. j i *. 

Montanum Licinium — ita te reducemcomplectar, 
quo iure iurando mea tuaque sal us aeque continetur — 
sic diligo ut non temere quemquam eorum, quiscum 
raihi hospitii iura sunt^ Montano meo anteponam. 

^ Studemund reads the Codex tmon ru x^^V'^'o XP^M'^^^^ » 
du Rieu as eiKovras voti^rios XP^h^^^^- 

2 Two lines are lost here. ^ Seven lines lost. 

** Naber reads icoTflt 76 'Hcr/oSov, after Jacobs, for ical rois To-ois. 

* I have followed Mai except for the bracketed words. 
After this letter the corrector adds Feliciter, as if his task 
was ended. 



sender did not neglect to send, and the recipient 
did not disdain, the gift. But I would ask, pressing 
you perhaps -rather hard, how can I receive with 
delight the slaves sent from you, whereas you would 
not have accepted an identical present, had I sent 
it ? . . . .It would have been Glaucus ^ of old over 
again .... '^exchanging gold for bronze and a 
hundred oxen's worth for that of nine." For it is 
inevitable that the exchanger of presents should 
either send in return gifts of much greater value 
and, as Homer testifies, seem bereft of his senses by 
Zeus, or act inequitably by sending a meaner gift 
in return. The third and most equitable rule is to 
requite what is sent according to the same measure 
and with equal gifts. ^ He that did this would be as 
like as possible to me, for I am sending back the 
very things that were sent. 

But enough of this pleasantry from a friend to a 
very dear friend. The cost of the keep of these 
slaves will now, if you calculate it, give you a little 
the best of the bargain. 

> 157-161 A.D. 

Fronto to Lollianus Avitus,^ greeting. 

Licinius Montanus — " so may I have you safe 
back in my arms," and this is an oath which equally 
involves my weal and yours — is one whom I love so 
dearly that there is no one of those, who have shared 
my home with me, whom I could easily prefer to my 

1 Horn. 11. vi. 236. 

2 cp, Hesiod, }V. and D. 349, 354 : eS ^iky fieTpticOai iraph 
ytlrofoSf eS 8' avodovvai \ airr^ r^ fierptp. 

* Proconsul of Africa 156-159. Apuleius also {Apol. 94 f.) 
wrote to A Vitus a letter of recommendation, eulogizing him 
in language that reminds us of Fronto. 



Quotienscumque Romam venit, in meo contubernio 
fuit^ meis aedibus usus est ; una nobis mensa sem- 
per : postremo omnium paene rerum consiliorumque 
communicatio et societas fuit. Huic tantum honor- 
em haberi a te velim quantum tuo hospiti eontubemali 
eonsiliario tributum ab altero postulares. 0<mniuni 
litterarum et> bonarum artium sectator est mens 
Montanus^ turn doctrina et facundia est eleganti. 
Etsi sentio me meo artificio nimium favere quod ipse 

Ambr. 335 nihil studio eloquentiae antetulerit I • • 

Apud me antiquissimum locum laudis eloquentia 
possidet ^ . . . . Ex summis benignitatis opibus 
tribuas .... Nihil postulavit pro sua verecundia 
nisi quod probum honestumque sit et tibi datu et sibi 
postulatu 2 . . , . I . . Frugi probus philostorgus, 
cuius rei nomen apud Romanos nullum est ^ . . . . 
. . I . . Is adeo* postulat asylum in ora, denique 
iustas res istas. Igitur non maris sed aurae cupidus 
<est> .... Facundissimo omnium quae tua nobili- 
tas est ^ . . . . let. Cavillantes eundem audio aegre 
abstractum tristem contubernio meo, quod pectoris 
valetudine correptus laetissimo caelo posse redire ab 
Cirta patria serio videatur, quod ut fiat optes. Quom 

Ambr. 334 

Ambr. 333 

^ From the margin of Cod. 
2 Ihid, » Ibid. 

* For all the rest of this letter see Hauler, IVien, Stud. 
38, pp. 379-381 (1916). 

* From the margin of the Codex. 



Montanus. As often as he came to Rome he was my 
guest^ my house was at his disposal^ he always shared 
my table ; in fact there was between us a community 
and fellowship in almost all our acts and counsels. 
Please pay him such attention as you would expect 
to be shewn by another to your intimate friend, the 
sharer of your home and your counsels. My Mon- 
tanus is devoted to all letters and noble accomplish- 
ments, besides being a man of learning and cultured 
eloquence. Although I feel that I am biased in 
favour of my own craft, because he has himself pre- 
ferred nothing to the study of eloquence 

With me eloquence holds the most honoured place 
.... From your utmost stores of good-nature 
grant .... He has asked nothing, as was to be ex- 
pected of his modesty, except what is right and 
honourable for you to give and for him to ask .... 
Worthy, upright, rich in natural affection,^ a quality 

for which the Romans have no word 

He indeed asks for a health resort on the coast, and 
lastly those reasonable adjuncts. Consequently it is 
not the sea but the air that he is desirous of ... . 
The most eloquent of all, such is your nobleness 
.... 1 hear that some speak captiously of his 
having been torn away with grief and reluctance 
from my home-circle, because seized as he was with 
an affection of the chest, there seemed a real possi- 
bility that the extreme salubrity of the climate 
would enable him to return from his native city Cirta. 
Pray that it may be so. Since 1 love him for my 

^ Fronto tells us elsewhere [Ad Vcr. ii. 7, and cp. Marcus, 
TJhoughtSf i. 11) that <pi\o(rTopyia was practically non-existent, 
at least among the patricians of Rome. The word means 
affection between the members of a family. 



eum inter paucissimos ultro amem^ fac mihi caro 
fruaris^ eum praesentem accipias et propitia cura 
ambias et auxilium summum ei amicis consiliis 
<fera>s. Post hospitis salutem corpusque examines 
saepius cupio^ .... ita celebratus^es . " 

Ambr. 291 
col. 2, and 
33» tuf^ln. 

Ad Amicost ii. 4 (Naber, p. 191). 

I CoRNELio Repenting Fronto salutem. 
Fecisti, frater Contucci, pro tua perpetua consuet- 
udine et benignitate^ quod Fabianum speetatum in 
officiis civilibus, frequentem in foro,^ meum famili- 
arem ita tutatus es ut ei existimationem ineolumem 
conservares. Mentis tibi parem gratiam referundam 
A^}"*s3r ^^^ immortales prospe<re praestent> . . |* . . 
.... neque mox habebis tibi nobiles: teneto 
potius eos satis aperto odio plenos fuisse * . . . . 

Ad AmicoSf i. 1 (Naber, p. 172). 

Ambr. 828 

Fronto Claudio Severo salutem. 
1. Commendandi mos initio dicitur benivolentia 
ortuSj quom suum quisque amicum alii amico suo 

^ Hauler says five lines more of the letter remain, in which 
Fronto sends greetings to his friends, and thanks Lollianus 
by anticipation for his trouble. 

' This is the marginal variant for a word in the text which 
Hauler reads as cenobatiis or cenobcUor and explains as xenoda- 
tor ({cvo5c6t77s) ; but Mai read it genercUus, 

' Nicbuhr for Cod. forum, 

* About one column is lost, but in this Hauler ( Wien, Stud, 
33, pp. 174 ff.) says he has deciphered some other lines, 
whicn he does not, however, give. 



part as I do very few, please use him as one who is 
dear to me, welcome him when he comes and win 
his love with your gi*acious care for him and give him 
the best of help with friendly counsel. Afterwards I 
desire you often to test the health and condition of 
your guest 

? 157-161 A.D. 

Fronto to Cornelius Repentinus,^ greeting. 

You have acted, brother Contuccius, according 
to your never-failing habit and kindness in so effec- 
tually safeguarding the good name of Fabianus, a 
man of tried experience in civil duties, constant in 
attendance at the forum, and my close friend. May 
the immortal Gods ensure to you with all happiness a 

recompense equal to your kindness 

nor will you soon find (such among) the nobles : 
hold rather that they were full of sufficiently un- 
disguised hatred .... 

? 157-161 A.D. 

Fronto to Claudius Sever us,^ greeting. 

1. The custom of recommendation is said in the 
first instance to have sprung from good will, when 
every man wished to have his own friend made 

^ Com. Repentinus Contuccius was praef. praet. with Fur. 
Victorinus for the year 159, and probably died that year. 
As the praef. praet. had judicial powers, the case of Fabianus 
may have come before him. 

2 Probably the consul of 146, and the father-in-law of 
Marcus's daughter tFadilla. In his Tlimights^ i. 14, Marcus 
mentions the latter as " having confidence in the love of his 
friends. " 

* After a gap of a few lines comes a note of the corrector, 
Legi emendavi qui supra. 



demonstratum conciliatumque vellet. Paulatim iste 
mos progressus est, ut etiam eos in publico vel 
private iudicio disceptarent, nee tamen improba res 
videretur, iudicibus ipsis aut iis qui consilio adessent^ 
commendare<nt> ^ : non, opinor, ad iustitiam iudicis 
labefactandam vel de vera sententia deducendam. 
Sed <ut> 2 iste in ipsis iudiciis mos inveteratus erat 
causa perorata laudatores isidhibere, qui quid de reo ^ 
existimarent pro sua opinione cum fide expromerent, 
item istae commendantium litterae laudationis munere 
fungi visae sunt. 

2. Quorsum hoc tarn ex alto prohoemium ? Ne me 
existimasses parum considerasse gravitatem auctori- 
tatemque tuam commendando Cornel iano Sulpicio 
familiarissimo meo, qui propediem causam apud vos 
dicturus est. Sed, ut dixi, veteris instituti exemplo 
necessariura meum laudare apud te ausus sum. 

3. Industrius vir est, strenuus, ingenio libero et 
liberali, patriae amantissimus, innocentia fretus magis 

Ambr. 327, Quam confidcns, litterarum studio et bonarum I ar- 

f.llowed by ^. ^. -u- 4.- • 4 

320 tium elegantia mini <acceptissimus>* 

Ainbi. 325 4. | .... quicum mihi .... <in>tercedit. 
Neque forte aut temere necessitudine ista sumus 

^ Schopen ; but the word lacks a subject. Perhaps fas 
esset has dropped out before commendare. 

2 Schopen. 

' Naber for Cod. quidquid ergo. 

** Heindorf. Two pages are lost, and five lines at the 
beginning of p. 326. The marginal corrector notes on p. 327 
that Fronto used iusso, not iussu. 



known to another friend and rendered intimate with 
him. Then the custom gradually grew upof givingsuch 
recommendations in the case of those persons even 
who were parties to a public or private trial, provided 
however that the case was not a flagrant one, to the 
actual judges or their assessors on the bench : not, 
I take it, to undermine the fairness of the judge or 
to lead him aside from giving true judgment. But 
as there had long established itself in the very courts 
of law this custom of bringing forward, when the case 
had been heard out, witnesses to character to give in 
all honesty their own private opinion of the defend- 
ant, so these commendatory letters seemed to dis- 
charge the function of a testimony to character. 

2. Wherefore this preface going back so far? 
That you may not think that I have had but scant 
regard for your dignity and authority in recommend- 
ing Sulpicius Comelianus,^ a most intimate friend of 
mine, who is very shortly to plead his case before 
you. But as I have said, following a long-established 
precedent, I venture to speak in praise of my friend 
before you. 

3. The man is hard-working, energetic, of a free 
and free-handed nature, a true patriot, relying on 
his innocence rather than presuming on it, to me a 
most congenial friend from his devotion to literature 
and his taste in the liberal arts 

4 Nor did this close re- 
lationship between us arise casually or by chance, 

^ Phrynichus in his 'EwAot^ speaks highly of a Sulp. Corne- 
lianus, and says that Marcus and Lucius put all the affairs 
of the Greeks in his charge awtpyhv aurhv i\6fjL«voi rris 



copulati, nee ultro me amicitiam Corneliani adpe- 
tisse fateor. Laus ad me de ingenio eius iam^ per- 
vaserat, quam veram ad aures meas accidisse usu 
didici multisque documentis expertus sum. Habit- 
avimus una^ studuimus una, iocum seriumque partici- 
pavimus, fidei consiliique periculum fecimus : omni- 
bus modis amicitia nostra et voluptati nobis et usui 
fuit. Quam ob rem, quantum plurimum possum, 
tantum quaeso ut carissimo mihi homini in causa 
faveas . . . . ^ citavit ad accusationem nostri ordinis 
virum. Sed lectis concilii commentariis .... 
plane .... faeit . . . . ^ <propul>sare conisus est. 
Sollicitudo amici^ me a . . . . multis eum verbis 
commendare : sed fidum amorem nostri spondet 
< . . . . quio quid postulemf, orationem vobis 
unum meum verbum visum iri. 

Ad Amicos, i. 2 (Naber, p. 174.) 

^povTiDV 'A7r<7rta)> ^ ATroWtaviSy. 

Ambr. 330 KopvT^Xtavov ^ovXttiklov ^iXciv ripidfirfv i^tr^jcts TO) 

re Tpo'TTiD TOLvSpos Koi TOis Aoyois* ir€<j>VK€v yap irpo^ 
Aoyovs apicrra. ovk av 8' i^apvos €tr]v ra irpwra Trap* 
ifiol <l>€p«rOaL Trjv iK TraiSccas <^tAtav cn;(rTa^€?(rav 
iraiSeLav Se raTjrrjv Xiyw rrjv TuiV prjroptav avrrj yap SoKii 

^ Cod. apparently has a before perv. Schwierczina pre- 
fers fama. 

2 Three lines lost. * About two lines lost in these gaps. 

* Mai gives animi, but doubtfully. After me a three letters 
are lost. 



and I am free to confess that I did not go out of my 
way to seek the friendship of Cornelianus. I had 
already heard his character spoken of with praise, 
and that it was a true report which reached my ears 
I have learnt by experience and verified with many 
proofs. We have lived together, studied together, 
shared alike in things grave and gay, put our loyalty 
and our counsels to the proof. In every way our 
friendship has conduced to our pleasure and our 
profit. Wherefore I appeal to you as earnestly as I 
can to give this very dear friend of mine a favourable 
hearing in his case .... summoned for trial a 
member of our order. But the notes of the Consilium'^ 

being read tried to 

rebut it. Anxiety for my friend (makes) me com- 
mend him at such length : but our friendship is a 
guarantee of your loyal love for me and (will bring 
it about that), whatever I ask, a whole speech should 
seem to you but one word. 

Fronto to Appius Apollonides. 

? 157-161 A.D. 

Delight in the character and eloquence of the 
man first made me love Sulpicius Cornelianus. For 
he has the greatest aptitude for eloquence ; and I 
will not deny that the friendship which is grounded 
on culture takes the highest place with me, and the 
culture I mean here is that of the orator. For this 

1 If the MS. concilii may be so translated. The Consilium 
was a body of officials and assessors attending the judge.s at a 



fioi avOpaiiTLvrf ti? ctfat* -ff 8c Ta>v ^(XofJo^ftDV 0€ia rts 
ccTTo). fioT]Orj<rov ovv ra Suvara KopriyXiavo) dya^<3 dvSpl 
KOLixoi <f>ikto <.Kal \oyt(o> ^ koL ov <t>tXo€r6<pu). 

Ad AmieoSf i. 4 (Naber, p. 176). 

Aeorilio Plariano salutem. 

lulium Aquilinum virura^ si quid mihi credis^ 
Ambr. 308 doctis|simum facundissimum^ philosophiae disciplinis 
333: Quat. ad optimas artes, eloquentiae studiis ad effreffiam 

xxxii. ends ^ ' _ « i & » 

facundiam eximife^ eruditum^ commendo tibi quam 
possum studiosissime. Decet a te gravissimo et sap- 
ientissimo viro tarn doctum tamque elegantem virum 
non modo protegi sed etiam provehi et illustrari. 
Est etiam^ si quid mihi credis^ Aquilinus eiusmodi 
vir ut in tui omamentis aeque ac nostri merito 
numerandus sit. Non dubitabis ita esse ut dico^ si 
eum audire disputantem de Platonicis disciplinis 
dignatus fueris. Perspicies pro tua prudentia in- 
tellegentiaque summa <non> minorem fama^ lucu- 
lentissimum verborum adparatu^ maxima frequentia 
sententiarum. Quom haec ita esse deprehenderis, 
scito amplius esse in hominis moribus^ tanta probitate 
est et verecundia : maximi concursus ad audiendum 
eum Romae saepe faeti sunt. Plurimi nostri or- 
dinis viri facundiam eius non modo probant sed 

* Naber. 

^ Niebuhr for Cod. ex iure ; query e puero, 



seems to me to be human ; as for Philosophy's, let 
it be divine. Do your utmost then for Cornelianus, 
who is a good man and a friend of mine and 
eloquent and no philosopher. 

} 157-161 A.D. 
To Aegrilius Plarianus^ greeting. 

I commend to you with all possible cordiality 
Julius Aquilinus,^ a man, if you have any faith in 
my judgment, most learned, most eloquent, excep- 
tionally trained by the teachings of philosophy to 
the noblest accomplishments and by the study of elo- 
quence to a matchless facility of speech. A man so 
learned and so cultured should naturally find from a 
man of your serious character and wisdom not only 
protection but advancement and honour. Aquilinus 
is also, believe me, a man of such a character that he 
deserves to be accounted an ornament to yourself 
no less than to me. You will not doubt that it is 
as I say, if you once deign to hear him discuss the 
doctrines of Plato. With your perspicacity and 
good sense you will find him not unequal to his high 
fame, most conspicuous for the magnificence ^ of 
his language and the immense abundance of his 
thoughts. When you have realized the truth of this, 
know that there is still more behind in the man's 
character, so great are his integrity and his modesty. 
Crowds of people constantly gathered to hear him 
at Rome. There are numbers of senators who not 
only applaud his eloquence, but also admire his 

* Nothing is known for Qift'tain of him. Plarianua was 
leg. pr. ^w, of Africa in 169. For hira see CI. L. viii. 800, 

' cp, the use of adparatus in Hor. Od. i. 38. Dio, Ixxii. 
11, § 2, uses the expression irapao'/cev^ rStv \6yo)v. 


VOL. I. U 


eius ^ etiam admirantur. Officio necessario iiiductus 
est ut hinc proficisceretur ad consolandam conso- 
brinam suam casu gravi adflictam. Quantumcumque 
Aquilino meo honoris tribueris, id te mihi tribuere 

Ad AmicoSf i. 5 (Naber, p. 177). 

Ambr. 807 | Fronto Claudio luHano salutem. 

Cuperemus profecto, mi Naucelli carissime^ eo 
nos fato praeditos ut, si mihi liberi etiam virilis 
sexus nati fuissent, eorumque aetas hoc potissimum 
tempore ad munia militaria fungenda adolesceret, 
quo tempore tu provinciam cum exercitu adminis- 
trares, uti sub te mei liberi stipendia mererent 
Non longe aberit quin lioc, quod uterque cuperemus 
evenerit. Nam Faustinianum Statiani mei filium 
non minus diligo neque minus eum diligi cupio 
quam si ex me genitus esset. Is nunc &ub te mere 
bit. Tu studium meliore bono <pensabis>. Quan- 
tum ex tua benivolentia Faustinianus ornamenti 
adsequetur, tantum tu voluptatis ex Faustiniani 
elegantia capies. Quam doctus sit, mihi crede 
quam rei militaris peritus, praedicant omnes sub 
quibus meruit. Sed tum demum doctrinae indus- 
triaeque suae fructum sese percepisse putabit, ubi se 
tibi probavit. Fac periculum ^ in militiae muneribus, 
fac pericuhun in consiliis iudiciariis, fac periculum in 
litteris, omni denique prudentiae et facilitatis^ usu 
vel serio vel remisso, semper et ubique eum parem 

* A substantive may have dropped out or the second 
cius be corrupt. - See Ter. JCtin. in. ii. 23. 

' Kiessling prefers fitcuUoUis. The author of the De 
DiJFerenliis Verhtrum (? Fronto) distinguishes the words 
thus : fncidtas locujjhtis, facilitns artijicis est. 



.... He was obliged to leave Rome by the neces- 
sary duty of comforting his lady cousin, who is 
suffering under a great misfortune. Any attention 
you pay to Aquilinus please consider as paid to me. 

? 157-161 A.D. 

Fronto to Claudius Julianus, greeting. 

We could assuredly wish, my dearest Naucellius,^ 
it had been our happy fortune that, if I had had any 
children also of the male sex and these were of an age 
for the discharge of military duties at this particular 
time, when you are administering a province with 
an army, my children should serve under you. This 
that each of us would desire will almost be fulfilled. 
For I love Faustinianus, the son of my friend 
Statianus, not less, and I desire him to be loved no 
less, than if he came from my own loins. He is now 
to serve under you. Any attention you shew him 
will be paid with interest. However much distinc- 
tion Faustinianus gains by your goodwill, the pleasure 
you derive from his refined nature will be no less. 
His learning you may trust me for; his military 
ability is vouched for by all those under whom he 
has served. But he will not think that he has 
reaped the full fruit of his learning and industry 
until he has earned your approbation. Try him in 
military duties, try him in legal consultations, try him 
in letters, in a word, in everything that requires 
judgment and ability, whether grave or gay, you will 
find him always and everywhere equal to himself. As 

^ The other name of Julianus. He was consul in 145, and 
therefore proconsul about 157-159. 


u 2 


sui invenies. Patrem vero eias egregium virum^ 
Ambr. 322 nisi tute Dosses, satis I ego laudare non possem. 
Quin aliquanto minus dixerim^ tametsi plurimum 
dixero. Prorsus ego Statiani mei filium qualem- 
cumque diligerem tarn hercule quam Faustiniani mei 
patrem qualemcumque earum haberem. Nunc vero 
uter utri plus apud me gratiae conciliet ignoro ; nisi 
quod utrumque impensius alterum alterius gratia 

AdAmieoSf ii. 11 (Naber, p. 200). 


Ambr. 306 QuANTAE mihi curae ^ .... I multoque malim 
patriae nostrae tutelam auctam quam meam gratiam. 
Quare suadeo vobis patronos creare^ et decreta in 
eam rem mittere ad eos qui nunc fori principem 
locum occupant: Aufidium Victorinum, quem in 
numero municipum habebitis^ si di consdia mea 
iuverint^ nam filiam meam despondi ei nee melius 
aut mihi in posteritatem aut meae filiae in omnem 
vitam consulere potui quam quom talem mihi 
generum cum illis moribus tantaque eloquentia elegi ; 
Servilium quoque Silanum^ optimum et facundissi- 
mum virum.. iure municipis patronum habebitis^ 

' se, Cirtensibiis. The title is from the Index, as two pages 
are lost here. The letter which preceded this one was also 
to the Triumvirs of Cirta (Index, Naber, p. 189 ; Ambr. 292, 
col. 2). 

* These words are from the Index, but it is possible that 
they were the opening words of the other letter, and the 
heading Meae totius gloriae assigned to the other letter was 
the beginning of the letter here given. 



to that eminent man, his father, did you not know 
him for yourself, I could not praise him highly enough. 
Nor could I escape having said a great deal too 
little, though I said ever so much. Verily I should 
love the son of my Statianus, whatever he were, 
just as by heaven I should hold dear the father of 
my Faustinianus, whatever he were. Now, however, 
I do not know which of the two endears me more 
to the other, save that I love each of them more 
dearly, the one for the sake of the other. 

Fronto to the Triumvirs and Senators of Cirta^ 

? 157-161 A.D. • 

How great are my cares .... and I should 
much prefer the guardianship of our native country 
to be strengthened than my own interests. Where- 
fore my advice to you is to choose for your patrons, 
and send resolutions to that effect to, those who at 
present stand highest at the bar — Aufidius Victori- 
nus, whom you will have on your burgess-roll if the 
Gods favour my designs, for I have betrothed my 
daughter ^ to him, nor could I have better consulted 
the interests either of myself in the matter of 
posterity or of my daughter in the matter of her 
whole life, than when I chose such a son-in-law, a 
man of such character and great eloquence ; Servilius 
Silanus also, an excellent and most eloquent man, 
you will have as your patron by burgess right, since 

^ Fronto was born at Cirta, now Constantine, in Numidia. 
Triumvirs, also in some cases qtuUtttorviri iuri dicundo, were 
the chief magistrates of municipia. Colonies, such as Cirta, 
usually had duumviri, ' Gratia. 



Ambr. 30.5 

quom sit <e> vicina et arnica civitate Hippone 
Regio ; Postumium Festum et morum et eloquentiae 
nomine recte patron um vobis feceritis, et ipsum 
nostrae provinciae et civitatis non longinquae. 
Horuni patronorura non mediocrium .... oderint 
.... adesse . . . .^ adversus rem atque nolint 
. . . . '^ dicam^ quoad aetas mihi et valetudo integra 
fuit^ negotia nostra .... alius .... ista aetate 
. . . .^1 nostram forensium et iuniorum praesidiis 
esse fundatam. Nee genere quantus .... nostra 
.... * virum popularem habeamus et virum con- 
sularem ius publicum respondentem. Ego quoque^ 
ut spero^ quoad aetatis vis viguit^ in officiis civilibus 
non obscure versatus sum. Alii quoque plurimi sunt 
in Senatu Cirtenses clarissimi viri. Postremus est 
honor maximus tres vestri cives . . . .^ sed etiam 
suave est .... uter quo . . . .^ sed vos melius 
est iam nunc interdum . . . J quantum . . . 


Ambr. 426, 
col. 2 

Ad Venitn Imj). i. 3 (Naber, p. 116). 

Maoistro meo. 
Est quod ego tecum graviter conquerar, mi 
magister^ et quidem ut querelam dolor superct, quod 
ego te tanto post intervallo nee complexus neque 
adfatus sim, quom et in palatium veneris et postquam 
ego a Domino meo fratre vixdum discesseram. Equi- 

* From incdiocrium are five lines. 

'^ Two lines and two letters are missing. 

• About three lines are lost. Mai supplies coloniam before 
nosfraTn and TCiBx\i9 forensium as doubtful. 
^ About eight lines lost. 
'"* Thirteen lines lost. • One word lost. 
' One word lost. ® Four lines are lost. 



he comes from the neighbouring and friendly state 
of Hippo Regius ^ ; Postumius Festus ^ you cannot do 
wrong in electing as your patron in consideration of 
his character and eloquence, himself also a native of 
our province and of no distant state. Of these no 

ordinary patrons 

as long as my strength and health 

were sound, our business 

.... that our city has been established by the 
help of practised speakers and men in the prime of 
life we should have a well- 
known man and a consular to be responsible for our 
public interests. I too, as I hope, while young and 
strong, played no obscure part in civil affairs. There 
are many other natives of Cirta also in the Senate, 
entitled to be called most eminent.^ The last 
honour is the greatest, three of your citizens .... 

but it is better for 

you now sometimes 

Lucius Verus to Fronto 

m ^ 161 A.D. 

lo my master. 

I have a serious complaint to make against you, 
my master, and yet that is not so great as my dis- 
appointment, that after so long a separation I did not 
embrace or speak to you, though you both came to the 
Palace and came when I had only just left the Lord 
my brother. You may be sure T gave my brother a 

^ Now Bona or Baled el Aneb. 

2 A grammarian of whom an inscr. {C.I.L. vi. 146) says 
orator tUraque facundia maxiimm. For him see Aul. (iell. 
xix. 13. 

^ The official title of senators. 



dem multum fratrem meum obiurgavi cur me non 
revocarit.^ Neque culpam abnuere ausus est. Quan- 
tum^ oro te^ fuit ante mihi significare^ te ad fratrem 
meum <venturum> esse, velle me quoque visere, 
postremo redire me iubere, uti confabularemur ? 
quid enim^ si me hodie domum arcessas^ nonne 
Ambr. 425 omnibus omissis libens curram ? | Qui quidem aeger- 
rime tulerim quod non cotidie ad te commeem. 
Quin gravissimum stationis nostrae id esse arbitrer, 
quod veniendi ad te adeo <rara est facultas> .... 
solus . . . . ad te currissem. Nunc oro saltem, dum 
mi<hi nondum vacat ad te> * conte<ndere, rescribas 
quo<modo valeas : nee diu iam impedient negotia, 
quamvis> tum<e>ant, quin te <revisam aut> 
.... expectem. Vale, mi magister, Vero tuo 
carissime et humanissime. 

Ad Verum Imp. i. 4 (Naber, p. 117). 

Domino meo Vero Augusto. 

1. Quod heri, quom in palatium vestri visendi 
causa venissem, non te viserim, non mea culpa 
evenisse ostendam paulo post. Quod si <volens>^ 
libens scienti animo hoc ofiicium non persolvissem, 
haudquaquam me poeniteret. Fuit enim, fuit haec 
Ambr. 444 causa cur tu tam I familiaribus litteris mecum ex- 
postulares. Neque tanto opere gauderem si, quom 
ad te venissem, summo cum honore a te appellatus 

^ Heind. for CoArrevocavit. 

^ This and the following additions are by Heindorf , except 
noruium for non. The mutilated portion is about a column 
of the Codex. ' So Mai, but query ipse for volens, 



good scolding for not calling me back ; and he could 
not deny that he was to blame. How easy, prithee, 
it would have been to let me know beforehand that 
you were coming to see my brother, and would like to 
see me as well, or failing that, to have asked me to 
return, that we might have a talk. What ? if you sent 
for me to-day to your house, should I not put every- 
thing aside and run to you ? Indeed, I have been very 
cross that I could not visit you every day. Nay, I 
think it is the heaviest penalty of our position that 
I so seldom have an opportunity of coming to you 
.... alone .... I should have run to you. 
Now at least I beseech you, as I have no leisure yet 
to hasten to you, write and tell me how you are : 
affairs of state, however pressing, shall not long 
prevent me from seeing you again or expecting you 
.... Farewell, my master, to your Verus most 
dear and most kind. 

Fronto to Lucius Verus as Emperor 

To my Lord Verus Augustus.^ 

1. That it was no fault of mine that I did not 
see you yesterday, when I came to the Palace to see 
you both, I will presently shew. But had I .myself 
deliberately from choice left this duty unpaid, 1 
should not in the least regret it. For this, this was 
the cause of your reproaching me in such a friendly 
letter. Nor should I be so greatly pleased, had I 
come to you and been welcomed by you with every 

* This letter appears to have been written very soon after 
the death of Pius (on March 7, 161). Fronto had been away 
four months, possibly on a visit to Africa, where he had 
property and friends. 



essem^ quam nunc gaudeo tanto me iurgio desidera- 
tum Namque tu pro tua singular! humanitate 
onrnes nostri ordinis viros, ubi praesto adsunt, 
honorifice adfaris^ non omnes magno opera requiris 
absentes. Haec denique culpae causa est^ in qua 
malim te mihi graviter irasci quam libenter ignos- 
cere. Irasceris enim quanto desiderantius desideras : 
a quibus autem aversus fueris^ neque irasceris 
neque desiderabis,^ si amare desieris. Enimvero 
quom tu tuusque frater in tantis opibus locati^ 
tanta multitudine omnium generum omniumque 
ordinum^ in quos amorem vestrum dispergitis^ cir- 
cumfusi^ milii quoque partem amoris vestri non- 
nullam impertiatis^ quid me facere oportet^ cuius 
spes opesque omnes in vobis sunt solis sitae ? Non 
ei tum pectus meum .... aut ubi illos mihi ante- 
<positos> .... praestare possim quam ut vos illis 
Ambr. 443 antcponam. I Sic enim profecto merebor ut vos 
quoque illos mihi anteponatis. 

2. Sed ne diutius defensionem meam differam, 
nulla, ut dixi, mea culpa accidit ut te non con- 
venirem. Nam ex hortis redii Romam ante diem 
quintam Kal. April, diluculo ut <eo ipso>2 sipossem 
die longo post tempore domum iremf.^ Sed eo 
<quom venissem melius visum> est .... nae ego 
pergerem <quid> ut facerem ? Satin salvae ut per- 
contarer.'' an ut complecterer .f* an ut exoscularer? 
an ut confabularer .f* an ego quarto post mense 
lacrimas vestras spectatum measque ostentatum 
venirem ? Quid igitur postero die feci .'* Non sum 

^ Fresh lines deciphered by Hauler. See irien. Stud. 40, 
p. 95. 
''^ Brakman. 
^ Mai con<:ve7iirem>. Du Rieu sees consuero in the Codex, 



honour, as I am now that you felt my absence 
enough to give me such a scolding. For while with 
your characteristic kindliness you give all members 
of our order, when they present themselves, an 
honourable welcome, yet it is not all of them about 
whom you make earnest enquiries when they are 
absent. In fact this is the cause of my fault, inasmuch 
as I should prefer you to be seriously angry with me 
than too ready to pardon. For your anger is the 
measure of your regret. But those from whom you 
are estranged you will neither be angry with nor 
miss, if you have ceased to love them. For indeed, 
since you and your brother, set in so great a station, 
surrounded by so great a multitude of all sorts and 
conditions of men, on whom you lavish your love, 
bestow on me too some portion of that love, what 
ought I to do, whose hopes and fortunes all on 
you alone are centred ? ^ . . . .or that I shall be 
able to ... . those who are preferred to me than 
that I should prefer you to them. For thus I should 
assuredly deserve that you also should prefer them 
to me. 

2. But not to defer my defence any longer, it 
was, as I said, no fault of mine that I did not meet 
you. For I returned from my gardens to Rome on 
March 28th at dawn, in order that I might if 
possible after so long an interval reach home that 
very day. But when I had come there, it seemed 
better .... verily I should hasten to do what ? 
To ask Is all well ? to embrace ? to kiss } to have a 
talk? Or was it that after four months I should 
come to look on your tears and exhibit my own .'* 
What then did 1 do the next day.'* I did not 

* Terence, Phorm. iii. i. 6. Adelphi, iii. ii. 32. 



ausus neque fratri tuo neque tibi scribere me ad vos 
esse venturum, sed ad libertum Charilam perscripsi 
his si recte memini verbis : *Apa cn^/xepov tiJKaipov 

ioTlV SLff>lK€(T6aL /X€ Wp05 aUTOVS ; (TV flOL SiyXoMTOV Qi(TaV€l 

€/jL<l>p(av KOLfiol ^iXos* KOLfxoL cr€ . . . . <Quom ve>ni 

Ambr. 446 ego in palatiuHi ^ I • • vestrae pro re nata 

oecu<pationes> .... aliud^ .... 

Ad Antoninum Imp. ii. 1 (Naber, p. 104). 

Ambr. 289, | MaGISTRO mCO.^ 

col. 1 

Ambr. 240 .... <legi ex Coe>|lio paululum et ex Ciceronis 
oratione, sed quasi furtim, certe quidem raptim : 
tantum instat aliud ex alio curarum^ quom interim 
requies una librum in manus sumere. Nam parvolae 
nostrae nunc apud Matidiam in oppido hospitantur : 
igitur vespera ad me ventitare non possunt propter 
aurae rigorem. Vale mi optime ^ magister. Dominus 
meus frater et filiae cum sua matre, cuius prae 

avis^ ex animo tibi salutem dicunt. 

Mitte mihi aliquid quod tibi disertissimum vide- 
atur, quod legam, vel tuum aut Catonis aut Ciceronis 
aut Sallustii aut Gracchi aut poetae alicuius^ WOil^ 
yap dvairavkrj^, et maxime hoc genus, quae me lectio 

^ About eight lines are lost. 

^ These six words are from the in.argin of the Codex. Du 
Rieu reads destrcLe, not vestrae. 

• A new book begins here, as the words Legi emendavi im- 
mediately before it shew, but it is not certain whether it is the 
second book to Antoninus. More than a column is lost here. 

* For Cod. domine, which seems impossible. 



venture to write either to your brother or to you, 
that I would come to you, but I wrote to your 
freed man Charilas to the best of my recollection in 
these words : Is it convenient for me to come to them 
to-day ? Please tell me as a man of sense and a friend oj 
mine .... when I went into the palace .... 
.... your occupations under the new circum- 

Marcus Antoninus as Emperor to Fronto 

161 A.D. 

To my master. 

.... I have read a little of Coelius and of Cicero's 
speech, but as it were by stealth, certainly by 
snatches, so closely does one care tread on the heels 
of another, my one relaxation the while being to 
take up a book. For our little daughters are at 
present lodging with Matidia ^ in the town, so that 
they cannot come to me in the evening owing to 
the keenness of the air. Farewell, my best of 
masters. The Lord my brother and my daughters '^ 
with their mother, whose .... send you their 
affectionate greetings. 

Send me something to read which you think 
particularly eloquent, either of your own or Cato's 
or Cicero's or Sallust's or Gracchus's or some poet's, 
for I need relaxation, and especially of such a kind 
that the reading of it may uplift me and shake me 

^ The great-aunt of Marcus. One of the little daughters 
must have been Comificia, born about 159. It is not clear 
who the other was. Bomitia Faustina died before Marcus 
became emperor, and Sabina was not born yet. 

^ Lucilla and Fadilla. 




extollat et difFundat ck rOtv KarctXryc^vtuii/ <f>povTihuiV ; 
etiam si qua Lucretii aut Ennii excerpta habes 
^v(fnji)va <(rTL)(L>a ^ et sicubi "^Oov^ iiJLif>d(r€Lq. 

Ad Antoninum Imp, ii. 2 (Naber, p. 105). 

Domino meo Antonino Augusto Fronto. 

Nae ego post homines natos et locutos omnium 
facundissimus liabear, quom tu, M. Aureli, mea 
Anibr. 28S scripta Icctitas et probas | et lucrativa tua in tantis 
negotiis tempora meis quoque orationibus legendis 
oceupare non inutile tibi arbitraris neque infruc- 

Quod sive amore inductus etiam ingenio meo 
delectaris, beatissimus equidem sum, quod tibi tam 
sum carus, ut esse videar etiam disertus ; sive ita 
censes et ita iudicio tuo et animi sententia decernis, 
mihi quoque iam disertus iure videbor, quoniam 
videar tibi. 

Quod vero patris tui laudes a me in senatu desig- 

nato et inito consulatu meo dictas legisti libenter, 

minime miror. Namque tu Parthos etiam et Hiberos 

sua lingua patrem tuum laudantes pro summis ora- 

toribus audias. Nee meam orationem sed patris tui 

virtutem miratus es, nee laudatoris verba sed laudati 

facta laudasti. 

^ Brakman. 


free from the cares that beset me ; also if you have 
any extracts from Lucretius or Ennius^ sonorous 
lines if possible^ and any that give the impress of 

Fronto to Marcus Antoninus 

161 A.D. 

Fronto to my Lord Antoninus Augustus. 

Verily, since the creation of mankind and their 
endowment with speech let me be held the most 
eloquent of all men, since you, Marcus Aurelius, 
study my writings and esteem them, and do not 
think it useless or unprofitable to yourself in the 
midst of such great affairs to spend your valuable 
time in reading my speeches. 

But if it is your love for me which makes you 
delight even in my abilities, most blest am I in that I 
am so dear to you as to seem even eloquent in your 
eyes ; or if it is your real judgment and considered 
opinion that makes you 'SO think, then shall I have 
every right to seem eloquent to myself since I seem 
so to you. 

I am, however, not in the least surprised that you* 
have found pleasure in reading the praises of your 
father, which I uttered in the Senate when consul 
designate and again when 1 had taken up the office.^ 
For you would listen even to the Parthians and 
Iberians in their own tongue, so they but praised 
your father, as if they were most consummate orators. 
It was not my speech you admired but your father's 
virtues,^ nor was it the words of the praiser but the 
deeds of the praised that you praised. 

^ In 143. cp. above, p. 113. 

'^ cp. Marcus, Thoughts, i. 16 ; vi. 30. 



De tuis autem laudibus^ quas in senatu eodem illo 
die protuli^ ita sentias velim : tunc in te eximiam 
indolem fuisse, nunc summam virtutem; frugem 
tunc in segete florentem^ nunc messem perfectam et 
horreo conditam. Sperabam tunc^ habeo nunc. Spes 
in rem convertit. 

Quod autem mitti a me tibi postulasti^ acceptis 
Ambr. 234 <litteris> . . . . | . . Atticis propinque tliymum 
serpyllumque Hymettium ruminantibus viris . . • • 
vel graves ex orationibus veterum sententias arripe- 
retis vel dulces ex poematis vel ex historia splen- 
did as vel comes ex comoediis vel urbanas ex togatis 
vel ex Atellanis lepidas et facetas ^ . . . . 

Ad Fcriun hup. i. 2 (Naber, p. 115). 

<Magistro meo>. 
Ambr. 42t), . . . • . <mihi cum >2 I nostro, Calpurnium dico, 

following . p .1 

Vat. 3 contentio est, quern ego tacile et omnmo spectan- 

tibus et te, si spectaveris, teste revincam, Pyladem 
magistro suo istum tanto meliorem esse, quanto sit 
Apolausto similior. Sed quod sine ioco dicatur, iube 
Valerium istum Antonium dare mihi libellum, uti 
rescriptione quoque nostra gratia sententiae nostrae 

^ These two seutences are from the margin of the Codex. 
^ Added by Naber. It is not known how much is lost, 
probably not much. 



As to my praises of yourself, which I pronounced 
the same day in the Senate, I would have you look 
on them in this light, that you then shewed rare 
natural ability, but now a consummate excellence ; 
that you were then as corn sprouting in a field, but 
are now as the harvest fully ripe and gathered in the 
gamer. All was hope then, all is having now. Hope 
has turned to reality. 

What you asked me, however, to send you, on 

receiving your letter men of Attica 

hard by chewing the cud of their native herbs and 
the wild thyme of Hymettus .... You could 
pluck either weighty thoughts from the speeches of 
the ancients or sweet thoughts from their poems, 
or splendid thoughts from history, or kindly ones 
from comedies, or courtly ones from the national 
drama, or witty and humorous ones from the Atellane 
farces .... 

Lucius Verus to Fronto 

rr. . 161 A.D. 

lo my master. 

.... My friend, I mean Calpurnius, and I are 
naving a dispute, but I shall easily confute him in 
the presence of all, and with you, too, if you are 
present, as a witness, that Pylades is superior to his 
master,^ just insomuch as he is more like Apolaustus.^ 
But to speak seriously, tell your Valerius Antonius 
to hand me the petition, that by our reply, also, the 

1 Also called Pylades. They were both pantomimi. 
* Probably a freedman of Verus, named after the great 
actor Apolaustus (mentioned Fit, Feri, viii.). 

VOL. I. X 


fiat. Epistulam tuam summa cum voluptate et solita 
cum admiratione legi. Vale^ mi magister^ Vero 
tuo dulcissime et carissime. 

Ambr. 445, 


above, p. 

Ad Ferum Imp. L 6 (Naber, p. 118). 

<? Domino meo.>^ 

.... I percontatum an videre me posset; 
postquam respond! posse^ succidaneum sibi Tran- 
quillum nostrum paravit^ quem etiam caenae succi- 
daneum paraverat. Mea parum refert^ quis me de 
caris tibi amicis diligat^ nisi quod prior ratio est 
eiuS; qui minus est nostris fastidiosus. Ego .... 
Nam is quoque extempore eum vidit. Invenit 
autem me Tranquillus^ quom frigeret^ etiam nunc 
vetantem^ sed minus .... uva .... [belli] 
.... dinitates tantas ori<turas>. Ago quanta 
Tranquilli industriae^ qui nisi sciret quanto opere 
me diligeres, voluntarium hoc negotium sibi num- 
quam expetisset. 

Ad AmieoSf ii. 1 (Naber, p. 190). 

Axnbr. 849, 
ad inU., and 
292, col. 2 


Secretum servabo ita ut vis. Legam libenter, 
itaque ut soleo corrigam^ quantum manus^ quae infir- 
missimae sunt^ tolerare poterunt. Ex voto studiorum 
cultum^ teneto; et si quid vacui temporis detur^ 
exercendo ingenio occupare. 

^ Owing to the condition of the Codex it is impossible to 
tell whether this is a separate letter or part of Ad Verum 
i. 4, as Naber thinks. Possibly it is a letter to a friend, and 
not to the Emperor at all. - ^ Heindorf c^trrsum. 



favour of our verdict may take effect. I read your 
letter with the greatest pleasure and with my usual 
admiration. Farewell, my master, to your Verus 
sweetest and dearest. 

(.'' lo my Lord.) 

.... to enquire whether he could see me ; 
when I answered that he could, he procured our 
friend Tranquillus ^ as his substitute, whom he had 
also procured as his substitute at dinner. It makes 
little difference to me, who of the friends you hold 
dear has an affection for me, except that I take 
prior account of him who is less disdainful of my 
friends. I . . . . for he also saw him at once. 
Tranquillus however found me, when he had a 
cold, still forbidding but less (positively the use 

of) grapes such great .... would 

arise. How much do I owe to the diligence of 
Tranquillus, who would never have offered himself 
for this business, did he not know how much you 
loved me. 

Fronto to Volumnius Quadratus. 

161 A.D. 

I WILL, as you wish, keep your secret. I will 
gladly read it and correct it in my usual way as far 
as my hands, which are quite crippled, will permit. 
Continue in the cultivation of your studies according 
to your wish, and utilize any spare time you have in 
practising your talents. 

* Not Suetonius the writer, who would have been seventy 
years old by 139 a.d. 


Ambr. 291 

Ad AmicoSj iL 2 (Naber, p. 190). 


Castricius noster libellum tuum mihi heri red- 
didit de balneo egredienti : petii ut mane ad me 
veniret ad rescriptum accipiendum. Per noctem ita 
vexatus sum tussi et vigiliis ut necessario in quintam 
horam dormierim. Ita Castricium nostrum detinui. 
Ciceronianos emendates et disjtinctos habebis ; ad- 
notatos a me leges ipse ; in volgus 
quare nolim, scribam ^ diligentius. 

enun eos exire 

Ambr. 340 
ends : 

followed by 

Ad AmieoSf ii. 3 (Naber, p. 191). 


Legam^ fili^ libenter orationem istam quam 
misisti mihi et^ si quid videbitur corrigendum, 
cor{rigam, sed librarii manu, nam mihi manus debilis 
doloribus non mediocribus. Cum istis tamen dolori- 
bus in eircum delatus sum. Rursum enim studio 
circensium teneor . . . .^ <perp>eram composita 
sit rhetorice tota.^ 

^ The reading on Cod. p. 340 is scriberem ad te. 

' About seventeen lines are lost. Brakman conjectured 
perperam. • 

• m* of Cod. has rJutoricotcUa, which m^ corrects ap- 
parently to rJietorico tola. 


Fronto to Volumnius Quadratus. 

161 A.D. 

Our friend Castricius handed me your letter 
yesterday as I was leaving the baths^ and I asked 
him to come to me for an answer in the morning. 
During the night I suffered so much from cough and 
sleeplessness that I was obliged to stay in bed till 
11 o'clock. That accounts for my keeping our 
friend Castricius back. You shall have the books of 
Cicero corrected and punctuated. Those which I 
have annotated please keep for your own eye. I 
will write to you more carefully the reasons why 
I do not wish them to become public property. 

Fronto to Volumnius Quadratus. 

161 A.D. 

I WILL gladly, my son, read your speech, which 
you have sent me, and correct anything that seems 
to require it, but by the hand of my secretary, for 
my own hand is useless from severe pain. In spite 
of the pain, however, I have been carried to the 
circus. For I am again seized with a passion for the 
games .... be badly composed and wholly in 
rhetorical style. 


printed in great britain by 
Richard Clay and Sons, Limited,